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'aside Life of a Great City. 



J. A. DACUS, PH. D., 

Members of the 
St. Louis Press. 

PRICE, : : : : Si. 50. 






Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1878, by 

In the ofliice of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 

Printed by 

Globe-Democrat Job Printing Co., 

St. Louis, Mo. 


3 'DS. 







The work which we now have the honor to offer to the public is 
one which has cost us no little anxiety, labor and expense. We 
flatter ourselves that our exertions have resulted in the production of 
a volume which reflects no dishonor on the citj' from which it ema- 
nates, and concerning which it treats. No similar literarj' under- 
taking has before been attempted for the proud metropolis of the 
Mississippi Valley. 

We have taken special pains to describe only the distinctively 
representative commercial institutions of the cit}', those which reflect 
the wealth and business of St. Louis, making the description histori- 
cal in order to subserve the double purpose of preserving the record 
of our individual interests, and to illustrate the sagacity and indom- 
itable will which characterizes the West. 

In carr3ing out our design, we have met with many difficulties, 
and have been compelled to suffer discouragements of no ordinary 
character. There are features of social life found here which do 
not exist elsewhere, and which well deserve special examination 
and delineation. This we have endeavored to do, with what success 
the public must ultimately- be the tribunal of last resort, and to that 
public opinion we now respectfull}' appeal. 

The inside life of a great metropolis is not eas}^ to describe. 
There are social developments here as well as elsewhere, a description 
of which is not always pleasant, and yet such an omission would 
leave the work incomplete as an account of the actual condition of 
the people at the present time. But these sombre pictures have been 
drawn with great care and delicacy, and while the subjects are not 
all of an engaging character, still the manner of treatment may well 
commend the work to all classes of the people. 

It was the purpose of the publishers to present true pictures of 
the phases of metropolitan life encountered in our times. We believe 
we have succeeded. In subsequent editions it is the design of the 
publishers to make such additions and improvements as the changed 
conditions of the social life of the people of St. Louis may demand. 




History of St. Louis, - - - - - - - 5 

Commerce of St. Louis, ..-.-. 22 

St. Louis, tlie Future Commercial Entrepot of the World, - - 26 

Water-Works, 30 

City Hall, 34 

Court-House, -..-.--_ 36 

Custom-House and Post-Office, - - - - - - 37 

Markets, .---.--. 35 

Hotels, .--.----- 40 

McDowell's Old College, - 42 

Parks, - - 44 

Shaw's Garden, ...---. 50 

Fair Grounds, - - - - - - - - 52 

Theatres, ._-..--- 56 

Music, . - - - - - ... 59 

Art, .--..--.- 65 
Libraries, ---------79 

Public Schools, ....... 83 

Washington University, ------- 90 

St. Louis University, ------- 93 

St. Louis Seminary, ------- 95 

Mrs. Cuthbert'a Seminary, ------ 95 

Visitation Female Academy, ------ 97 

Jones' Commercial College, ------ 98 

Missouri Medical College, ------ loi 

Churches, .-,-...-- 108 

Merchants' Exchange, ------- 123 

The Bridge, -------- 125 

Union Depot, --....-- 128 

Railway Tunnel, -.-.... 130 

Hon. Thomas Allen, -.-.-_- 132 




St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway, - - - 147 

St. Louis & Southeastern Railway, ----- 1^» 

St. Louis & San Francisco Railway, ----- loS 

Vandalia Railroad, - - - - - " " ^^^ 

St. Louis, Kansas City & Northern Railway, - - - - 1G4 

Missouri Tacific Railway, ------ ^'^^ 

St. Louis National Bank, ------- 171 

Broadway Savings Bank, ------ 17o 

P. F. Keleher&Co., ------- 17G 

Bank of Commerce, ------- 177 

Bartholow, Lewis & Co., - - - - - - 178 

Express Companies, ------- 179 

Samuel C. Davis & Co., ------- 181 

Dodd, Brown & Co., ------- 187 

J. H. Wear, Boogher & Co., ------ 189 

Wm. Barr & Co., - 192 

D. Crawford & Co., - - - ' - - - - 195 

H. D. Mann & Co., - - - 200 

St. Bernard Dollar Store, - - - - - - 201 

€. E. Blell, 203 

L. Bauraan & Co. , - - - - - - - 205 

Mermod. Jaccard & Co., _..--- 207 

J. B. Legg&Co., - - 208 

A. A. Mellier, -------- 210 

Cheever, Burchard & Co., --.... 212 

Story & Camp, 214 

Singer Manufacturing Co., --_-.. 215 

Wheeler & Wilson, ------- 216 

Eugene Papin & Co., ------- 218 

Aloe & Hernstein, ------. 220 

Fairbanks & Co., -----_.. 221 

H. Griffin & Sons, ------- 222 

L. Dresser, ------.. 223 

Thompson, Teasdale & Co., - - - - ' - . 226 

Eugene Jaccard & Co., ------- 227 

M. A. Wolff & Co., 228 

H. & L. Cliase, ----.--_ 229 

Excelsior Manufacturing Co., ----- 231 

St. Louis Stamping Co., - - - - - - . 235 

St. Louis Mantel and Grate Co. ,--..'. 237 



St. Louis iiot-Pressed Nut and Bolt Co. , - - - - 2;J9 

Western Oil Co., -----_. 240 

Collier \ liite Lead and Oil Co.. - - - - . 943 

Vane, Cf vert & Co.. ----_._ 247 

L. M. Rumsey & Co., ---_.__ 24S 

Semple, Birge & Co., ----._. 250 

Wardwell Manufacturing Co., ---_.. 254 

M. M. Buclv& Co., -----_. 256 

Curtis & Co., -------. 257 

J. K. Cummings, ----._. 958 

Beard &Bro., ----..._ 258 

Deere, Mansur & Co., ---__. 259 

St. Louis Type Foundry, ----_.. 262 

F. A. Durgin, ----._.. 264 
Metal Stamping and Enameling Co.. - - - _ . 267 
Advance Elevator, ----_.. 269 
St. Louis Grain Elevator, --.-.. 271 
Central Grain Elevator, ----__ 272 

W. J. Lemp, . . - 275 

E. Anheuser Co., ---..._ 279 

American Wine Co., ---_... 282 

Wood & Lee, ------_. 285 

David Nicholson, ------.. 286 

G. L.Joy & Co., ---.--. 287 
Gaff. Fleischmann & Co., ----.. 288 

Dozier, Weyl & Co., ------- 290 

Jos. Garneau, -----.__ 292 

Vienna Model Bakery, ---_.. 296 

Sprague & Butler, -----.. 294 

Geo. Milford, ------.. 296 

Tony Faust, -------- 297 

Bessehl's Bazaar, --_.-_. 298 

Shepherd & Ginocchio, ------- 301 

Mississippi Ice Co., ------- 302 

Gray & Baker Book Co., ------- 303 

Willie H. Gray, 307 

Giesecke, Meysenberg & Co., ---.-. 309 

J. L. Isaacs, --.__._. 3J1 

Brown & Hilder, -------- 313 

O. J. Lewis & Co., ----_-_ 315 

Gray, Bowman & Co., ----.-. 313 

L. P. Ewald&Co., 320 



A. M. Leslie«fcCo., 
New York Dental Rooms, 
Dr. Geo. F. Adams, 
GibertBros., - 
Carroll & Powell, - 

Life Association, 
National Stock Yards, 
Reilley & Wolfort. 

B. H. Newell, 
James Blackman, 

St. Louis Shot Tower, 

A. C. Dunlevy, 

Yaeger Milling Co.. 

Becktold & Co., 

R. F. Adams, 

Texas Land and Immigration Co.. 

Lonergan & Thiel, 

Travelers' Insurance Co., 

Carbondale Coal and Coke Co., - 

Globe-Democrat Job Printing Co., 

J. Stokes, - - - - 

Larape & Lambrecht^ 

Hot Springs, 

Arlington Hotel, 

Grand Central Hotel, 

Waverly Hotel, 

Big Iron Bath-House, 






























Summer Pastimes, 
Fire Department, 
Metropolitan Police, 
Pariahs in the Docks. - 
Ways that are Dark, 
Street Arabs, 

Life Among the Lowly, - 
Mystic St. Louis, 
Metropolitan Vagabonds, 
Ghouls of the Cemeteries, 




Street "Vendors, ----.... 435 

Dandies and Damsels, . . , - ^ , 449 

Social Undercurrents, .-._.„. 449 

Night in the Streets, ---.__- 453 

Crimes of a Great City, ----.__ 433 

Gamblers, ----_.., 474 

Drinking Customs, ----... 473 

The Bright Side, 482 

The Insane, - - -..--. 499 

House of Kefuge, --..... 513 

The Poor, -----.._. 520 

The Four Courts, --..-.. 526 

The Press, ---.-.... 536 


Hon. Thomas Allen, - _ . 

Old Cliouteau Mansion, - . - 

Old Green Tree Hotel, 1S04, 
Gov. McXair's Mansion, . _ . 

South ]*ass Jetties, - - - 

High-Service Engine Building, Water Works, 
Standpipe, Water Works, 
City Hall, - - - . . 

Court-House, - . . . 

Custom-IIouse and Post-Office, 
Union Market, - - - _ 

Lucas Market, - - - - ' . 

Planters' House, - - - . 

Liiidell Hotel, - - - - . 

Old Gratiot Street Prison, 
Lal<e, Lafayette Park, - - _ 

Pagoda, Lafayette Park, - - _ 

Police Headquarters, Lafayette Park, 
Interior of Plant-House, Shaw's Garden, 
Pavilion, Shaw's Garden, - - . 

Museum, Shaw's Garden, 
House of Public Comfort, Fair Grounds, - 
Mercantile Library, - - . 

Public School Library, - _ _ 

High School, .... 

Peabody School , - - . . 

Des Peres School, - . _ 

Kindergarten, - j . . _ 

St. Louis University, - _ _ 

St. Louis Seminary, - . _ _ 

Convent of the Visitation, 
Missouri Medical College, - 


- Frontispiece 


- - 39 

- r,o, 51 



St. Alphonsus' Church, ------- 109 

Clayton Church, ----___ m 

St. George's Church, ----_.. ij2 

Mt. Calvary Church, - - - _ . . . jjo 

First Presbyterian Church, - - - . . . jj^ 

Pilgrim Congregational Church, - - - - . jjg 

Trinitarian Congregational Church, ----- 117 

Second Baptist Church, - - - . . _ jjg 

Kirkwood Baptist Church, ------ 119 

Temple of the Gates of Truth, - - - . _ 120 

Mt. Sinai Chapel, -----._ 12I 

Merchants' Exchange, ----.. j22 

The Bridge, -^^Q 

Union Depot, -----... J28 

Arrival of Emigrants, ------- 129 

St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway, - - . 146 

St. Louis & San Francisco Railway, - - - . . 159 

Railroad Bridge, Fairmount Park, - - - - . igj 

Altoona Station, -----_.. jq^ 

Railroad Bridge, St. Charles, - - - - . 155 

Interior St. Louis National Bank, - - - _ . 170 

Samuel C. Davis & Co., ---.__ jgn 

Dodd, Brown & Co., ----.. -^gg 

J. H. Wear, Boogher & Co., --.-.. jqq 

Wm. Barr & Co., ------.. 193 

D. Crawford & Co., -----.. 195 

St. Bernard Dollar Store, C A. Fowle & Co., - _ - 201 

A. A. Mellier's Drug Store, ----.. 21O 

Singer Building and Trade Mark, - - - . . 215 

Eclipse Spring Buggy, E. Papiu & Co., - - - . 219 
Dresser's Nickel Watches - - - . _ 223 224 

Jaccard's Building, -----_. 227 

Chase's Bag Factory and Warehouse, - - - . _ 229 

Warehouse and Office, Excelsior Manufacturing Co., - - 231 

Charter Oak Stove. Excelsior Manufacturing Co., - - - 233 

Trade Mark, St. Louis Stamping Co., - - - _ 235 

Collier White Lead and Oil Co., - - - - . 242 

Factory, L. M. Rumsey & Co., ----- 249 

Warehouse and Office, Semple, Birge & Co., - - - - 251 

Wardwell Sewing Machine, -----. 254 

Saw Factory, Curtis & Co., - - - - - . 257 




John Deere, of Deere, Mansur& Co., - - - - 

Moline Plow Works, 260 

St. Louis Type Foundry, ------ 262 

Trade Mark, Metal Stamping and Enameling Co.. - - - 267 

Advance Elevator, ------- 269 

Sr. L'luis Grain Elevator, .-.--- 271 

Central Grain Elevator, ------ 272 

Brewery, W. J. Lemp & Co., ------ 274 

Brewery, E. Anheuser Co., ------ 278 

Grocery, David Nicholson, .--.-- 286 

Bakery. Dozier, Weyl & Co., - - - - - 290 

Restaurants, Sprague & Butler, ----- 294, 295 

Restaurant, Geo. Milford, ------ 290 

Restaurant, Tony Faust, - - - - - - 297 

Isaacs' Paper Emporium, ------ 310 

Oflfice and Warehouse, Gray, Bowman & Co., - - - - 318 

Teeth and Saddlebags, A. M.Leslie «fc Co., - - - 322,323 

National Stock Yards, ------- 330 

St. Louis Shot Tower, ------ 336 

Yaeger Mills, -------- 340 

Globe-Democrat Job Printing Co., ----- 349 

Creek, Hot Springs, -.-..-- 352 

Upper End of Hot Springs, ------ 353 

Arsenic Spring, Hot Springs, ----__ 354 

Conduits for the Magical Waters. Hot Springs, - - - 355 

The Encampment, Hot Springs, ----- 356 

Big Iron Spring, Hot Springs, - - - - . 355 

Hot and Cold Springs, Hot Springs, ----- 357 

Chalybeate Spring?, Hot Springs, ----- 353 

Sulphur Springs, Hot Springs, ------ 358 

Business Portion of Hot Springs, - - - . . 359 

Arlington House, Hot Springs, -----, 352 

Grand Central Hotel, Hot Springs, - - . . 353 

Waverly Hotel, Hot Springs, ----.. 354 

Big Iron Bath House, Hot Springs, - - - - , ^qq 

Hume of G. L. Joy, ------. 370 

Home of A. R. Newcomb, ------ 371 

Home of Hon. E. O. Stanard, -----„ 372 

Home of Chas. H. Peck, ----.. 373 

Home of Hampden Mepham, ------ 375 




Home of A. O. Grubb, - , - . _ 37g 

Bodeman's Grove, -------- 382 

H. Clay Sexton, ---... 336 

James McDonough, ---...- 388 

Police Court, -------- 393 

Pocket-book Dropping Game, ------ 397 

Restoring Stolen Property, ------ 400 

" Snide" Jewelry Sale, ------- 402 

Opening " Greeney's " Eyes, ------ 403 

Street Arab's Home, ------- 409 

Night Scene, "Castle Thunder," 414 

By-Court, Clabber Alley, ----- . 41G 

A Kerry Patch Residence, ------ 413 

A Fortune Teller at Home, ------ 420 

Genus Tramp, -------- 427 

Grave Robbers at Work, ------- 433 

Street Vendors, ------- 435 

A Happy Some, ----•«-- 452 

The Wages of Sin, - - 453 

Saloon on Chestnut Street, - ----- 464 

Old Jail, where Wilson was executed, - - - - 469 

Bar Room Scene, -.,._.- 480 

Thomas Morrison, -.._--. 485 

German Protestant Orphans' Home, - - - . - 490 

St. Louis Hospital, --...-- 493 

Insane Asylum, -------- 498 

Four Courts, 527 

Republican Building, 1822, -...-- 537 

William Hyde, 539 

Republican Building, 1873, ------ 540 

Joseph B. McCullagh, 543 

Globe-Democrat Building, ------ 544 

Times Building, ------- 545 

Journal Building, ------- 647 

John A. Dillon, 549 

Anzeiger Building, ------- 550 

A. B. Cunningham, ------- 551 


A little over a century ago the valley of the Mississippi 
was the possession of France, and bore the general name of 
Louisiana, though its northern half was known as " Upper 
Louisiana," or " The Illinois." The seat of the Government, 
which extended over this region, was at New Orleans. In 
1762, D'Abadie, then Governor General, granted to Pierre 
Laclede Ligueste and his associates, under the name of "The 
Louisiana Fur Company," the privilege of trading with the 
Indians on the Missouri and west of the Mississippi River, with 
authority to establish such posts as they might think fit in 
furtherance of their enterprise. The next year Laclede set out 
to explore the country assigned to him, accompanied, among 
others, by two youths, afterwards well-known citizens of this 
place, the brothers Auguste and Pierre Chouteau. Having 
carefully examined every jjoint on the river, not omitting Ste. 
Genevieve, which had then for ten years been the headquar- 
ters of a considerable trade in peltry and lead, he satisfied 
himself that no other site presented the advantages sought for 
by him to so great an extent as the spot on which now stands 
St. Louis. It was, at the time when Laclede first set foot 
upon it, a beautiful expanse of undulating prairie, free from 
woods, save at one point on the river bank, near the center of 
the present city, which was then embellished by a grove of 
noble forest trees. He therefore resolved to establish his 
chief trading post here ; and on the 15th of February, 1764, 
carried that resolve into execution by taking formal possession 
of it, and naming it St. Louis. 

In 1778, being then on his return from New Orleans to 
St. Louis, Laclede was overtaken by a fatal illness, and 



breathed his last near the mouth of the Arkansas. There his 
remains wore interred. The exact spot chosen for his final 
resting-place is now unknown ; but his memory has not been 
suffered to sink into the same forgetfulness. As it is identi- 
fied with the origin, so it has been associated with the growth, 
and Avill share in the future glories of a great metropolis. 

Tiic establishment of St. Louis was contemporaneous with 
the " Treaty of Paris," by which France ceded all her pos- 
sessions east of the Mississippi, save New Orleans, to Great 
Britain, and all of them west of that river, as well as New 
Orleans, to Spain. At that time, there were in " The Illinois," 
several thousand French, inhabiting little villages scattered 
chiefly along the line of the trail, which connected the settle- 
ments in that region with the older and more populous towns 
of Canada. These inhabitants so disliked the British rule that 
many of them crossed the river to join their brethren in St. 
Louis, and to found other villages on this side ; such as Caron- 
delet, established first as Louisburgh, by Delor D. Tregette, 
in 1767; Les Petifes Co^'e.s, subsequently St. Andrews, and 
now St. Charles, by Blanchette Chasseur, in 1769 ; and Flor- 
isant, for a time called St. Ferdinand, after the King of Spain, 
which name the township still bears, by Beaurosier Dunegant, 
in 1776. Among those who, at that time, repaired to St. 
Louis from Illinois, was St. Ange De Bellerive, once com- 
mandant of the French military post. Fort Chartres. He 
came here in 1765, and was immediately invested with civil 
and military power over "Upper Louisiana,' though, of 
course, without a shadow of right beyond the acclaim of the 
inhabitants. To such an extent did he exercise the authority 
thus assumed by him, that he made numerous grants of land, 
which were suffered to stand by his Spanish successors, and 
have since been confirmed by the United States. Even though 
a body of Spanish troops, under Eios, had, in 1768, made 
their appearance at St. Louis with a claim of possession for 
the Spanish monarch, which was peaceably allowed, the au- 
thority of St. Ange continued in full vigor until 1770. This 
anomaly may be explained by the condition of political afiairs 
in New Orleans, it not being till 1769, after serious collisions^ 
that under O'Reilly, the representative of the King of Spain, 


the transfer, so unpalatable to tlie French, was finally ac- 
quiesced in at the capital of the country. 

The first lawful governor of Upper Louisiana was Pedro 
Piernas, who took possession late in 1770, and was succeeded 
in 1775 by Francisco Cruzat, who gave place, in 177H, to 
Fernando De Leyba. To Leyba, in 1780, succeeded Cruzat, 
former Governor. The Spanish line, continuing through 
Manuel Perez and Zenon Trudeau, came to an end with Carlos 
Dehault Delassus, in 1804, with the surrender of the Terri- 
tory to the United States. 

In 1769, Pontiac, the events of whose famous history have 
been dramatized, came as a friend of St. Ange on a visit to 
St. Louis. While here he was invited to an Indian feast held 
near Cahokia, and going, lost his life during the carouse, by 
the hands of a Kaskaskia Indian, who is said to have been in- 
stigated by an English trader. The dead body of the mur- 
dered chief was brought by his friends into this place, and 
interred not far from a fort which once stood near the present 
intersection of Broadway and Cherry streets. The conse- 
quences of this murder were terrible to the Illini nation, who 
were extirpated by the Ottawas in revenge for the death of 
their war chief. 

The next incident of imj^ortance in the annals of the place 
is one of the most memorable, for its being the only instance 
in which war has been brought to its doors. In 1779, Great 
Britain, being then in the midst of our war for independence, 
and also at war with France and Spain, word came to St. 
Louis that the English commandant at Mackinaw was plan- 
ning a descent on the village. In consequence measures of 
defence M^ere taken by the construction of a stockade, con- 
sisting of upright posts set in two rows and filled in with 
earth, and carried round the exterior of the village, with three 
openings for egress to the " Commons " and the Common Field 
outside. At either extremity of this stockade was a fort, and 
the openings were commanded by cannon. The next year 
fourteen hundred savages, said to have been led by one hun- 
dred and forty British regulars, were on their march from Lake 
Michigan, and in May had reached the Illinois shore, opposite 
St. Louis, where they lay in ambush. Here they had settled 


that the town should be assaulted on the 26th of that month. 
On the day previous fell in that year the feast of Corpus 
Christi, a holiday, in which all the vilhigers were out on the 
Commons gathcrini:^ strawberries. Had the attack been made 
ou that day, the town would have been taken and doul)tless 
destroyed. As it was, the 26th found several persons outside 
the enclosure, in the Common Field, when the enemy appeared 
on this side of the river. Of these, fifteen or twenty were 
killed, and some of them after death horribly mangled by the 
Indians, as is not unfrequently the practice of savage tribes. 
The assailants advanced upon the town, but met with so de- 
termined a resistance that, after many ineffectual elforts to 
force an entrance, and sufiering much loss, they were com- 
pelled to retire. 

This departure, it has been suggested, was occasioned by 
the ai)pearance of Col. George Rogers Clark, with five hun- 
dred Americans from Kaskaskia, who, aware of the danger to 
which the French at St. Louis — the allies of the Americans 
then struggling for their independence — were exposed, had ad- 
vanced to their relief. The year 1780, thus signalized, was 
afterwards known as ^^L'Anneedu Grand Coup " — or, "Year 
of the Great Blow." We may add that Leyba died that year, 
it is supposed of mortified feelings, and was buried in the old 
village church, " in front of the right hand balustrade, having 
received all the sacraments of our mother, the Holy Church," 
as set forth by the certificate of interment, signed by Father 
Bernard, "a Catholic Priest and apostolic Missionary Curate 
of St. Louis, country of Illinois, Province of Louisiana, Bish- 
opric of Cuba." 

This attempt at a surprise of the village, led Governor 
Cruzat, Leyba's successor, to the construction of new fortifi- 
cations. At the river bank, near the spot now occupied by 
the Floating Docks, there was a stone tower called the " Half 
Moon," and westwardly of it, Avhere now Broadway and 
Cherry Street intersects, a stone " Bastion," between which 
was another stone fort. To these were added, by Cruzat, a 
half-dozen square or circular stone fortresses, forty feetni diam- 
eter and twenty feet high, which were connected by a high and 
stout stockade of cedar posts. These forts were kept supplied 


with munitions of war, and well manned. One of them, at 
about where Walnut intersects Fourth Street, served after- 
wards as a court-house and jail. From a point on the river 
bank, near the Floating Docks already mentioned, through 
the intersection of Broadway and Cherry Street, this line of 
stockade swept in a cemi-circular line along the brow of the 
hill not far from Cedar and Second streets. Fortunately, 
there was never any occasion for testing the strength of these 

During the remainder of the Spanish rule, there seems to 
have been few incidents which were thought interesting enough 
to deserve remembrance. In 1785, there Mas a great flood, 
equaled only by its successors of 1844 and 1851, which del- 
uged the American Bottom, and which gave to that year the 
name of ^'■L' Annee des Grandes Eaux^''' or " The Year of the 
Great "Waters." In 1788, the arrival of a fleet of ten barofes 
from New Orleans, at one time, they having associated and 
sailed together for mutual protection against a gang of robbers, 
who lurked about " Grand Tower," was an event surprising 
enough to confer on that year the distinction of the ^^L'Annee 
des Dix Bateaux,'''' or " Year of the Ten Boats ;" 1792 was 
the epoch of the honey-bee ; 1799, a year of intense cold, the 
thermometer having sunk thirty-two degrees below zero, was 
named "X'vlnnee du Grand-hiver ^' ' or " Year of the Hard 
Winter." The year 1798 being distinguished by the arrival 
of some galleys with Spanish troops, under Don Carlos How- 
ard, was afterward known as " X'^w??ee des Galeres^"" or 
" Year of the Galleys ;" and 1801, bringing with it the calam- 
ity of small-pox, was subsequently referred to as " U Annee de 
la Picotle,'' or " Year of Small-pox." But other events of a 
different character were now casting their shadows before. 

In 1800, Spain, by the treaty of San Ildefonso, retroceded 
Louisiana to France, and France, by Jefierson's treatv, April 
30, 1803, transferred it to the United States ; an empire cheaply 
bought at fifteen millions of dollars. In October, 1803, Con- 
gress having passed an act authorizing the President to take 
possession of the Territory, Upper Louisiana was surrendered 
to Amos Stoddard, a captain in the United States army, 
and the agent of the United States, by Don Carlos Dchault 


Delassus, then Spanish Lieutenant-Governor, on the 10th 
day of JilarcL, 1804. On that day, the keys in the govern- 
ment house, the public archives and property, were delivered 
over to the representative of the United States ; the ensign of 
Spain was lowered, and the flag of the United States run up 
in its place. Salvos of artillery saluted the stars and stripes 
as they were flung to the breeze, and the act of transfer was 
accomplished. It was not a joyous spectacle to most of those 
who witnessed it, apprehensive as they were that the change 
of government would disturb the easy routine so agreeable to 
their nature and habits. 

By act of Congress, in 1804, ail Louisiana, north of the 
thirty-third parallel, was designated as the " District of Louis- 
iana." The executive power of the government established in 
the Territory of Indiana was extended over the Territory of 
Louisiana, with authority in the Governor and Judges of that 
Territory to enact laws for the district. General William 
Henry Harrison, being then Governor of Indiana, this power 
was exercised by him and his associates. The next year, by 
another act of Congress, the " District " was changed to the 
"Territory of Louisiana." James Wilkinson became the 
Governor, and, with Ecturn J. Meigs and John B. C. Lucas, 
Judges of the Superior Court, constituted the Legislature of 
the Territory. They proceeded, frfem time to time, to pass 
such laws as were necessary for the public good. This sj'stem 
of legislation was continued for several years, with occasional 
changes in the persons constituting the Legislature. In 1806, 
Joseph Browne was Secretary of the Territory and acting Gov- 
ernor, and J. B. C. Lucas and Otho Shrader the Judges. In 
1807, Frederick Bates was Secretary and acting Governor, 
and the same judges continued in office. In 1808, Meriwether 
Lewis was Governor of the Territory, and, with the judges 
last named, contiimed to exercise the law-making power until 

In 1812, there was a further moditication, the change now 
bemg to a Governor and Legislative Assembly, the upper 
branch of which, consisting of nine councillors, was to be 
selected out of twice that number, who were to be nominated 
to him by the lower branch. At the same time the Territory 


took the name of the Missouri Territory, and had conceded to 
it the right of being represented by a delegate in Congress. 
In 1816, the restraint upon the choice of the Council Board 
was removed, and the members made elective by the people. 
On the 6th of March, 1820, was passed the act of Congress 
for the admission of Missouri as a State into the Union. The 
terms of this act were accepted on the 19th of July following, 
by the people, represented at Ht. Louis in a convention, of 
which David Barton was President and William G. Pettus, 
Secretary. The first Legislature sat in 1820, at St. Louis, 
whence the seat of government was transferred to St. Charles, 
where it remained until its removal to the city of Jefferson in 
1826. The first Governor of the Missouri Territory was Wil- 
liam Clark, and Edward Hempstead the first Delegate. Alex- 
ander McNair was the first Governor of the State of Missouri. 
When St. Louis passed into American hands, a line of 
bluff bank extended nearly the length of the village, overlook- 
ing the river from the height of twenty-five feet. At a little 
distance west of this line was a gentle rise, and still beyond 
this, at about the bame distance, yet another ; the first of 
these being about in the line of the present Third, and the 
last in the line of Fourth Street. On the brow and eastern 
slope of the first rose the little village, m a rather straggling 
fashion, distributed along three streets, the first called La Rue 
Principale, now Main Street ; the second La Rue d V Egli'iey 
where stood a log (Catholic) church — now Second Street ; the 
third, La Rue des Granges, or Barn Street, now Third. The 
vfhole was encircled by the line of fortifications, then, how- 
ever, beginning to fall into ruins, which had been erected by 
Cruzat. Beyond, south, were the ''Commons;" and west, 
the " Common Fields" (the last agricultural lands, and owned 
in severalty, though having a common enclosure.) The num- 
ber of inhabitants was nine hundred and twenty- five, and of 
houses about one hundred and fifty, the most of them log 
buildings, interspersed here and there with a massive stone 
chateau, the largest of which was on the square which then 
fronted the Old Market, and being the jiroperty of a ])ranch of 
the Chouteau family, passed to its heirs. On this square was 
the old Spanish Government-house. The church on Church 




Street was of hewn logs, with a belfry, surmounted by a huge 
iron cock, which served the purpose of a weather vane. A 
plan of St. Louis, drawn by order of Laclede, in 1764, and a 
plan of it as it appeared in 1780, after having been fortified by 
Cruzat, cer- 
tified by Au- 
o;uste Chou- 
t e a u , the 
companion of 
Laclede, are 
now in exis- 
tence, being 
deposited, we 
believe, in the 
ofiice of the 
Recorder of 
this county. 

Mr. Wil- 
liam Ivussell, 

a native of Frederick County, Virginia, came to this city 
early in February, 1804, when the Spanish flag was flying 
at the Spanish Government Barracks on the first or second 
square south of the Court-house. Nearly all the town was 
then south of Market Street. Mr. Eusscll came out from 
Virginia on horscljack ; visited Cincinnati, Louisville, and 
Vincennes, and at the latter place Avas urged by Governor 
Harrison to remain there. He reached Kaskaskia in Novem- 
ber, 1803, and soon came up to Cahokia, with the purpose 
of crossing, but, owing to the running ice, he was obliged to 
spend the winter in Prairie du Rocher and Kaskaskia, and was 
not able to cross the river until February 8, 1804, when 
he reached St. Louis, and gave it preference as his residence to 
any of the town sites he had seen. 

Calvin Adams (an American) kept the ferry, then below 
Elm Street, and the only American tavern. His ferry con- 
sisted of two pirogues tied together, with planks laid across 
the top. His charge for bringing over man and horse was two 
dollars. Adams had a large family, and it is possible that 
some of his children are still living in this city or vicinity. 


Comegys & Fortune kept store on Main Street, below 
Market. This was the only American store. 

William Sullivan, an American sergeant, discharged from 
Captain Stoddard's command, opened a boarding-house, or 
hotel, on the hill near the Barracks. 

The principal settlements out of the town were Americans. 
Bonhorame was almost entirely American. 

There were only three mills in the count}^ propelled by 
other than horse-power. These were Chouteau's, then a small 
mill, on Mill Creek ; Bergoine Sarpy's, on Riviere des Peres, 
and Mr. Long's at Bonhomme, all propelled by water-power. 

The bold rocky shore, perhaps twenty or twenty-five feet 
high, prevented landing above what is now Pine Street. The 
landing was below. 

The nearest post-office was Cahokia, where a one-horse mail 
arrived once a month ! All St. Louis had to go to Cahokia 
for their letters, St. Louis being then a small town near 
Cahokia ! 

The fur trade, Avhich had been the chief business interest 
of St. Louis before the change of government, continued to 
be so long after. The French voyageurs, trappers and tra- 
ders in pursuit of their objects, went far up the Missouri, and 
traversed the region west, toward the Rocky Mountains. In 
1802, eTames Pursley, a trapper, crossed the plains to Santa 
Fe, being the first American to make his appearance in New 
Mexico. In early times, the currency was jjeUry-honds, bills 
payable in peltries. In 1808, the Missouri Fur Company was 
formed by Pierre Chouteau, Manuel Lisa, William Chirk, Syl- 
vester Labadie, and others. To these succeeded other enter- 
prises of a like character, in which the names of the Chou- 
teaus. Gen. William H. Ashley, Astor, Sublette, Robert 
Campbell, Pratte, Cabanne, Bent, etc. , are conspicuous. Gen. 
Ashley, encountering great perils and hardships, visited the 
Rocky Mountains, and there discovered the since celebrated 
South Pass. In 1824, the same intrepid explorer penetrated 
to the Salt Lake, and gave his name to another lake not far 
from it, near which he erected a fort. The statistics of these 
early times show, that for fifteen successive years, ending in 
1804, the annual value of the furs collected here amounted to 



$203,750. The number of deer skins was 158,000 ; of beaver, 
3,900 pounds ; otter, 8,000 ; 5,100 bear, and 850 buffalo. The 
fur trade, though still valuable, was, however, destined to lose 
its relative importance in common with everything else which 
gave peculiar character to the St. Louis of early days. 
'^ In 


t w o 

families HI St. 
Louis, but af- 
ter that pe- 
riod the num- 
ber increased 
with consid- 
rable rapidi- 
ty. These 
brought with 
them the en- 


its and tastes of the Anglo-American, and began to produce the 
well-known results of such an emigration. That emigration 
was checked by the alarms of invasion, during the war with 
Great Britain of 1812. Some three thousand Indians, instiga- 
ted by the British, descended upon St. Charles County, then 
comprising Northern Missouri, and committed many ravages 
amono- the scattered and feeble settlements of that region. 
St. Louis, however, escaped, having never, since the time of 
De Leyba, been approached by a force in hostile array. The 
end of the war gave a new impulse to emigration, which AV'as 
still further strengthened by that great discovery, which has 
done so much to change the face of this continent. 

In 1817, there arrived at St. Louis the first steamboat 
which ever made trial of its powers against the current of the 

The " General Pike," a boat built in Pittsburg, and pro- 
pelled by an engine of low pressure, reached St. Louis on the 
2d day of August, 1817, her commander being Captain Jacob 
Reed. She landed near the foot of Market Street. To most, 


if not all of the inhabitants, she presented a strange spectacle, 
and was gazed on with wonder. Some Indians, then in the 
town, who had gone near the river bank, alarmed at the sijrlit 
of the monster, were seen gradually to recede as the bout 
approached, until they had reached the brow of the second 
hill, whence no inducements could prevail upon them to move 
in the direction of the suspicious visitor. Two years after, on 
the 19th of May, 1819, the " Independence," Captain Nelson, 
had stemmed the tide of the Missouri River as far as " Old 
Franklin," after a passage of seven running days. The set- 
tlers on that river were in ecstacies at this demonstration 
that even the turbulent Missouri was no match for steam, a 
point which had for some time been debated. The 2d of June, 
1819, witnessed the first steamboat arrival from New Orleans, 
the passage having been made by Captain Armitage, of the 
*' Harriet," in twenty-seven days. 

The population of St. Louis was, in 1810, 1,400; m 1815, 
2,000; and in 1820, 4,598. November 9, 1809, is the date 
of her incorporation as a town; December 9, 1822, that of 
her incorporation as a city, under the government of a Mayor 
and Board of Aldermen, since expanded into a " City Council" 
of Aldermen and Delegates. 

The town of St. Louis had its first charter November 9» 
1809, from the Court of Common Pleas for the District of St. 
Louis, proceeding under authority of an act of the Legislature. 
It was bounded by a line beginning on the river at " Roy's 
Tower," already mentioned as one of the forts at the com- 
mencement (north) of the old line of fortifications. Thence 
the line ran west " sixty arpens," and thence so as to include 
the " St. Louis Common Fields " and " Common," through 
the point known, from its shape, as the " Sugar Loaf," to the 
river again. The lines were, however run in this way with 
some reference to the " Old Spanish town," by which was 
meant the town proper and all its dependencies. 

The act incorporating the city of St. Louis, which was 
passed December 9, 1822, narrowed these limits. The line 
commenced at about the middle of Mill Creek, just l^elow the 
Gas Works, and run thence west to Seventh Street, and up 
Seventh to a point due west of " Roy's Tower," and thence to 


the river. The area enclosed in these lines was only three 
hnndred and eighty-live acres. 

In 1840, a v'ery large population having grown up outside 
the city limits, the bounds of the corporation were, by the act 
of February 15, 1841, extended so as to begin in the river east 
of the southeastern corner of the suburb of St. George, thence 
due west to Second Carondelet Avenue ; thence north to Chou- 
teau Avenue ; thence in a direct line to the mouth of Stony 
Creek, and thence east to the river, embracing an area of 
two thousand six hundred and thirty acres. 

In 1817 was chartered the Bank of Missouri, and in 1821 
sundry loan offices. 

In 1825 the first Episcopal Church was erected at the cor- 
ner of Third and Chestnut streets, which afterwards went into 
the hands of the Baptists, and disappeared long ago. In 
1824 the first Presbyterian Church was built at the corner 
of Fourth and St. Charles streets. That also has disappeared 
before the march of modern improvement, and its site is now 
occupied bv a block of elegant stores. The old Court-house, 
a large brick building, was built in 1827, but that, too, has 
Ions since given place to a superb and spacious structure of 
stone. In the same year were erected the old market build- 
ings, which also have made way for a massive block of ware- 
houses. In 1818 the first paving with stone on edge was done 
by William Deckers, on Market, between Main and the Levee. 
The first brick pavement was laid on Second Street in 1821. 

The year 1818 was one of great prosperity, St. Louis 
sharing to some extent in the mania for trade and speculation, 
which marked that period, and which before 1821 resulted in 
severe revulsions and a depression extending throughout the 
country for several years, to a degree beyond anything that 
has been witnessed since. The consequences were such that 
the population increased only six hundred in the eight years 
from 1820 to 1828. Since her recovery from that depression, 
no calamity seems to have had any power of working serious 
injury to her. The commercial disasters of 1837 — the great 
fire in May, 1849, which destroyed millions in a single night ; 
and the visitations of pestilence the same year, did not, appa- 
rently, oppose the slightest obstacle to her onward march. 



The proirrcss of St. Louis, like the Athens of Thcmistocles, 
"from ;i little town to a great city," Avas suitably commemo- 
rated on the eiirhtv-thirtl anniversary of its foundation, Febru- 
ary 15, 1847. Fortunately there was then among the living 
one who had accompanied Laclede on his first memorable 
expedition up the. Mississippi, and who may be said to have 
witnessed the foundation of the city — the highly respected 
and venerable Pierre Chouteau. Although then at a greatly 
advanced age, he was in the full enjoyment of his faculties, 
and could keenly appreciate the marvelous contrast between 
the St. Louis of 17G4 and the St. Louis of 1847. Since then 
(in 1849) this last surviving companion of Laclede has disap- 
peared from the scene of life, and with him all living memory 
of the great event at which he had assisted. His elder brother, 
A u g II s t e 
had long 
him, having 
died in Feb- 
ruary, 1829. 
His dcatl 
t6ok place 
iij, this city 
(at the 
Ch outeau 
]M a n s i o n 
House, on 
Main street, 

near Walnut), and not in Arkansas, as some printed accomits, 
which have confounded Auguste Chouteau with his nephew, 
of the same name, hate incorrectly stated. 

In 1833 St. Louis had a population not much exceeding 
6,000, and taxable property valued at only $2,000,000. The 
whole tax of that year on personal and real property Avas only 
$2,745.84, being scarcely a tithe of the sum now paid in 
several instances by single individual citizens. 

There had been built by the Frencli a lew storehouses, 
nearly all of which have disappeared, and 1814 had witnessed 



the erection of the first brick house, though fifteen j^ears after, 
the number of such buildings was very small. Now, it is 
needless to say, that there are thousands of public and private 
edifices of brick and marble, many of which are distinguished 
for their magnitude and splendor ; long lines of spacious and 
solid warehouses ; elegant and commodious dwellings ; church 
edifices, presenting great variety of architecture. 

In 1851 was incorporated an Institution for the Blind, 
which w^ent into operation the same year. Supported by 
liberal contributions from benevolent gentlemen of our city, 
aided l)y an appropriation from the State treasury, and judi- 
ciously managed, it has fully realii-ed the expectations of its 
founders and friends. 

In their care for the living, our citizens have not been 
unmindful of the respect due to the dead. In the neighbor- 
hood of the city are many cemeteries. Of these the " Belle- 
fontaine" owes its origin to an association of gentlemen, wdio 
obtanied an act of incorporation in 1849, and commenced the 
improvement of their grounds in the same year. The first 
sale of lots took place in 1850. The whole quantity of land 
purchased by this association was two hundred and twenty- 
one acres, all of which have been enclosed. The "Calvary 
Cemetery," the ground for which w^as purchased by the Arch- 
bishop of the St. Louis Diocese in 1852, contains at present 
130 acres, l)eing part of a larger tract of 320 acres, 100 of which 
have been laid out and improved. The sites of both these 
burial grounds, which are sequestered spots, richly wooded 
and beautifully diversified, suit well the sacred uses to which 
they have been consecrated. 

A company for supplying the city with gas light, which 
was incorporated in 1841, commenced operations in 1847. 
The first lighting w^ith gas was on the night of the 4th of 
November, 1847. Gas is now supplied to street and public 
lamps, and has been extensively introduced into shops, manu- 
factories and dwelliuirs. 

The financial crash of 1857, which caused the failure of 
some of the most enterprising individuals and firms of the 
city, only temporarily arrested its progress. When the war 
was commenced in 1861, the city had entirely recovered. The 


political convulsions which followed the election of Mr. Lin- 
coln to the presidency bore heavily upon St. Lonis. Situated 
on the border, in the midst of a population divided in senti- 
ment, it could not have been otherwise than disastrous to her 
commercial prospects. 

The close of the war brought prosperity again to the 
metropolis. Enterprises which surpassed in magnitude the 
undertakings of any former period were enilmrked in with 
alacrity and zeal. Soon after the war Captain Eads made 
public his plans for bridging the Mississippi Kiver opposite 
the city. That work was undertaken and successfully com- 
pleted, and the great highway was formally opened for traffic 
and travel on the fourth of July, 1874. Meanwhile new lines 
of railways were built, and existing roads extended to distant 
points in every direction. 

The city itself was going through the process of recon- 
struction. Old landmarks giving way before the march of 
improvement, and their places being taken by magnificent 
palaces of stone and iron. 

The completion of the bridge and the tunnel opened the 
way for the concentration of the railway termini at the, great 
Union Depot, into which trains from sixteen distinct lines of 
railway enter, afford facilities for the transaction of business 
not enjoyed by any other commercial entrepot in the world. 
Great waterworks have been erected ; stately public buildings 
have been reared and are now (1878) in course of erection, 
which will, when completed, add to the grandeur of the city. 

What wonderful changes have taken place in the short 
space of seventy-four years ! St. Louis, then a village of a 
few hundred inhabitants, and now a great city of nearly six 
hundred thousand souls ! Only a few years ago — in the life- 
time of a citizen, over whose grave the grass has scarcely had 
time to o-row — the wild deer roamed over the wilderness and 
slaked his thirst in pools where now the grandest achievements 
of the architect's skill rise proudly above the places which 
they then covered. Little more than half a century ago the 
late James H. Lucas shot a deer on the margin of a pool 
which then occupied a portion of the site of the new Custom- 
house and Post-office. Now for miles and miles, north and 


south and west of that spot, the long lines of houses en- 
close the streets. 

Meanwhile numerous improved communications with the 
country adjoining St. Louis have been opened. Macadamized 
roads furnish easy access to different parts of the country, and 
the neighhorliood of the city, abounding as it does in spots 
remarkable for their rare natural beauty, and affording charm- 
ino- sites for rural residences, is being fast embellished with 
cottages, villus and ornamented pleasure grounds, the evi- 
dences of wealth, luxury and taste. 

We have thus hastily sketched some of the incidents in the 
history of St. Louis, and briefly referred to facts illustrative 
other past progress and present condition. .A more particular 
enumeration would have been without the scope of this article, 
besides extending it bqyond the limits to which it Avas neces- 
sarily assigned. Our own citizens hardly need such remem- 
brances or references as these to impress them with a confi- 
dence in the onward and upward progress of a city of which 
they so well know they have reason to be proud. Strangers, 
however — such as know St. Louis hardly more than byname — 
whose faces are set westwardly with a view to the establish- 
ment, in this fruitful region, of their business and homes, may 
be sufficiently interested, even l)y the imperfect report made 
by us, to stimulate further inquiry on their part. Such an 
inquir}^ will disclose a thousand additional facts to strengthen 
the conviction that St. Louis has a rightful claim to the pre- 
eminence which her friends assign to her. What forbids the 
realization of their most enthusiastic predictions as to its 
future growth and greatness ? 

Here stands a city enjoying far beyond any other city of 
the same magnitude or pretensions, the advantages of that 
inland navigation, compared with which even our vast foreign 
commerce is sinking into insignificance. It has five thousand 
miles of that navigation belonging peculiarly to its own waters, 
with ten thousand miles of coast, yielding up the products of 
an immense and fertile region, for which it furnishes a thou- 
sand outlets. To these may be added the forty thousand 
miles more of navigalile rivers, which connect with St. Louis. 
Her vast means of communication comprise sixteen railroads 


havino; their termini in the city, and connected with a net-work 
of siniihir roads stretching to everj point of the Union ; in 
one direction to the Gulf of Mexico, in another to the head- 
waters of the Mississippi, and in a third to Labrador, in the 
far East, and to San Francisco in the far West, Through 
her gates will pour the commerce of the Pacific, of India, and 
of the isles of the ocean on the one hand, and the commerce 
of the Atlantic and of Europe on the other. Stripping from 
her all which may be considered as accidental or adventitious — 
all of which jealous and more fortunate rivals may by possi- 
bility deprive her — still she is left the commercial center, the 
natural mart of seven hundred thousand square miles of terri- 
tory, full of mineral and agricultural resources, and capable 
of sustaining in vigorous life a population of a hundred 
miUions. What bounds, then, shall be assigned to the growth 
of St. Louis, wdien all the capacities of that country whose 
trade can in no event be diverted from her, shall have been 
fully developed ? When, in addition to the surplus products 
of that territory of wiiich she must be the entrepot, she shall 
become, as she may, the great distributing agent for the West 
and for the East — in a word, the commercial emporium of 
the United States — what shall forbid an accumulation here 
of inhabitants beyond anything of which we have authentic 
records? Millions upon millions, until there shall have sprung 
up here a city containing hundreds of square miles, with an 
area even then affordinsr but reasonable accommodations for 
the vast multitudes collected within it. Of course, such 
visions relate to the future ; but that future, amidst the 
growth of such a nation as ours, can not be long postponed. 
Meanwhile the present generation will witness a progress with 
which it may w^ell be content. That progress, it is true, will 
depend much upon the enterprise and energies of our citizens. 
For we fully rely on it, that its citizens will be true to their 
city and themselves : alike the vast population now here, and 
the hundreds of thousands still to come hither. That may 
be no idle dream which conceives for St. Louis the most ex- 
alted destiny ; which, with a just prophetic forecast, transforms 
the humble hamlet of Laclede into the future metropolis of 
the New World. 



While St. Louis is in many respects a cosmopolitan city, 
her people are none the less samples of that push, vigor, and 
enterprise characteristic of America. From an infant in swad- 
dlino- clothes made from the skins of wild beasts, she has 
developed into a stately queen, clad in the sumptuous ermine 
of wealth and power ; her realm constantly extending and her 
valor and glory spreading out upon the high seas like brave 
Carthagena in the glad years of her maritime supremacy. 

The journey back, over the path of St. Louis commerce, 
to the fountain source of her earliest experience, to the nursery 
wherein her primitive enterprises were cradled, is not a long 
one, and may be made by the retrospective memory of several 
living citizens. The history of the city, from the landing of 
Laclede, has already been detailed summarily, and now it is 
important to, at least, epitomize the records of her commerce, 
and, from the evolution of events which have made St. Louis 
great as she is, deduce our inferences of \vhat she will ulti- 
mately ])ecome — the part she will play in the future drama of 

The commerce of the city had its birth in the special grant 
of the fur trade of the Northwest to Laclede in 1765 ; but it 
is. estimated that up to 1812 the total trade of St. Louis was 
but little, if any, above one hundred thousand dollars an- 
nually. The business of the city was confined almost exclu- 
sively to furs, being an exchange of trinkets, whisky, blankets, 
etc., for peltries of wolves, foxes, bear, elk, coons, beaver, 
minks, and other animals, found in the West and Northwest. 
When the St. Louis fur merchant had a sufficient stock on 
hand to justify a shipment, he loaded his flat-boat and followed 



the current with his goods to New Orleans. The river at that 
early date was infested withhold pirates, who did not hesitate 
to add murder to their depredations, and were such a terror 
as to seriously interfere with exportations for many years. 
The stories told of John A. Murrell and his blood-thirsty 
gang on the Ohio River, may not be true, but their desperate 
exploits were no more horrifying than the acts committed by 
the Grand Tower and Cottonwood Creek o;ano:s, whose mur- 
ders may be counted by hundreds. 

It was the establishment of a trading post, where St. Louis 
now stands, that created the Western character known as the 
" scouts." Before that time there was no need for o;uides or 
adventurers, because nothing could be gained by a penetration 
of the Western wilds ; but when a trade with the Indians be- 
came a possibility, brave, reckless scouts, or couriers des hois 
became indispensable, and their services were well repaid. 
Occasional troubles would break out among the Indians and 
white traders on account of the abduction of some beautiful 
savage maid by the bold adventurers, and nine-tenths of the 
battles fought about St. Louis were undoubtedly precipitated 
or brousrht about throu2:h that cause. 

It may appear strange, but it is the truth nevertheless, that 
as late as 1812, the currency of St. Louis and the Northwest 
was confined almost exclusively to whisky, peltries, trinkets, 
home-made sugar, beeswax, and blankets. By reference to 
the files of the Missouri Gazette, it will be seen from the ad- 
vertisements that a paper or coin currency was little thought 
of in effecting the various exchanges of private property. A 
few 3^ears later negroes became the standard of values, and, 
in fact, the principal part of the city's trade. 

The arrival of the first steamboat at St. Louis in 1817, may 
be fixed upon as the beginning of the commercial life of St. 
Louis. Before this, the primitive processes applied to navi- 
gation were such as to be undeserving of the title " trade," 
but was like bartering jack-knives or trading marbles — utterly 
insignificant. But the steamboat imparted a new life into the 
puerile transactions of the municipal pioneers, and became of 
such importance that, in 1820, the trade of St. Louis had risen 
to two and one-half millions of dollars for that year, and the 


future progress of the city was almost marvelous. Steam- 
boats multiplied until they swarmed the channel of the Missis- 
sippi almost like ants in their labyrinthian cities, and in 1849, 
when the Aro-onauts were swarming into California from the 
East, the river would, at times, be almost choked with loaded 
steamers, the outer boats being often compelled to roll their 
freight over twenty diHerent steamers in order to get it ashore. 
Those were days of eminent activity when the importation of 
eroods into St. Louis reached two billions of dollars. 

Up to this time St. Louis had no railroad ; but in 1851 
steps wer(> taken which shortly afterwards resulted in the con- 
struction of a short branch of the Pi'citic Railroad. This short 
road, though of little importance, excited the people, and new 
roads were projected and speedily built. Every person wanted 
more railroads, until in 1857, when Page & Bacon, the great 
bankers, precipitated a financial panic by breaking in their 
efforts to build the Ohio & Mississippi Eailroad. This put an 
end, temporarih', to the construction of roads, and the war 
breaking out shortly thereafter, St. Louis passed under the 
ban of stagnation, and perceptibly declined in nearly every 
branch. But when the shadow of war Mas uplifted she sprang 
up again as though her sleep had brought back into her slug- 
gish veins the fresh, vigorous blood of impetuous youth, and 
forthwith the progress of St. Louis became a by-word in the 
mouth of every American. 

It has been since the war that nearly all of her great com- 
mercial institutions have been erected, and her progress has 
been indeed so remarkable that now her population is nearly 
six hundred thousand souls, the fourth city on the continent, 
she is the third in manufacturing industries. Among the 
greater works of St. Louis capital and brains are the con- 
struction of the great bridge, the Chamber of Commerce, the 
jetties, and net-work of railroads which reach out in ever}^ 
direction, grasping the trade of an empire. But while these 
works are grand and all-important, they are no more conse- 
quential than other enterprises now projected, and will be suc- 
cessfully completed wiihin the next three or four years. 
Among these new projects may be mentioned the tunnel under 
Poplar Street, connecting the Union Depot with a great 


warehouse system on the Levee, which, operating in conjunction 
with incline planes to the river, will load and unload barges 
with the facility of a dumping cart. Another conception of 
still greater importance is Mr. Charles Chouteau's line of iron 
barges. This enterprise is the joint project of Mr. Chouteau 
and Com. George H. Kea, the President of the Mississippi 
Valley Transportation Company, and one of the ])est and most 
acute business men in the country. Both of these aeutlcmen 
are now (July, 1878) in Europe perfecting arrangements, and 
on their return purpose the construction of steam iron barges, 
by which grain may be shipped profitably from St. Louis to 
New Orleans at three cents per bushel. In addition to these 
vast enterprises there are private interests of great importance 
under way, such as the rebuilding of the Southern Hotel and 
the construction of the finest opera-house in America. 

• It has been since the war that St. Louis has arisen to the 
position of a cotton market ; and since the establishment of a 
cotton exchange she has become a stalwart rival of New Or- 
leans and jNIemphis for the cotton product of the South and 
Southwest. To illustrate the rapid increase of this trade*, it 
is only necessary to present the following figures : For the 
j'ear 1S67 the receipts of cotton Avere 19,838 bales, and every 
succeeding year shows a remarkable increase, until for the 
year 1877 the receipts reached 217,734 bales. St. Louis now 
has the largest cotton compress warehouse in the world, and 
her future, predicated upon the growth of receipts, is pregnant 
with the jiromise of being the greatest cotton market on the 
continent within the next ten years. 

In the live stock and packing business St. Louis is fast 
distancing all other cities, and the investment during the past 
few years in stock-yards and packing-houses evidence the be- 
lief, on the part of those directly interested in the trade, that 
it is but a question of a short time when our city will be the 
focal point of the live stock interests of the United States. 

In this brief allusion to the commerce of St. Louis, no 
reference has been made to the dry goods, groceries, iron, 
coal, and a hundred other branches of trade, for the reason 
that the most of this information is given in the historical 
notices of our representative manufactories and business houses. 


Statistics have been avoided because they are rarely read, and 
if used would fill up space to the exclusion of more interesting 
matter, and that, too, without subserving any particular pur- 
pose. What St. Louis is as a commercial city may be best 
ascertained by a perusal of that department of this book deal- 
ino- exclusively with our commercial institutions ; but what she 
is destined to be is such an important matter for reflection that 
it has been deemed necessary to devote a special chapter to 
prophecv, in which every claim is based upon a logical deduc- 
tion of facts and past events having special reference to St. 
Louis of the future. 


The Future Commercial Entrepot of the World. 

Let us light the lamps of prophecy, and by their pene- 
trating rays examine our surroundings, the causes of our rapid 
development, the operations by which St. Louis is impilled to 
her destiny. We have a country covering an area of three 
million square miles — enough to make twenty-five kingdoms 
as large as Great Britain, and possessing all the mineral, agri- 
cultural and commercial facilities to make a country great and 
prosperous. In extent of coast, whether of sea, lake or gulf, 
in number and value of harbors, and in the means of inland 
navigation, whether of sound, lake or river, there is no 
country so blessed as ours. 

Our sea coast, lake and river navigation is over 33,000 
miles. The various rivers and bayous of the Mississi[)pi alone 
furnish over 16,500 miles of steam navigation. We have this 
immense area of rich and varied soil, from which we take in 
abundance nearly all the most valued productions known to 
agriculture, and to such a vast extent is our virgin soil yet 
undeveloped, that we could sustain a population of 750,000,000 
of people, and be no more thickly populated than Great 
Britain is at the present moment. In mines and placers of 


gold, only one nation can compete with us ; of silver, copper, 
lead, zinc, we have larger supplies ; while iron, more valuable 
than all the rest, is wideh^ difl'used and inexhaustible in 

The quality of our iron is not surpassed by any on the 
globe. As one item in iron we would mention the "Iron INIoun- 
tain " in Missouri, that rises in majesty above the surrounding 
country, as if inviting the attention of capital. This mountain 
of iron is computed to contain enough to supply the markets 
of the world for a thousand years. 

This language applies in a general way to the United 
States, but let us consider for a moment what advantages St. 
Louis possesses. Her geographical position is a peculiarly 
central one, being located above the miasmatic vapors of the 
valley, and yet at the foot of the water-shed of the Northwest, 
giving her a more healthful location than any other city in the 
world. For many years St. Louis hung upon the outskirts of 
civilization, but the ever-advancing forces of Western develop- 
ment and pioneer progress soon enlarged the boundaries of 
enterprise, and now, one hundred years after the first camp- 
fire lit up the wilderness and threw its genial rays over the 
St. Louis trading post, not only a great and mighty city has 
sprung up from the ashes, but the periphery of her influence 
has overspread the territory lying between the Mississippi and 
the Pacific, and she even now sits the queen of a new empire, 
rich in her possessions but mightier in her possibilities. 

St. Louis is the one, and from force of circumstances can 
be the only great city of the Mississippi Valley ; she must of 
necessity be the distributing point of the mineral and cereal 
products of the great West. Missouri, with her Iron Mountain , 
iathe iron State ; herunequaled lead mines, from which nearly 
one-third of all the lead used in this country is taken, make 
her the great lead State ; she produces nearly one-half of all 
the zinc used in America, and she is therefore the great zinc 
State ; while her coal mines are so large and numerous as to 
be well-nigh inexhauotible. Here, then, is a combination or 
union of natural advantages which perforce make Missouri the 
greatest State in the Union ; and since St. Louis must of 
necessity be the receptacle of Missouri products, she is placed ) 


in such an advivntageous position as to impel her growth for 
ages yet to come. But the half has not yet been told. The 
gold and silver mines of the nation lie west of the ISIississippi ; 
these mines furnish not only the bullion from which the coin 
and jewelry of America is made, but the product is so great 
that we can supply the world with the precious metals. 

The greatest Government mint will some day be located in 
St. Louis, because nearly every ounce of ore extracted from 
the rich beds of the West must pass through this city en route 
for the markets of the world. 

The most important factor in the evolution of St. Louis' 
destiny, however, is the Mississippi River, the main artery of 
Western commerce, the highway over which must travel the 
richly laden argosies on their way to other countries. The 
completion of the Jetties has removed the last barrier which 
separated St. Louis from Europe, Asia and South America. 
It was like lowering the portcullis of an impregnable fortress 
to admit the couriers of a truce and the establishment of 
friendly and essential relations between a strange people. 

There remains but a single link to complete the chain 
which must bind St. Louis to the very highest destiny attained 
by any city of either ancient or modern times. Only one 
more great work to be accomplished, an<;I the manifestation of 
justice will consummate the last need of St. Louis and the 
West. This essential requisite is the improvement of the 
Missouri and Mississippi rivers in a manner commensurate 
with the importance of the work. The West, fortunateljs is 
verging from youth into a vigorous manhood, and is now 
ready to measure strength with the sectional spirit of the East, 
which has so long deprived us of well-merited appropriations 
in order to stunt the growth of the Western scion. With a 
permanent channel of twenty feet in our Western rivers — 
which will be secured within the next ten years — the West 
will grow as if touched by magic, and St. Louis would leap 
into an importance equal to New York and London in an 
almost incredibly short space of time. These results will be 
ultimately attained, and it is neither chimerical nor unreason- 
able to prophesy that St. Louis will be the greatest city on 
either continent within the next fifty years. 



The rapid growth of St. Louis is well uttcsted by the 
increase in the capacity of the varivuis works that have from 
time to time supplied the city with water. In 1850 water was 
distributed throughout the city by means of seventeen miles 
of pipe. In 1874 there was used for the same purpose one 
hundred and fifty miles. 

The first reservoir was (ionstructed on Ashley and Collins 
streets, on the east side of Fifth Street, in 1832. It had a 
storage capacity of two hundred and thirty thousand gallons. 
In 1849 these works were al)andoned, and on Benton Street, 
about a mile west of the river, new works were built with a 
capacity of seven million gallons. Another reservoir was added 
in 1854 with a capacity of forty million gallons. In less than 
two decades these works were found inadequate to meet the re- 
quirements of the fast growing capital of the West. At BisscH's 
Point a tract of land adjoining the river, and situated in the north- 
ern part of the city, a new site was purchased at an expense of 
ninetv-cight thousand dollars, and in 1871 was completed the 
magnificent works from which the city now deiives its abun- 
dant supply of wdiolesome water. With a capacity of sixty 
million gallons, and machinery capable of pumping fifty-eight 
million gallons daily, the present system of water-works bids 
fair to endure much longer than its predecessors. 

The Water-works comprise two series of buildings, known 
as the " hio;h service " and "low service" buildinirs. The 
latter are located on the river bank, and the former about a quar- 
ter of a mile distant. Two hundred feet from the river bank, 
and united with it by means of a foot-bridge, is the inlet tower. 
From this tower, by means of an induction pipe five feet six inches 



in diameter, is pumped the water needed l)v the eit v. The tower 
is oval in form, twenty feet long hy ten feet wide. Its founda- 
tions rest on the bed-roek of the river ; the greater part of the 
tower is, of course, submeruetl. The " low service " group of 
buildings consist of an engine and boiler-house, coal storage- 
house, and smokestack one hundred and twenty-five feet high. 
In their construction — though built pre-eminently for use — 
much good taste has been displayed. The material used is 
brick, with bases, quoins and mouldings of Joliet stone. The 
engine-room is fifty feet long and forty-one feet wide : the 
walls are wainscoted with oak and black walnut, and the 
floors are laid with cast-iron plates and encaustic tiles. Here 
are situated three puini)ing engines — two of them are of the 
Cornish "Bull"' pattern, and were built by the Knapp Fort 
Pitt Foundry Company, of Pittsburgh, in 1870. The steam 
cylinders and pump plungers have each a di:uiieter of lifty-six 
inches, and a twelve-foot length of stroke. Each pump is 
provided with a stand-pipe located in the engine-room. The 
capacity of each pump is seventeen million gallons in twen- 
ty-four hours. The third engine, of a more powerful type, 
and capable of delivering twenty-four million gallons in twentv- 
four hours, was built in 1874 ; the contract price Mas one 
hundred and eighteen thousand live hundred dollars. It is a 
crank and flv-wheel enirine, and works two sinole-acting- 
plunger pumps, one at each end of the beam and placed in the 
pump-pit. Steam for these engines is furnished by a battery 
of double-flue Cornish boilers, seven feet in diameter and 
thirty feet long. Two boilers are used Avith each engine. 

The water jnimped irom the river by these engines con- 
tains too much mud and other impurities to be tit for imme- 
diate use, and has to be passed through a series of settling 
basins before being distributed throughout the city. The 
basins are four in number, each eighteen feet deep, and with 
an area of 162,000 feet. 

The " high service " buildings consist of an engine-house, 
boiler-house, coal-shed, and smokestack one hundred thirty- 
four feet high. The engine-house is a veiy handsome struct- 
ure, two stories high, and ninety-two feet long by eighty-six 
feet wide. It is constructed of brick, with base, cornice, and 



strinp^-c'onrse of cut stone. The iuiglcs are also dressed with 
cut stone. The main entrance is reached by a broad flight of 
stone steps, and above the door-way, on the pediment of the 
principal facade, are two sculptured figures, the " Union 
of Waters," symbolical of the union of the Missouri and 


Mississippi. The interior consists of one lofty room, with 
handsomely wainscoted walls and paneled ceiling. Around 
this room extends a balcony, which is reached by a spiral stair- 
case. Here are three immense pumping engines, corresponding 



to those in the ' ' h)W service ' ' 
house. Two of them were built 
by the Knapp Fort Pitt Foundry 
Company, of Pittsburgh. They 
are single cylinder crank and fly- 
wheel engines, working double- 
acting pumps. The steam cylin- 
ders are eighty-five inches in diam- 
eter and the length of stroke ten 
feet. The fly-wheels are twenty- 
six feet in diameter and weigh 
thirty-five tons. Each pump has 
a capacity of sixteen million five 
hundred thousand gallons in twen- 
ty-four hours. The third pump 
is worked by a pair of compound 
enofines, connected with crank and 
fly-wheel, the latter thirty-two 
feet in diameter and weighing 
thirty-five tons. These engines 
were constructed by the Hartford 
Foundry and jNIachine Company, 
in 1874, for two hundred and 
eighty thousand dollars, and have 
a capacity estimated at one million 
gallons per hour. 

Truly grand is the spectacle of 
all this massive machinery in mo- 
tion. "With very little noise these 
engines perform their great tasks. 
So little is there of the racket and 
seeming confusion which usually 
attend the movements of large and 
complicated machiner}-, that in 
watching the slow, dignified mo- 
tions of these iron "iants one is 
apt to forget the mighty force that 
animates them and the immense 
amount of work they accomplish. 




The motor power of these enirines is supplied by six " re- 
turn drop-flue boilers," six feet in diiimeter and twenty-four 
feet long, with a grate surface of two hundred and fifty square 
feet, and a heating surface of five hundred square feet. 
By these latter series of pumps, the water that has re- 
mained long enough in the settling basins to become tolerably 
well freed from sediment, is raised about two hundred feet in 
the stand pipe, a mile distant, on Grand Avenue and Four- 
teenth Street. This stand-pipe is concealed by a handsome 
Corinthian column one hundred and fifty-four feet high and 
forty-one feet in diameter at the base. Access to the summit 
may be gained by means of a spiral staircase, winding around 
the pipe in the interior. From this elevated position a very 
fine vieAv may be obtained of St. Louis and vicinity. The water 
supplied to the city flows, from this stand-pipe, the surplus 
water passing into a reservoir on Compton Hill, four miles 
away, which has storage capacity sufficient for sixty million 
gallons. The daily average consumption of water in St. Louis 
is twenty-four million gallons. 


This building has a frontage on Eleventh Street, extending 
from Chestnut to Market streets. It is three stories in height. 

and is built of brick, and is comparatively a new structure. 
For many years the Court-house was over-crowded with a 
swarm of city oflicials that were located there. The want 


of convenient quarters occasioned the erection of this build- 

The city officers find comfortable quarters here, convenient 
to the Major and the heads of the several bureaus of the mu- 
nicipal government. 

The Council Chambers with the following elective officials 
are located on the second floor of the building : 

Hon. Henry Overstolz, Mayor, occupies, with his secreta- 
ries, room No. 1 ; Comptroller, Edward L. Adreon, room No. 
3; Treasurer, Wm. Patrick, room No. 5; Auditor, Gen. A. 
J. Smith, room No. 4; Register, Richard Walsh, room No. 18. 

The following appointive officers are situated on the first 
floor : 

Board of Water Commissioners, Thos. J. Whitman is chief 
of the department, with Gen. Wm. Shields as Collector of 
Water Rates. 

James C. Moore, Harbor and Wharf Commissioner, occu- 
pies, with his deputy, Geo. W. Ford, office No. 21. 

Park Commissioner, Eugene F. Weigel, occupies office 
No. 13 ; Sewer Commissioner, Robert Moore, office No. 7 
Commissioner of Public Buildings, J. W. Allen, office No. 8 
Commissioner of Supplies, Ferd. L. Garesche, office No. 26 
Inspector of Boilers, John Holland, office No. 20 : Vehicle 
Inspector, Jno. T. Murphy, office No. 27 ; Recorder of Votes, 
Estill McHenry, office No. 23 ; Health Commissioner, Chas. 
W. Francis is located in the south wing. 

The following officers are located in the Four Courts 
building : 

Prosecuting Attorney, Lewis V. Beach ; City Attorney, 
Samuel Erskine ; City Marshal, Isaac M. Mason; Coroner, 
HuoTQ Auler ; Chief of Police, James McDonou^h ; Jailer, 
James Conway. 

Collector, M. A. Rosenblatt ; Sheriff, John Finn ; Circuit 
Clerk, Philip Stock ; Recorder of Deeds, D. H. McAdam, are 
located in the Court-house. 




The Court-house occupies the block bounded by Chestnut, 
Market, Fourth and Fifth streets. The site it occupies was a 
o-ift of Judae J. B. C. Lucas and Col. Auiruste Chouteau. The 
buiUling is in the form of a Greek cross, and of the Doric 
order of architecture. The work upon the building was com- 
menced about 1839. Its progress was very tardy, and after 

long and tedious efforts it was finally completed in 1862. The 
iron dome is the remarkable feature of the building. Its 
handsome proportions strike the eye as a perfect piece of work- 
manship. Approaching the city from any direction it is the 
principal object that attracts the sight. From the summit of 
the dome, which is reached by an iron staircase, a magnificent 
view of the city is obtained. Looking north, the Shot Tower, 


the St. Louis Elevator, and the greiit steel Bridge are promi- 
nently in view. Looking east, the Advance Elevator looms up, 
and the Stock-yards are visible, while the great prairies of 
Illinois spread themselves in all their expansiveness. In the 
west, the rising ground shows prominently the new Custom- 
house, the various church spires, and the great Union Depot 
with its trains in constant activity. The stranger is well repaid 
for the necessary labor of climbing the long, winding stair- 
way by this bird's-eye view he obtains of the busy world that 
lies at his feet. The interior of the dome reveals its several 
galleries and magnificent fresco work. 

The rooms are assigned to the various civil courts, Circuit 
and Supreme Courts. The Law Library, which is the property 
of the Bar Association, occupies one of the rooms ; while the 
Recorder, Assessor, Sheriff, Collector, and other city officials, 
have their appropriate quarters in the building. 

The grounds about the building are suitably ornamented 
with trees, flowers, and fountains, that give it an air of beauty 
and attraction 


This new structure, in course of erection, occupies the block 
bounded by Olive and Locust, Eighth and Ninth streets. It is 
another monument indicating the growth and importance of 
St. Louis as a commercial center. The growth of the city and 
the magnitude of governmental business rendered the old 
building on the corner of Olive and Third streets inadequate. 
The United States Government purchased the entire block and 
excavations were at once begun in 1873. After much difficulty 
and driving sufficient number of piles to render the foundation 
more solid, the grand structure began to go up and assume 
shape and proportions. The lower portion is built of JNIissouri 
granite from the region of the Iron Mountain. Above the 
basement Maine granite is employed. The Corinthian order 
prevails, and when completed Avill be one of the most imposing 
and truly magnificent structures in the city. The basement 



opens up to the grand railway tunnel that passes under Eighth 
Street. By means of side-tracks the greatest facilities for 
handling the mails as they arrive and depart will be afforded. 
The length of the building is two hundred and thirty-six feet 


and one hundred and eighty-one feet wide. Ample space is 
afforded hi the upper stories for all the United States offices, 
including post, custom and internal revenue offices, and the 
various courts of the general Government. 


No city in this country can boast of better markets than are 
found with us. 

Union Market, situated on Christy Avenue, Morgan, Fifth 
and Sixth streets, is the chief market of the city. It is a j)op- 
ular resort. Every conceivable kind of meat, fish, vegetable, 
fruit and necessaries for the table are found here in the great- 
est abundance. The quantity of provisions brought here daily 



makes it the best place to buy family supplies, because of the 
variety and certainty of being fresh. Sunmier mornings pre- 
sent a lively scene from one end of the market to the other. 
Saturday night is perhaps the crowning period of the week. 
Throngs of buyers securing their supplies for Sunday and the 
coming week, keep eveiy butcher and green grocer lively until 


a late hour in the night. Brilliantly illuminated, the jostling 
crowds make the market a scene of activity and merriment. 
To meet the wants of our people markets of less proportions 
are located in various parts of the city. A few of the princi- 
pal ones may be named : 

Biddle Market, corner Thirteenth and Biddle streets. 

City Market, corner Broadway and Biddle Street. 

French Market, Convent, Fourth and Fifth streets. 

Maguire :Market, Broadway and Bremen Avenue. 

Sturgeon Market, Broadway and North Market Street. 



Centre Market, on Seventh Street, occupying the block 
between Pophir and Spruce streets. 

Lucas Market, on Twelfth Street, from Chestnut to Olire 
Soulard Market, Seventh Street, near Carroll. 




Butcher shops are established throughout the city, which 
sujjply families who may not be disposed to visit these miirkete 
on account of remoteness and the convenience of a l)utcher 
nearer home. 

PLANTLRb' IIOUsL-On ] nutUi ^li ett, occupy 111^' the Mjuaio bul -v een Chestnut 
and Pine streets. Kclaey & Stickney, proprietois. 




The memories of Gratiot Street Prison will never fade 
from the minds of hundrecls of people now living nntil con- 
sciousness is palsied by death. Dr. J. N. McDowell, a famous 
•' surgeon, whose name is prominently connected wath the events 
^ of St. Louis history in the years preceding the late war, and 
for the first years of that great conflict, had caused the very 
remarkable structure, so accurately represented in the picture, 


to be built for the accommodation of the faculty and students 
of the Missouri Medical Collesre. 

Soon after the commencement of hostilities, Dr. Mc- 
Dowell's College building was seized by the military authori- 
ties and converted into a prison for the detention of political 
offenders and military prisoners. Within its gloomy walls 
many thousands of men and many women were immured 
through weary weeks and months. 

Mcdowell's old college. 43 

From 1862 to 1865 there were confined within its strong 
walls, not only Confeclemte prisoners of war, but guerrillas, 
bushwhackers, bridge burners, rebel mail carriers, spies, Fed- 
eral deserters, robbers, murderers, and criminals of every 

The victims embraced many who had occupied high official 
positions, including United States Senators, legislators and 
army officers. Naturally those who were incarcerated became 
embittered by the treatment received and the severity of the 
punishment meted out to them. Notwithstanding this, there 
are those who can testify to the many deeds of charity ex- 
tended to them by the fair hands of good Samaritans ; many 
from a love for doing good, not only cheered the weary hours 
of the prisoner, but saved many a human life by tender care 
for the sick and wounded ones. 

Some there were, in those dark times, who went in at its 
doors to come out among the living no more. Military execu- 
tions were not of infrequent occurrence, and among the most 
saddening remembrances of the old spot that figured so ex- 
tensively during the war. One dreary morning, in the be- 
ginning of 1864, seven men, who had been condemned to die 
in retaliation for the assassination of a Major Wilson, were 
led forth, ranged in a line, and sent to their final account 
by a volley of bullets. No one may ever tell of the torture 
of mind endured by the human beings once confined within 
the walls of Gratiot Street Prison. 

But the old landmark, which for years remained tenantless 
after the war-clouds had rolled away, will soon disappear, and 
then the grand, gloomy, strangely constructed building will 
exist only in history and in the memories of those who suffered 


Experience has taught careful obs-ervers that the contact of 
man with natural scenery tends not only to a good sanitary 
condition, but also elevates him morally. The populations of 
the Old World, crowded into cities, where no access can be had 
to trees and flowers, must necessarily become and remaui 

In our own country the best specimens of manhood, our 
statesmen, philosophers and teachers, as well as our poets and 
artists, have all, in early life, been the children of the woods 
and fields. In fact, any form of civilization that tends to shut 
out nature produces a stunled manhood. 

Realizing this truth, the leading minds of St. Louis have 
sought, in the arrangement and distribution of our public 
parks, the best welfare of its citizens. As a general rule, a 
love of the beautiful goes hand in hand with a practice of the 
good. As the average amount of soap used by any district is 
proved to be the measure of the average amount of good 
behavior, so the same laws, working in the same direction, 
prove that people who are brought closely and frequently in 
contact with nature are really better men and women than 
those who do not receive those advantages. The advance in 
civilization and culture of any people may safely be estimated 
from the extent and variety of its parks and gardens. 

In this respect St. Louis occupies a prominent position. 
There are seventeen parks in the city, some very extensive, 
others smaller, but all so arranged as to location and diversity 
of character and beauty that none, even among the humblest 
citizens, are shut out from their benefits. 





Covering thirty acres, is known throughout the West, as one 
of the most beautiful and effective pieces of landscape gar- 
dening on the continent. Its location, on a high piece of 

land south of Chouteau Aveuue, surrounded on all sides bj 
magnificent private residences, has made it the favorite resort 
of the citizens of St. Louis, as well as one of the sights to be 
visited by strangers. 



Miss Hosmer's statue of Benton, the pure patriot of Mis- 
souri, occu})ics an honored place beneath the shade of its elms 
and mai)les, while another of Washington looks calmly upon 
a scene, springing up from the repul)lican seeds which he 
planted in tlie hearts of the i)eo})le. 

Rare and curious plants, mosses and creepers, adorn its 
beautiful grotto and fountains ; swans glide gracefully on its 
miniatiu'e lake ; while many families date the commence- 
ment of their happiness from the day " two hearts that beat as 
one" began to understand the divine mystery of love. The 
city has expended one hundred and twenty thousand dollars 
since 1804 in beautifying this temple of nature, which has 
been rei)aid many times in the increased culture and apprecia- 
tion of the beautiful in the lives of its citizens. No descrip- 
tion can adequately portray Lafayette Park. It must be seen, 
and then words become useless. 

During the sum- 
mer season it is 
customary to have 
concerts twice a 
week in Lafayette 
Park, and one of 
the best bands of 
musicians in the 
^S. city is engaged for 
that purpose. 

On such occa- 
rfons the park is 
crowded with thou- 
sands of visitors, 
who evince their 
pleasure and ap- 
preciation by at- 
tending from all 

PAGODA-LAFAYETTE PAKK. p.^^-ts of the city. 

The most perfect order is observed, seats are arranged for the 
comfort of those w-ho need rest, while young and old, for- 
getting for a time the cares of life, take up unconsciously the 
gentle lesson whispered to their hearts in the waving of tree^,* 



the blossoming of flowei-s, tlic plashing of tlie fonntains, and 
return to their homes wiser and better eitizens. The time is 
not fiir distant when all our parks, especially the larger ones, 
Avill have the same advantages of music, etc., now possessed 
by Lafayette Park. As we advance in knowledge, we are 
learning more and more the value of that immortal lesson 
taught by the Bard of Avon, that there are " Sermons in 
stones, books in the running brooks, and good in every- 


tc)wp:i{ grove park. 

Containing three hundred and Hftv acres, lying on the south- 
west of the city, is the magnificent gift of Henry Shaw, one of 
St. Louis' most respected citizens. 

Under the care of the city, Tower Grove Park is rapidly 
developing in beauty. Its avenues and roads are the favorite 
drives of our Avealthy citizens, while pedestrians find pure air, 
rich landscape and country quiet in abundance for their enjoy- 
ment. The eastern entrance to the park is marked by massive 


granite pillars, surmounted by griffins, and two Norman towers 
indicate its western approach. A number of appropriate 
buildings are scattered throughout the grounds, and every 
year adds new beauties and develops new possibilities for the 
enjoyment of visitors. The park has cost thus far over half 
a million dollars. The city makes annual appropriations for 
its improvement. 


This park, containing one hundred and eighty acres, is as 
yet in all the wild beauty of nature ; it is situated in the 
northern part of St. Louis, and will soon become one of the 
beauty spots of our beautiful surroundings. 


As soon as the fact Avas established that Forest Park was 
to become city property for the benefit of all its citizens, it 
gave a great impetus to the value of all real estate in its 
vicinity. Possessing natural advantages offered by no other 
park in the United States, it was readily foreseen that landed 
property must largely increase in value. When its grand 
drives are perfected, its boulevards completed for pedestrians, 
and its avenues supplied sufficiently with seats and points of 
rest, this must become by far the most attractive point for 
first-class residences, and the cost, as in the case of Central 
Park, New York, Avill be more than covered by the enhanced 
value of lands for building purposes, and consequently a much 
larger revenue from taxation. 

Chauncey T. Bowen, of Chicago, a gentleman having a 
thorough knowledge of the subject, says : "Forest Park has 
the best natural advantages for a park of any in the world." 

Forest Park, in the extreme western part of St. Louis, is a 
s]()lendid possession of fourteen hundred acres, as large almost 
as the celebrated Hyde and Regent's parks of London combined. 

The river Des Peres winds its way through the grounds, 
while magnificent forest trees mingled with English walnut, 
and other European trees, lend their rich foliage to the scenery. 

As the city's growth shall extend, and eventually surround 
this district, Forest Park will become to the West what the 


old parks of Paris and Berlin are to its citizens and visitors, 
viz: great breathing places, where f6r . a while the cares and 
turmoil of life are cast aside, and old and 3^oung can commune 
with nature, and at times hear her everlasting story whispering 
to their hearts. 

To Hiram H. Leffingwell and Andrew McKinley the citi- 
zens of St. Louis are indebted chiefly for this handsome 
adornment to the cit3^ Their zeal and devotion secured the 
legislative sanction to the scheme. Besides personal attention 
to beautifying the grounds, they were public-spirited enough 
to devote their valua])le time without pecuniary reward. 

The smaller parks, such as Missouri, Jackson, Hyde Park, 
and others, are situated immediately within the more densely 
populated portions of St. Louis ; they are each and all beau- 
tiful, and to those whose occupations are confining, or of 
limited means, they afford veiy great benefit, as well as pleas- 
ure. When the labors of the day are ended, those resorts 
are crowded by visitors, who appreciate their advantages. 

It is now an established fact that the presence of trees 
tends to destroy malarial diseases : not only the eucalyptus, but 
all other trees, in some degree are advantageous to health. 
Man and animals produce large amounts of carbonic acid in 
the atmosphere, and need a large amount of oxygen ; while 
trees, on the contrary, feed on carbonic acid, and give forth 
oxygen ; thus the animal and vegetable worlds are counter- 
parts, and necessary to each other. 

That trees may thrive, birds are necessary. Years ago, 
before this fact was recognized, some of the parks in Eastern 
cities were almost destroyed, owing to the wanton destruction 
of birds, and the consequent rapid increase of insect life. To 
remedy this ignorance, a large number of English sparrows 
have been imported into various city parks, and now, in St. 
Louis, under a wiser rule than of old, the birds are fed and 
encouraged, and vegetation becomes healthier and stronger. 

As Herbert sang two hundred years ago — 

" All things wait on man ; 
In every path he finds what doth befriend him; 

O mighty Love, naan is one world, 
And hath another to attend him." 




Every lurin' city possesses its one object of supreme in- 
terest. In the bid World it is either some ruined castle of 
feudal times, some wonderful church or old abbey, erected by 
the patient devotion of the early saints, or tradition saves some 
relic of departed heroism, and fondly cherishes it to mark a 
o-lory and an age long passed away. But in the United States 

we are shut out 
^ from all such re- 
sources ; we can 
onl}" point to an 
Indian mound, or 
takmg the other 
alternative, build 
our own moun- 
ments, leaving to 
those who may 
come after us the 
task of preserv- 
ing and glorify- 
ing them. 

Shaw's Garden 
is especially an 
ever - pres ent 
l)lessing, as M^ell 
as a shrine where, 
in the future, the 
people nniy see 
what one man with a large heart and good judgment may 
accomplish by the judicious expenditure of money. The 
grounds of Shaw's Garden comprise about one hundred acres, 
the most of it surrounded by a high stone wall. Within the 
enclosure, the visitor learns what devotion and untiring labor 
may develope. Flowers and flowering shrubs, so beautiful 
and varied that the eye wearies at last with their myriad 
colors. Temperate and tropical regions lavishly show forth 
their luxury of foliage ; the roses of Cashmere were never half 
so beautiful, or varied in tint and color; the lilies of the 


valley which out- 
shone Solomon, 
here glory in dis- 
playing their gor- 
geous tints ; puhiis 
and pines, bananas 
and firs, the cactus 
of the desert, and 
the Victoria water- 
lily, all find their 
ai^propriate care 
and elements of 
growth. As an 
educator in ])ot- 
■any, Shaw's Gar- 
den is the best col- 
lege in the world. 
The Museum of 
Natural History is 
filled with a mul- 
titude of interesting oIj- 
jects. The hot-houses and 
green - houses are all ar- 
ranged with scientific ac- 
curacy, and filled with the ^ 
best specimens of I'are and 
curious vegetation. 

Mr. Shaw, the proprietor, 
is an Englishman — an adopt- 
ed citizen of St. Louis — 
bringino- to his work all the 
devotion and tender care of 
a lover ; treating his flowers 
as a loving parent does his 
children, and finding in his 
life-work not only personal 
pleasure, but that higher and 
nobler aim, the welfare of 
St. Louis citizens. 





Shaw's Garden is an enduring monument, nobler than 
battle-fields of death, sweeter than any man-made creed, 
and holier than any relic of dead saints or buried treasure. 
Citizens and strangers have all free admission on proper ap- 
plication being made. 



The grounds occupied by the St. Louis Fair Association at 
present include nearly one hundred acres. Commencing not 
many years since, as an ordinary venture in calling together 
citizens and farmers, for the purpose of comparing and exhib- 
iting the products of town and country, it has rapidly devel- 
oped into a magnificent enterprise, holding in October of each 
year the largest fair on the continent. At first a limited 
amount of machinery and mechanical products were placed 
side by side with the handiwork of the loom, the anvil, and the 
fruits and cereals of the husbandman. At present all civilized 
nations contribute of their genius to make our annual displays 
famous. Scores of acres of ground are covered with buildings, 
where steam, and heat, and electricity show forth the brain- 



power guiding and governing modern civilization. Temples 
to art and literature are filled with the works of the master's 
hand. The mighty press is represented by newspaper and 
magazine buildings. There are miles of agricultural imple- 
ments, thousands of mechanical contrivances for increasing 

home comforts, wonderful displays of silks, laces, and cloths. 
Eveiy conceivable interest is represented which tends to en- 
tourage advanced ideas, and give the consumer the benetit of 
the latest improvements. 

Prize cattle, horses, hogs, sheep and poultry, of every 


conceivable variety and fancy, breeJ and blood, are here an- 
nually collected to cliallengc inspection and competition with 
the workl. The immense amiDitheatre, where a hundred 
thousand visitors may witness thoroughbred racers and pacers 
running for victor}', stands in the center of the enclosure, 
while the zoological collection of wild animals and l)irds occu- 
pies a number of appropriate buildings, erected expressly for 
their accommodation. 

It is a gigantic work to superintend and provide for the 
vast number of exhibitors and visitors who every year throng 
the place. Most of the prominent restaurant and hotel men 
attend to the hungry. St. Louis lager and other beverages 
find plenty of dispensers and patrons, and those who love 
amusement find all the last wonderful novelties scattered broad- 
cast for their special jDleasure. The inducements held out to 
meritorious inventions are very great, the association devoting 
nearly fifty thousand dollars annually for premiums, in addi- 
tion to medals and ribbons. 

Many j^rominent citizens are closely identified with the 
growth and continued success of the St. Louis fair. The late 
Arthur B. Barret worked most enthusiastically for its welfare, 
while to the present Secretary, G. O. Kalb, is owing much of 
its present popularity. The fair season continues one week, 
but in addition to this the managers commenced last year a 
grand art and mechanical exhibition, where St. Louis trade 
and manufactures were especially prominent. The first experi- 
ment was abundantly successful, and there is every reason to 
believe succeeding expositions will meet increased support. 
Thursday, the great day of the fair during fair week, is always 
an official and public holiday. It is a wonderful scene to ob- 
serve the thousands of vehicles of all descriptions, from the 
elegant barouche, with its splendid team of thoroughbreds and 
liveried coachman, to the huckster's cart, drawn by one phren- 
sied animal, and driven by a human being equally phrensied, 
all rushing to the fair. 

High and low life come close together on that day. The 
teacher and taught meet in the common school, the stroke of 
the engine, the whirling of wheels, the rushing of water, the: 
clicking of machinery, the cries of young children, the sea- 


lion's bark, and the surging of an omni}3resent crowd, make a 
picture once seen never to be forgotten. 

Life, here and there, and everywhere, 

The foolish, and the wise, 
A. feast prepared that each may share, 

And all bear off the prize. 

The collection of wild animals at the Fair Grounds is not 
only choice but extensive. There are several pairs of magnifi- 
cent lions, splendid specimens of Bengal tigers, leopards, 
panthers, hyenas, black and grizzly bears. In a huge cistern, 
built expressly for their use, sea-lions from California disport 
themselves, and send their wild, melancholy bark forth into 
the air. The collection of monkeys, baboons and apes is very 
large and varied, offering a continuous fund of frolic and 
quaint humor to the large and amused crowd. Among birds 
there are eagles, black, gray and bald-headed ; African con- 
dors, cockatoos, macaws, and other beautiful tropical birds. 
Foxes, wolves, wildcats, ostriches, kangaroos, and a large 
number of small rare animals. 

The arrano-ement of the l)uildino's for the comfort of the 
animals, as well as for convenient observation of their habits, 
is all that could be desired. Additions are being constantly 
made as fast as accommodations can be provided. Before long 
the zoological collection at the Fair Grounds will no doubt be 
one of the largfest and finest in the world. 


There are three principal theatres in St. Louis : The Olym- 
pic, De Bar's, and the Theatre Comique. 


Situated on the southwest corner of Fifth and Walnut streets, 
is under the management of Charles A. Spaulding, who has 
been its proprietor and principal business manager for many 
years. This place of amusement stands among the foremost 
theatres of the West for the excellence of its stock company 
as well as for the opportunities it has given the public of seeing 
our great star performers. There has never been any stint in 
placing the standard dramas on its boards ; correct costumes, 
fine and appropriate scenery, and all the usual paraphernalia, 
have never been found wanting. Forrest and Davenport, 
Miss Neilson, Booth and Barrett, Barry Sullivan, Florence, 
Barney Williams, Sothern, have all in turn delighted the public 
under its roof. The building is well-lighted and comfortably 
seated ; just the size for witnessing high-class comedy and 
tragedy. Its seating capacity is about twelve hundred. 

It is to Mr. Spaulding' s careful management and superin- 
tendence the public are indebted for the constant good order 
maintained at the Olympic. 

Mr. Pat Short, the Treasurer of the Olympic, has been 
identified with this theatre the past nine years. He has been 
of great service to the managers, while the public have always 
found him obliging and ready to do the best possible for those 
who patronize the house ; much of the success of the estab- 
lishment arises from the integrity and efiiciency shown in his 
long business connection with the theatre. 

Thomas C. Noxon, the Scenic Artist, has made himself 
an enviable reputation by his masterpieces in scenic decorations ; 



he has always been a painstaking artist, trne to nature under 
gaslight, and many of his pictures are valuable works of art. 
In spectacular plays Mr. Noxon is especially fine, and many a 
piece owes its reputation in St. Louis more to his brush than 
it does to its literary excellence. 

Mr. Noxon's daughter, Miss Libbie Noxon, is the juvenile 
character actress connected with the Olympic ; she gives promise 
of a bright and successful career. 

Charlie Creighton, for thirteen years, has been the efficient 
and polite door-keeper of the Olympic, and has performed his 
duties so well as to receive the most flattering indorsement of 
the patrons who throng the theatre on Charley's benefit nights. 


When the late Ben De Bar, several years since, assumed 
the management of the Opera House which now bears his 
name, he had to create a public sentiment in its favor, and to 
accomplish success by sheer force of good management and 
genius. St. Louis knows how admirably he has succeeded, so 
that at present it stands as not only the largest, but one of the 
handsomest theatres in the countr^^ 

Ben De Bar himself was a success, and no theatrical enter- 
prise could well fail where his genius made itself felt or known. 

The building will seat two thousand people ; the stage is 
very large and deep, so that any grand spectacle can be appro- 
priately produced. Its acoustic properties are the best of any 
building in the city, and is preferable to any other for operas 
on its ample boards. Among those who have lent of their 
immortal genius to De Bar's may be mentioned the great 
Salvini, without exception the greatest actor of any age or 
country in his peculiar roles. 

Edwin Booth has won his latest and most perfect triumphs 
in this theatre. Charlotte Cushman here gave her undying 
pictures of Elizabeth, Catherine and Meg INIerrilles. Mary 
Anderson at De Bar's caught the mantle which had just fallen 
from the shoulders of the dying artist. While De Bar himself, 
as Falstaft', Avore grandly the plume of championship with 
Hackett, his onlv rival. 


The stock company at the theatre has always been an 
excellent one, and the plays produced have equaled in artistic 
arrangement any theatre on the continent. 

Mr. John W. Norton, since the decease of De Bar, has 
become the sole lessee, and under his management the theatre 
has maintained its high character. Mr. Norton for a long time 
previously having occupied the position of stage manager, is 
thoroughly acquainted with all the possibilities of the house. 
The scenic artist is Mr. John Watson, a gentleman known to 
every one by the beauty of his paintings and the marvelous 
effects of his spectacular scenes. 

The Treasurer, ^Max H. Fischer, is a business man of 
ability, and fills his position to the satisfaction of the public 
and with honor to himself. Mr. W. J. Slocum is the able 
door-keeper ; the press and public are too well acquainted with 
him and his services to need praise from us. Mr. J. C. Brown 
the second door-keeper is also a valuable and faithful official. 

The Olympic and De Bar's are fitted with convenient fire- 
escapes, so that in an alarm of fire the buildings could be 
emptied in three minutes ; fortunately, their good management 
hitherto have rendered them unnecessary. 


On Pine Street, and formerly under De Bar's management, is 
now conducted by Mr. W. C. Mitchell, who endeavors to bring 
out the best of that class of artists known as variety performers. 
The song-and-dance men, clog dancers, trapeze performers, 
ballets, and character singers find on the boards of the Comique 
very great patronage and success. The building is large and 
roomy, and was at one time the leading place of amusement 
in the city 


On jNIorgan Street, recently opened, is devoted principally to 

On this stage romance and sentiment find full expression, 
and Indian hunters, wild beast heroes, and wonderful boys, do 
their daring deeds, eliciting the applause of hundreds of 
young people who nightly throng its galleries. 


Many individual and collective efforts have been made to 
elevate the art of music in St. Louis. All have failed, inas- 
much as the object sought or the mark aimed at was never 
reached, not even approximately, although the Avrecks of each 
enterprise have left here and there a solitary survivor, a con- 
scientious devotee. A few such are yet strusfirlinfr after the 
unattainable — trying to introduce true music to the people, 
and to instruct the people to like only the best music, that of 
the deepest and most lasting sentiment and expression. The 
Siingerfest was the only great festival. Good music was then 
purely produced by a full orchestra and chorus, and by emi- 
nent soloists ; but it was listened to rather sensually, and we 
may say, fashionably, instead of aesthetically or understand- 
ingly. Its efiects were only felt among the Germans. Such 
a festival annually could not fail in time to produce the very 
best results, and would be a permanent school for artists and 

The Philharmonic Society, from 1862 to 1870, did good 
work under the direction of Sobolewski, the eccentric but able 
director, and also under Egmont Froelich it flourished well. 
It seemed to die, however, a natural death for want of means. 
Although our music-loving citizens enjoyed the orchestra of 
that time, now, since we have heard Theodore Thomas' band, 
we could not tolerate the old Philharmonic flddle-scrapmgs, 
flute-tootings and horn blowings. At the rehearsals of the 
Philharmonic, the instrumental members were prompt because 
they were paid. With a few exceptions, the vocalists never 
attended with the regularity or practiced with the earnestness 
and enthusiasm necessary for the fine rendition of the best 
compositions. All wanted to shine at the concert, but all 
avoided the drudgery of the rehearsal, consequently there 



were maii}^ failures, many very tedious and dry concerts. 
However, this society accomplished a great deal for music in 
St. Louis, introducing, although imperfectly, many works 
new to us. 

The Haydn Orchestra, composed of professionals, with a 
few amateurs, flourished a few seasons. It gave amusement 
more than instruction to amateurs and their friends. They 
performed many works meritoriously, but failed finally for 
want of a competent director and funds. The many sanger- 
bunds and German vcreins, such as the Arion and Orpheus, 
have existed for years and have stated rehearsals and concerts. 
They generally perform good music in a heavy manner, which 
is peculiar to most German singers. 

Theatrical orchestras, from a critical stand-point, have al- 
wavs been, and are now, abominal)le. Rarely can one hear a 
good piece well played. The main reasons for this are, the 
niggardly expenditure by the theatre proprietors and the care- 
lessness of directors, who are .competent to do better, even 
with the contemptible band of six, eight or ten men. 

Innumerable amateur concerts on the " I tickle you and 
you tickle me " plan are given every season, and some of the 
performers do not seem to know we live in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and that we have heard Lind and Sontag, Albani, Nils- 
son, and " the noble army of singers," and that we have in 
musical libraries all the works of the great masters. Why do 
they give us the same round of solos, duets and choruses? 
Can not they give us something new? 

Many soirees and receptions have been given to advertise 
pupils or to flatter teachers, but without elFect in the right 
direction. Church choirs in many instances have been verj^ 
poor, and are not now in a good condition, owing almost en- 
tirely to the inability or indisposition of churches to pay for 
good music. It must be conceded that within thirty years the 
musical taste and knowledge of St. Louis has somewhat im- 
proved. The obstacles which exist, and have always existed, 
preventmg our reaching a high musical standard, are two : 
the love of money in nuisical practitioners and patrons, and 
jealousy. Honest emulation is healthy, but musicians' jeal- 
ousy is often a gangrenous ulcer of disastrous character. It 


is this which has broken up the choirs, has disbanded the 
musical clubs and societies. Each and every nieml)er seems 
too greedy of praise, of prominence, of encores, and bouquets. 
Little or no thought of the correct interpretation or under- 
standing of the music is entertained, the ruling idea seeming 
to be personal vanity. Alas ! this state of things is encour- 
aged and kept alive by the audiences formed of the little rings 
and cliques of whic>h each singer is the center. 

The St. Louis Musical Art Association was orsranized in 
February, 1870, w^ith thirty members, of which almost every 
one was a teacher of music. There were besides a few enthu- 
siastic amateurs and music lovers. To the credit of the latter, 
be it said, they were honest and earnest members ; but the 
professional members, all wanted to be presidents and directors. 

The preliminary meetings were well attended. When the 
constitution was adopted and signed, a few dropped out ; and 
when the officers were elected, the whole thing almost ex- 
ploded. About twenty presidents and secretaries, etc., left 
the society. 

It dragged along until June, 1870, when a little energy 
was infused into it by the talk of a Beethoven centennial cele- 
bration. Sobolewski, an honorary member, consented to 
direct a grand Beethoven concert, but jealousy broke this up ; 
each one desired the first place. 

The programmes of two concerts were made, the musicians 
engaged, hall hired, tickets sold, expenses paid and profits 
divided — all upon paper ; and so it yet remains, all ready for 
the use of musicians in 1900. 

Another cause of the present condition of music here is the 
lack of a first-class music house. We have had many, but not 
one conducted on a broad guage and a liberal plan. 

Twenty years ago, five musicians, all members of thea- 
tre orchestras, met weekly for their own amusement. They 
played the best chamber music of Spohr, Beethoven, Haydn, 
and Mozart. Their audience was seldom more than one, 
and that one remembers to this day the rare occasions. The 
instruments were all string — three violins, one viola and one 

Several clubs of five or six members, for the purpose of 


practicing chamber music, have been formed ; but one now 
exists. These have nearly always been very select in their 
membership, their selections and their audiences. In these 
small companies the " sacred fire " has been kept burning, 
but the light is too small and too much hidden to do great 

Amons: the old music teachers we may name Bode, Fuchs, 
Walther, Robyn Brothers, Neunstiel and Ileuzel. Those 
prominent at present are Bowman, Gilsinn, E. & C. Froelich, 
North, Mrs. Brainerd, Malmene, Waldauer, etc. Prof. E. M. 
Bowman, organist at the Second Presbyterian Church, stands 
high among old lovers of good music in the West, and to him 
very largely is owing the marked improvement in choir music 
in St. Louis of late years. The others named also contribute 
much to elevate and purify the public taste. Quite an impulse 
has been given to organ playing, by the tine performances of 
Prof. Creswold ; and our young organists are no longer satis- 
fied with such performances as we have had in the past, but are 
striving to teach a higher standard and greater degree of ex- 
cellence. In a similar artistic manner performers on other 
instruments, and with the voice, could, by their examples, 
stimulate and instruct us. 

There are many good pianists, violinists, and performers 
on other instruments, but scarcely one conscientious artist, 
not one enthusiastic devotee. There are those who aspire to 
be such, but fail, owing to lack of time, of early and thorough 
musical instruction, and to the want of technical skill, (^tech- 
nique) and theoretical knowledge. 

The Oratario and amateur operatic societies have rendered 
barely passable some excellent music. As usual, indiscrimi- 
nate praise, petty factions and envy disrupted them. The 
Amphions, a glee club of society young men, flourished for a 
few years. It has gradually grown weaker in numbers and 
execution. They lacked very much in musical cohesive force. 
The Orpheus, male quartette, sang at the old Philharmonic 
concerts, and later rendered some good pieces quite smoothly 
and creditably. Their field was too small to wield much 

By far the best thing musicallv that St. Louis has ever 


enjoyed, or, we should sa^-, had opportunity to enjoy, was 
Habehnann's German Opera Troupe. At the Apollo Theater, 
for two years or more, this troupe produced a variety of operas 
greater than that furnished by all the troupes that ever visited 
St. Louis. We doul)t if in any oit}" in this country so many 
of the best works Avere given. Beethoven's Fidelio, Mozart's 
Don Giovanni, Magic Flute and Figaro, Auber's Fra Diavolo 
and Masaniello, Weber's Freischlitz, Rossini's Barbier, 
Gounod's Faust, Wagner's Tannhiiuser, Nicholais' Merry 
Wives of Windsor, Offenbach's Opera Bouffe, besides many 
selections from the German comic opera, the French sensa- 
tional, and the Italian sentimental schools. Over forty differ- 
ent works were presented, and many were repeated six times 
or more. The orchestra was never good ; the individual mem- 
bers never felt the esprit du corps necessary to a correct and 
artistic performance. We think their minds were in a contin- 
ual conflict between art and nature. But in spite of all this 
the music was a treat and a rare one to hear. Poor Schram, 
an able, nervous, fierj^ conductor, wore out his life trying to 
direct the Apollo orchestra. Schuler took it easy, and Ernesti- 
noff labored hard. • Santa merely wriggled his little baton, 
and the men played without looking at him, save once when 
he sat down on his fiddle. 

These tri-weekly entertainments were patronized grudgingly 
by the Germans, liberally by the Jews, and hardly at all by 
the Americans. A little circle of music lovers, who knew of 
the treat awaiting them in the small theatre attached to the 
Apollo beer-garden, visited there often. But it Avas not in the 
way of fashion ; it was not pretentiously heralded, pomj^ously 
and falsely described ; the seats were not held at three dollars 
and four dollars So, as it was not the fashionable thing to 
go there, Americans Avithheld their support, but threw away 
their dollars freely to every traveling cheat or musical mounte- 

Yes, the German Opera failed. What a pity ! Our citi- 
zens know not what they missed, except the fcAV who Avent 
there nightl}^ There has never been such a Faust here as 
Habelmann, and no Mephistopheles like Fraunosch, with the 
exception of Hermann. What a rollicking madcap Mrs. Schuler 


(Yaeger) was in opera boufte ! What a surprise to sec her 
excellent performance of the serious part of Fidelio, although 
laboring under physical disabilities ! Was there ever a more 
comical fellow than Hubsch? La Fontaine and wife, D'Zuiba, 
Mrs. Schram, Miss Roemer, Madame Litchman and Carl 
Bernard, they all did their parts with a will and atrue concep- 
tion of their work. Occasional mishaps did not mar the en- 
joyment. The opera was not always a new one, but was 
always decent, orderly and critical. 

So much for the past and present condition of musical art 
in St. Louis. We have endeavored to portray faithfully its 
past history, and while sharply criticizing much that is bad, 
imperfect, and unworthy of admiration, we feel desirous of 
seeing our city become what its size and importance ought to 
give it : the great center for all that is grand and nbble in the 

The press has done much to bring artists and music of 
all grades into notice, and undoubtedly has in some manner 
aided in the general development of music, with other things ; 
but it could do much more. It is such a power that it canto- 
day reform the world, by creating social, political, financial, 
and religious revolutions. What, then, could it not do with 
the arts? 


Art in St. Louis may be said to be in a flourishing condi- 
tion — inasmuch as the enthusiasm manifested by those inter- 
ested in it is very great — and yet backward in comparison 
with her sister cities in the East. Judging from her popuhx- 
tion and wealth, St. Louis ought to be able to boast of more 
art treasures than she has, and could certainly afford to 
extend a greater patronage to the fostering of art in our midst. 
But when we analyze her people, the cause is apparent. Here 
is a mixed population, mostly foreign-born — many of a low 
grade socially, having little or no knowledge of art, and very 
little taste in that direction. But people need to be educated 
to an appreciation of art ; and as time advances we hope for 
much improvement. We have been so intent on money- 
makino; that aesthetic culture has been sacrificed to that end. 

If the wealthy men of St. Louis will only follow the 
example of such in our Eastern cities, and in Europe, we 
believe it will not be long before the mass of the people will 
take a decided interest in all that appertains to art and the 
cultivation of the beautiful. Li Paris, where the Louvre is 
open to the public, on Sunday it is crowded with working 

Judging from present indications, we shall see marked 
improvement in art here within the next few years. Persons 
outside of art circles little know what strenuous elTorts are 
being made to place St. Louis on an equal footing with other 
cities. There are gentlemen here who are entering into the 
movement with an energy and perseverance, which, if helped 
by the wealthy portion of our citizens, can not fail to bring 
about the desired result. There is no reason why this city 

5 165] 


should not be a great art center as well as a great commercial 
metropolis ; and at present there is really more culture here in 
that direction than is generally imagined. Not a few of our 
citizens have some line private collections ; ' and the following 
brief sketches of art education at Washington University, the 
St. Louis Sketch Club, School of Art and Design, etc., with 
notices of some of the most prominent artists, will give a 
general idea of the present condition of art in this city. 


We can not give the space to the department of art at the 
University that it really deserves. Its system is second to 
none in this country, and is modeled after the various schools 
of art and design and industrial schools of Great Britain and 
France. It is in the hands of thoroughly competent masters, 
who have given those schools careful personal examination, 
and who have had experience on both sides of the Atlantic. 

For the past four years this department has been under 
the direct management of Prof. C. H. Ives, and his indefati- 
gable energy, together with the material services rendered by 
his assistants, have raised the school to a degree of proficiency 
never before experienced. Prof. Ives has twice visited Europe, 
and intends going again, especially to study the workings of 
similar institutions there. 

The pupils receive a course of instruction that will fit them 
either to follow art as a profession, or an accomplishment — 
as designers, architects, teachers, etc. Pupils may take any 
section of the course, either drawing, modeling, ornamenting, 
painting, designing, or wood engraving. 

Attention is particularly given to the early training of 
pupils. They are well grounded in elementary work before 
being allowed to proceed with the higher branches. In this 
respect the discipline is most thorough. Throughout the 
pupils receive systematic instruction in a knowledge of the 
principles and practice of art and design. 

Ladies have special class-rooms set apart for them, and 
enjoy the same advantasres as other students. 


"Wood carving has been lately introduced under the super- 
vision of Miss Calista Halsey, who has done so much in this 
department for the School of Design. 

Connected with the art department is a night class for 
those who are unable to attend during the day. The instruc- 
tion is given gratuitously, and it has been well attended, the 
average number of pupils being sixty. 

Another worthy feature well calculated to arouse an inter- 
est in art is. the "Art Lecture Course," given before the 
evening* class, the audience varying from one to four hundred. 


Among the latest additions to the artistic circles, and one 
which has long been wanting, is the " St. Louis Sketch Club " 
— Mr. J. M. Tracy, President. It is composed of the promi- 
nent artists and amateurs of the city, and has already acquired 
a well-merited local notoriety. It is formed for the purpose 
of encouraging originality, and to give scope to the creative 
faculties ; also to promote sociability and the interchange of 
ideas among members of the profession. 

The club holds its regular meetings the tirst and second 
Wednesdays in every month. Each member in turn announces 
a subject to be illustrated, and entertains the club. The 
sketches, which form a very interesting collection, then be- 
come the property of the host. 

As originality is the foundation-stone of its existence, 
plagiarizing is not permissible ; any member guilty of such a 
misdemeanor is expelled ; consequently, when the sketches are 
presented, each member furnishes his or her conception of 
what best illustrates the subject. 

In order to become a member of the club, it is necessary 
to produce an original sketch, either in oil, water color, india 
ink, pencil, crayon, charcoal, pen and ink, or clay, representing 
the subject chosen by the club, and should the effort be ap- 
proved by the directors, the applicant is enrolled as a member. 
The sketches can generally be found on exhibition the day after 
the regular meeting, at Hardino^'s Gallerv on Olive Street. 



The St. Louis School of Art and Design is another evidence 
of the Q-rowth of assthetic culture in St. Louis. 

This sciiool is located in the granite building at the corner 
of JFourth and Market streets. It was incorporated in 1877, 
and owes its success to the indefatigable efforts of a prominent 
St. Louis lady — Mrs. John B. Henderson. It may be said to 
be purely a woman's institution, and was organized to encour- 
age the application of art to industry. It is modeled some- 
what after the celebrated South Kensington School of Art and 
Design, in England, which has done so much for the industrial 
arts of that country. Here pupils are taught to draw from 
the antique, the English school of water-color drawing, 
painting in oil, wood carving, porcelain painting, modeling, 
and decorative needlework. 

At a late exhibition given by this school in the early part 
of June of this year, the display was exceedingly tine. The 
most prominent feature wais the exhibit of wood-carving. We 
noticed in this department a wine cupboard, and also two 
cabinets — one by Mrs. Henderson, and the other by Mrs. 
Blaisdell, that merited quite a favorable criticism from con- 
noisseurs in this line. Certainly this department reflects con- 
siderable credit both on the pupils and teacher. The workman- 
ship has been spoken of in the East in very flattering terms ; 
and we would advise St. Louisans, and those in the neighbor- 
hood, when they wish to adorn their drawing-rooms or parlors 
with something original and unique in the way of a cabinet,, 
bracket, cupboard, etc., to call at the School of Design. 


To the lately organized "Academy of Fine Arts" St. Louis 
must look as the only institution in the city capable of success- 
fully advancing her art interests. What the Chamber of Com- 
merce has done for her industrial enterprise, the "Academy 
of Fine Arts" proposes to do for us in all that appertains to 
art. Such an institution has been needed in St. Louis for 


years, and now that we are in a fair way to have one estab- 
lished on a firm and solid basis, we may expect that art hero 
will shortly receive an impetus it never before experienced. 

The prominent business men and artists findino- somethin*^ 
was necessary to stimulate art among the masses, resolved to 
organize the "St. Louis Academy of Fine Arts." They arc 
determined St. Louis shall no longer occupy the backward po- 
sition she has done heretofore, but shall make a shovvin"" for 
herself that will redound to her credit and honor as one of the 
great art cities of the world. 

It is unnecessary to draw attention to what similar institu- 
tions have done for the cities of the Old World. The cultiva- 
tion of the beautiful, and the development of a3sthetic culture, 
is a necessity in every community. The "St. Louis Academy 
of Fine Arts" will endeavor to promote our welfare to that 
«nd. An article in their constitution, which fully expresses its 
aims, reads as follows : "The object of this Association shall 
be the advancement of art, in all its departments ; and the 
promotion of aesthetic culture, by social intercourse, instruc- 
tion in art, public receptions and exhibitions of works of art." 
Give them the means and we shall soon be "breathing an at- 
mosphere of art." 

The gentlemen who have charge of this noble work pro- 
pose to erect a suitable academy building, containing galleries 
for public exhibitions, class-rooms for instructional work, and 
the proper equipments for the same ; also, to establish a per- 
manent art gallery, and an annual exhibition. 

Over forty members have already become life members, 
and it is desired to increase the life membership to two hun- 
dred. All who are lovers of art, and wish to promote so laud- 
able an enterprise as this, should interest themselves directly 
in the work. It will certainly, in the end, be one of the finest 
institutions of which our city can boast. 


Among the early settlers of this country were the ancestors 
of the subject of our sketch, who, in 1624, came over from 
England, settling in Massachusetts. Alban Jasper Conant was 


born in 1821, at Chelsea, Orange County, Vermont. His 
early life was spent in working on a farm with his father, who 
was by trade a house and sign painter. Having a great de- 
sire for knowledge, he embraced every opportunity for study, 
and last became convinced that he was not in his proper sphere 
of action. At eighteen he entered Randolph Academy. While 
there he wrote considerable for the country newspapers, and 
by the numerous sketches he made, and portraits of friends 
which he painted, first revealed the great talent he possessed. 
Being tilled with the true artistic spirit, the love of the beauti- 
ful, and that appreciation of nature which an artist only can 
fully realize, it was a great trial for him to be forced to forego 
his art studies for Avant of means. He devoted himself to 
teachins: music to ffain the needed funds. Though he knew 
but little of artists, and the world of art in which they lived, 
yet he felt that to be his true vocation, and firmly resolved to 
pursue it. 

He went to New York City in 1 844 ; there he studied dili- 
gently and received much encouragement from friends, among 
them Henry Inman. After twelve 3'ears of work in that and 
other cities of New York, he came to St. Louis, where he has 
done all in his power to create the desire for artistic culture 
among the people, and interested himself in all plans for art 

, In conjunction with other artists he established the "West- 
ern Academy of Art" here in 1860, but, like many similar in- 
stitutions, it sufiered death during the war, and many of its 
treasures were lost. 

Mr. Conant A^ery soon established his reputation in St. 
Louis as a portrait painter, having no superior in the city, and 
many of our prominent citizens have sat for him ; among them 
may be mentioned J. J. Roe, Henry and Edgar Ames, Von 
Phul, and Wm. M. McPherson. 

During the Avar Mr. Conant was in the East, and there 
painted the portrait of the Hon. Edward Bates, who, at that 
time, was Attorney-General. He also painted Edwin M. 
Stanton and Jas. B. Eads, while his celebrated bust portrait of 
Lincoln won for him fresh laurels. 

Since the war he has resided in St. Louis, Avhere he occupies 


a high position in art society. Mr. Conaut lectures on mat- 
ters pertaining to art before colleges, seminaries, etc. He 
is much interested in scientific subjects, and has made a study 
of the prehistoric people of this country, with what success 
the great number of relics contained in his studio will testify, 
and especially the chapters on archieology he has recently 
contributed to the new " Commonwealth of Missouri." A 
recent paper on the subject read before the St. Louis Academy 
of Science, has attracted the attention of foreign societies and 
has been translated into the German, French, and Danish lan- 

St. Louis may well feel proud of an artist of Mr. Conant's 
ability, standing as he does at the top of his profession here, 
and in his particular line having but few rivals, even in America. 


Mr. Eichbaum is an artist of no ordinary ability. He came 
here from Pittsburgh in 1859, and has been an untirino- work- 
man in his line ever since. His characteristic modesty and 
unassuming style has been grouped with a conscientious and 
zealous devotion to his work. Gradually he has worked his 
way into a large place among the lovers of art. His studio is 
room No. 45, Insurance Exchange, corner of Olive and Fifth 

His specialty is portrait painting, and has at times pro- 
duced some (/enre pictures indicating current events of the day. 

A recent portrait of Miss Josie McKellops, painted ni the 
character of Lady Gay Spanker, has been on exhibition and 
has gained the warmest approbation from those who have seen 
it. His "Defeated Candidate" was his first happy hit outside 
of the line of ordinary portrait painting. It w^as sent to the 
National Academy of Design in New York and there sold for 
a handsome figure. It received a most flattering notice in the 
Art Journal as a piece of undoubted merit. The subject was 
so unique and so true to political life that it was universally 
admired by those Avho saw it. 

Recent portraits of Hon. John B. Henderson and Prof. 


Reilly have received special attention ; and three portraits of 
Jos. Garneau's children have done much to bring him into 
public notice as an artist whose talent is worthy of favorable 
recoirnition. He is a member of the various art societies of 
the city, and is about to devote some months abroad among 
the galleries of the Old World, 


Mr. Meeker, in 1845, began' in New York City, drawing 
from casts, in order to gain a scholarship in the Academy 
of Design. The drawings were accepted, and that winter 
found him hard at work in the antique class. At that time, 
the Nestor of American landscape painters, A. B. Durand, 
was President of the Academy. It was from studying his 
works that he formed his style, and he has seldom departed 
from those sober, quiet eifects, which arc so gratifying to the 
educated eye. He also turned his attention to portrait paint- 
ing, and spent much time in the studio of the great artist 
Elliot, gaining much valuable information from him. 

In 1859 he started on a tour through a dozen large cities, 
to find a better field for art. On arriving at St. Louis, he 
resolved to set up his easel, finding Wimar, Noble, Boyle, 
Cogswell, De Franca and Conant all at work, and seemingly 
prosperous. Mr. Meeker met with considerable encourage- 
ment until the war broke out, when all professions, especially 
that of the artist, being at a low ebb, he ])ecame a paymaster 
in the United States navy, which position he retained for 
four years. It was during this time that he had opportunities 
for making those sketches of the Southern swamp scenery 
that have made his name so well known. 

Since the close of the war, Mr. Meeker has steadily worked 
at his profession, only leaving the city occasionally during the 
summer months to get material for new pictures. His Avorks 
illustrating Southern scenery first brought him into prominence 
in St. Louis. The taste for art had not been cultivated to any 
considerable extent here ; but there were a few who were will- 
ing to give remunerative prices for such pictures. He did not 


confine himself to swamp scenes, but took subjects nearer 
home, illustrating the scenery of Southeastern Missouri, the 
fine, bluff banks of the Osage and Gasconade rivers, and the 
great lead regions of the Southwest. 

Mr. jNlceker's pictures have formed a conspicuous feature 
in every art exhibition which has taken place in St. Louis 
during the seventeen years he has resided here. Each succes- 
sive year has shown marked improvement in his execution and 
coloring, and each year has brought him new friends and ad- 
mirers. As the years went on, he chose a wider range of 
subjects, taking in the Upper as well as the Lower Mississippi, 
the mountains of New England and the coast of Maine, with 
the lakes of Wisconsin and Minnesota. His landscapes have 
gone one by one into private houses both East and West, and 
contribute their share towards educating and refining the tastes 
of old and young. 


One of the latest acquisitions to the profession in St. Louis 
is Mr. J. M. Tracy, an American artist of the modern French 
school. He has been painting for the past ten years in 
Europe, but has concluded to make St. Louis his home. He 
is a member of the St. Louis Academy of Fine Arts, Sketch 
Club, Art Society, etc. 

After the close of the war he sailed for Europe, and deter- 
mined to adopt the school to which he now belongs. He was 
received as a pupil of Adolphe Yoon, the great painter of bat- 
tles, and by his advice entered the Ecole des Beaux Arts, and 
remained under the tuition of M. Pils, the historical painter, 
until the death of that artist. He then entered the studio of 
Carolus Duran, the greatest of modern portrait painters, where 
he remained until 1877. During the Franco-Prussian war 
Mr. Tracy went to California and made many studies of the 
wonderful scenery of that country. He returned to Paris, and 
his works were well received at the Salon, and also at the 
various provincial exhibitions. Of those in America, two of 
the best are in California. One, the "Battle of Murfrees- 
boro ;" the other, a " Hunt in the Forest of Fontaineblcau ;" 


both have been greatly admired. In St. Louis there are two 
hirge landscapes : " Mt. Diable, Cal.," owned by J. P. Colby, 
and the " Yosemito Valley," belonging to Hudson E. Bridge. 
His special forte, however, seems to be in historical and 
landscape painting. His studio, which is always open to 
visitors, is at 1102 Olive Street, and its walls are covered with 
sketches made in this country and in Europe. 


This gentleman is best known hci'c by the following works : 
The picture of Howard S. Kretschmar, the sculptor, painted 
entirely in the feeling of the Munich school, and exhibited at 
the late Loan Exhibition, where it received many well-merited 
criticisms. Another, "A Fat Friar Returning from a Begging 
Expedition," the property of Hon. J. H. Terry, shows the 
power of this artist in handling subjects of this class. 

Mr. J. K. Cummings, of the St. Louis Glass Works,, has 
two or three from Mr. Harney's studio. On exhibition in 
Harding's gallery is another picture, a very fine piece of work, 
called "A Nun at her Devotions." At the time of writing he 
has on his easel "Two Children in a Street in Rome," a very 
neat Italian study, full of feeling, which, when finished, will 
command attention. Another work we can not pass over is a 
"Street Scene in Cairo," the propert}' of Prof. Ives, of Wash- 
ington University. 

Mr. Harney has spent several years of study in Europe, 
especially in Munich. He is a member of the St. Louis 
Academy of Fine Arts, has charge of a department at the 
School of Design, and has interested himself largely in art 
matters in the city. 

Mr. Paul E. Harney, Avell known in art circles, has charge of 
a class studying from the antique, and judging from the col- 
lection of drawings exhibited by the pupils, they show the 
careful training thev have undergone throuo-h his o:uidance. 

The department of oil painting is entrusted to Mr. Roy 
Robertson, who also instructs a class in the fundamental and 
more advanced stages of design as applied to carving and 


decoration . Porcelain painting is quite a favorite study with the 
ladies, and their ijroductions have been much admired. There 
are some really very fine specimens of work in this depart- 
ment that will bear close examination, and others again below 
the average. 

We noticed at their late exhibit that the works of Mrs. 
Henderson, Miss Mofiit, and several others, could only have 
been produced by careful study and perseverance, in addition 
to a natural talent in this direction. 


His studio is in Washington University, where he has 
charge of the department devoted to painting ; he particu- 
larly excels in ideal subjects. The full length portrait of 
Miss Nellie Hazeltine, by this artist, firmly established his 
reputation in St. Louis. This picture, when on exhibition 
at Pettes &, Leathe's, was viewed by thousands, receiving 
at the time most flattering criticisms from the press. It con- 
vinced St. Louisans that they had an artist in their midst 
of no mean capabilities, whose work was full of promise, and 
bespoke a well-merited patronage in the future. 


This artist is known for his exquisite cameo cuttings. 
Mr. Frank Winchester, is one of three who stand pre-emi- 
nent in this department of art in the United States. His 
portraits of eminent St. Louisans are marvels of beauty in 
this respect. In 1850 the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia 
voted him a gold medal for his contributions to this branch of 
the fine arts. His works are widely scattered in the hands of 
connoisseurs, and are highly prized. 

Since the perfection of the art of photography the work of 
the artist in cameo portraiture has been greatly advanced, as 
by the aid of the magnifjang glass the most delicate outlines 
are given, so as to produce startling elFects. In this respect 
the work of Mr. Winchester surpasses that of all others. As 


a branch of art of the highest merit it is strange that so little 
is really known of its opportunities in St. Louis. 

Mr. Winchester is so devoted to his work, and withal, so 
retiring and modest, that he takes no pains to bring his works 
before the mass of our cultured citizens, and but for this short 
sketch, few would know that we have in our midst perhaps the 
'srreatcst artist in cameo portraiture on this continent. 

He may be found at Scholten's, No. 920 Olive Street. 


Mr. Marple, lately from California, has already won his 
laurels here, through his display in the late Loan Exhibition 
at the Public School Library. His Californian and tropical 
scenery, and his sunsets, found him many warm admirers. 
Since then he has been very busy executing orders for similar 


There is one St. Louis artist whom we can not pass over — 
Harry Chase. He is now studying in Europe, and as a marine 
painter has as Ijright a future before him as any artist could 
wish. His works have lately been received at the Salon, and 
judging from the number he sends home, he must be both a 
hard and earnest worker — one to whom St. Louis will one daj 
point with pride. 


In the "black and white line," has few rivals. Some of the 
finest charcoal and crayon portraits that have ever been pro- 
duced m this city have come from his studio. This is attested 
by the large share of patronage that has fallen to him, and 
the thorough appreciation his pictures have met with every- 
where. His studio IS at room 53 Insurance Exchange build- 



Among the artists of St. Louis, none rank higher than Mr. 
Kretschmar. He early displayed signs of great a])ility in the 
phistic art, and nearly six years ago, after executing several 
bust portraits, he was induced to repair to Europe to study his 
art in the best schools, and from the most famous models. 
From time to time during his absence news occasionally came 
which showed conclusively that the early promise was fast 
ripening to the fullness of fruition. About a year ago two 
marble busts, one of Henry Shaw and one of Dr. John Delaney, 
were received here and exhibited, both of them receiving the 
highest enconiums. His next work of which we have any 
knowledge was a life-size figure entitled "Painting the Lily," 
the subject being a young girl gracefully poised, with flower 
in one hand and brush in the other, contemplating the result 
of her fanciful laboi-s. This work was put into marble by or- 
der of a wealthy San Francisco banker, who saw the clay model 
in the artist's studio in Rome, and the completed work now 
adorns the fortunate purchaser's gallery at the "Golden Gate." 
A plaster cast of this work is now at Harding's, on Olive 
Street, where also is to be seen "Echo," a delightfully piquant 
composition embodjdng th^ very ideal of feminine archness 
and vivacity. Here, also, is a bust portrait in marble of the 
late Father De Smet, which shows powers of the highest or- 

He first entered the celebrated Royal Art Academy at Mu- 
nich, where his studies were prosecuted with characteristic 
ardor ; thence he repaired to Italy, where at Rome, Florence, 
Venice and MiUm, he drank deep draughts of that inspiration 
which can only be found in that classic land. Thus thoroughly 
saturated with the spirit of the art land, and with a mind 
ripened and hand and eye disciplined by the closest study and 
most strenuous labor, he returned last winter to his native city 
and opened a studio on the southeast corner of Fifth and Olive 
streets. Here, besides some remarkably spirited sketches, ho 
has just completed a bust portrait, heroic size, of the late 
Bishop Marvin, which has met with unqualified admiration. 



This crentlemaii's reputation is national, and in his specialty 
of portrait painting there are few artists, if any, in the United 
States who excel him. Mr. Miles was for many years located 
in New York City, where he met with the greatest success, but 
continued ill health forced him to abandon his natural field, and 
resume his profession in St. Louis. His crayon and water 
color pictures are marvelously true to nature, and have re- 
ceived the highest praise from the connoisseurs of Europe and 
America. Among his recent works, so universally admired, is 
a quarter life-size picture of Booth us lago, and the portraits 
of Geo. R. Taylor, Mr. McGovern, of the Laclede Gas Com- 
pany, and his ideal head of a child. Mr. Miles is in every 
sense one of the distinctively great artists of America, whose 
works have found their way into the finest salons of both 


The Fair Grounds Association have always given great 
encouragement to the display of works of art. It has added 
to its buildings an art gallery, which has become one of the 
chief attractions during; fair week. This effort has done as 
much as anything else to promote taste for art among our 

Last 3^ear's exhibit was the finest collection of paintings 
ever seen in St. Louis. They were brought together at a 
great expense, and consisted of works from some of the most 
celebrated studios of Europe and America, loaned from pri- 
vate collections and art dealers all over the country. The 
display would have done credit to any city. 

The citizens of St. Louis have always exhibited a com- 
mendable zeal in this exhibition, which is given annually. 
The owners of private collections have not been wanting in 
readiness to loan the gems in their possession, and the several 
artists of the city have put forth their best endeavors to make 
the displa}' promotive of art ideas. 



Twenty-three years ago the magniiicent institution known 
as tlie Mercantile Librarj' of St. Louis began its existence on a 
good basis through the important help of Henry D. Bacon, Esq. 

From that period to the i)resent it h;is steadily grown in 
importance and usefulness, until it now plajs an iinportani 
part in the mental development of thousands of our best 
informed citizens . 



In 1855 the Board of Directors took possession of their 
new buiUling, which had been erected at a cost of one hundred 
and forty thousand dollars. At that time John T. Douglas, 
Esq., was President, and the other officers and directors were 
all men of enterprise, ^^ho saw the great usefulness of the 
institution they were building up. There were in 1855 twelve 
thousand volumes on its shelves and nearly one thousand 
registered members, with an annual income of nearly nine 
thousand dolhirs. At the present time there are fifty thousand 
volumes on the library shelves, a membership of nearly five 
thousand, with an average of seven thousiind readers. One 
hundred and forty thousand volumes a year are taken for 
reading purposes or reference ; the expenditures are more than 
forty thousand dollars annually, and the value of the property 
three hundred thousand dollars. 

In tlie management of the library the managers have 
alwavs kept in view the collection of works of the highest 
merit, among which may be mentioned rare and valuable Avorks 
on American history; works on the aboriginal inhabitants, in- 
cluding those of Squier, Catlin, Las Casas, Priest, Duponceau, 
and others ; works on medical science, both rare and im- 
portant ; Shakesperian critiques and commentators ; patent 
report of Great Britain; works by Napoleon, Humboldt; 
and a very large collection of illustrated works. The rapid 
increase of volumes in the library has outstripped the shelf 
accommodation, every inch of available space being occupied 
at present and thousands of books not duly placed. 

In the reading-rooms may be found not only all the prin- 
cipal magazines and newspapers of the United States, but also 
those of England, France, Germany, and Belgium. Scientific 
journals and reviews from all important centers are always to 
be found at the reading tables. 

Above the library is the magnificent hall and organ, used for 
lectures, concerts, etc., and seating two thousand persons. 
This room is finely lighted and ventilated, and in it are 
annually given courses of the best lectures and musical enter- 
tainments by the most talented and distinguished orators and 
musicians in the world. 

Edwin Harrison, Esq., is the President, and John N. Dyer, 



Esq., the Librarian ; both of these gentlemen are untiring in 
their efforts to keep up the institution to its high standard. 
The Directors represent not only the substantial wealth of 
the city, but also its enterprise and brains, and to each and all 
of them the city of St. Louis owes much for keeping up an 
institution that enlio-htens and strensfthens the brains of both 
young and old among her five hundred thousand souls strug- 
irliuor for " more light.'" 


In the year 1865 the Public School Library, located at 
the Polytechnic Building, Seventh and Chestnut streets, was 
first commenced. From small beginnings it has rapidly 

assumed immense proportions, until at the present moment it 
contains over forty thousand volumes. 

The reading-room, which is comfortably arranged, is open 
from 10 A. M. to 10 p. m. From the moment of opening until 
closing, great numbers of young and old avail themselves of 


the advantcages it offers for study and reference. The readhig- 
room is free to all visitors, and all the best and most popular 
magazines, reviews, and journals of the day may be found on 
its desks. All the leading newspapers are on tile, both 
European and American. Citizens and strangers are freely 
accorded all the advantages of the liln-ary while in the reading- 
room, but the privilege of taking away volumes is given to 
members only, who pay three dollars per annum. As a part 
of the educational institutions of St. Louis, the Public School 
Library plays an important work. Scholars and graduates of 
the High School, who devote their lives to special studies, here 
find advantages which private libiiries do not offer ; Avhile to 
those who require reading matter of a lighter kind the library 
offers an unlimited amount of the best literature, giving food 
to the imagination and occupation of a healthy kind to brains 
that would otherwise be demoralized by the numberless 
temptations of a great city. 

.The officers of the Public School Library are: Louis F. 
Soldan, President; Fred. M. Crunden, Librarian; F. J. Sol- 
dan, Actuary ; R. Spainer, First Assistant ; F, E. Roesler, 
Second Assistant; Miss Gussie Campbell, Third Assistant; 
together with four assistants. 

The reading-room is largely patronized, especialh* by those 
who have passed through the schools, evincing the fact that 
the work of education has been well begun. The Librarian 
and his Assistants are always courteous and obliging to visitors 
and strangers, and the reading-room is at all times occupied 
by numbers who seem to be impressed with the importance of 
increasins; their stock of knowledge. 

It is to be hoped the time is not far distant when a library 
and reading-room will be connected with every school in the 
city, and placed on the ground-floor of an unpretentious 
building, so that the plain, every-day mechanic may find a wel- 
come spot for instruction without being overawed by the 
grandeur of the place, or restrained from that natural freedom 
of manner which unlettered natures require. If we would 
educate the people we must go dovn to them. The Public 
School Library is one step in the right direction ; there are 
many others to follow. 


Thoughtful people in every community are gradually learn- 
ing the fact that an ignorant man or woman is the most ex- 
pensive article that can be raised. Hence, the public school 
system becomes the more valuable as the creator of civiliza- 


tion. St. Louis is fortunately situated in regard to educa- 
tion. The schools have been wisely endowed and ably con- 

The annual receipts and expenditures at present amount to 
three-quarters of a million of dollars, and the number of pupils 




reccivinjr an education in the schools in 1878 is fifty-two 
thousanJ. Some idea of their growth may be obtained from 
the foUowing figures : 

In 1841, there were 350 children enrolled ; in 1851, 2,427 ; 
in 1801, 13,380; in 1871, 31,087 ; and in 1878, 52,000. 

In the year 1812, Congress passed an act giving certain 
vacant lands in the Territory of Missouri, within the district 
which includes St. Louis and St. Charles, for the support of 
the schools in these towns. In 1824 and 1831 additional 


grants were made by the Government ; and in 1833 the first 
School Board in St. Louis was organized, under a charter giv- 
ing it complete control of all lands acquired by acts of Con- 
gress. Formerly the Board of Directors was composed of 
two members from each ward, who were elected by the 
people and held office three years. 

The real estate in possession of the Board was leased, and 
from the rents derived therefrom, two brick school buildings, 



costing each three thousand dollars, and accommodating three 
hundred and fifty pupils, were erected. 

Up to 1846 six school buildings had been erected, and 
that before city taxes for school purposes had been levied. 

In June, 1849, a tax of one mill on the dollar was voted 
for the support of the schools, and the rents from leases, etc., 
amounted to fourteen thousand dollars. 

The population of the city amounted, at that time, to 
seventy thousand, and the first mill-tax collected, in 1850, 
amounted to eighteen thousand four hundred and thirty-two 
dollars. Since that time the growth of the school system has 


been rapid. During the rebellion the taking unlawfully of the 
school funds by the State authorities necessitated the payment 
of a tuition fee ; but smce 1865 the schools have been free, 
and in growth and fullness have exceeded the fondest anticipa- 
tions of the people of St. Louis. 

There are now engaged in the schools over seven hundred 
able teachers, carefully selected by the Board and the Superin- 
tendent, Hon. William T. Harris. The last named has been 
untiring, able and discriminating in making our schools not 
only of benefit to the children, but a credit to the State. 

Between the District and the High School there is a period 


of seven years, during whicli the pupils acquire a symmetrical 
development, admirably adapting them for the solid instruc- 
tions given in the finishing or High School. Out of the fifty 
thousand pupils enrolled about 2^ per cent, enter the High 
School. The feature of German-English instruction has of 
late years become popular, and the numl)er of pupils in this 
department has increased from 450 in 1864 to 10,246 in 1872. 

The phonetic system of learning to read was introduced in 
the primary schools in 1866, and was attended with the most 
gratifying results. 

The whole number of schools now conducted by the Board 
of President and Directors is seventy-one, and the value of the* 
property held by the Board is $2,386,000. 

The number of school-houses has been more than doubled 
in the last ten years, and the seating capacity more than 

The offices of the School Board and President are located 
in the Polytechnic building, at the southwest corner of Seventh 
and Chestnut. The meetings of the Board of Directors are 
open to the public, and the Superintendent, Mr. Harris, is al- 
ways ready to accord any information in his reach to all in- 
quirers. Mr. Harris has recently been re-elected Superinten- 
dent, the citizens of St. Louis having full confidence in his 
ability, as manifested in his past management of such a vast 
and important cause as that of the education of the commu- 


The growth of the Kindergarten, or Froebel system of 
education in St. Louis has been a marked success. From 
the modest beginning of one room, two teachers and a few 
pupils, it has grown to forty distinct Kindergartens, one 
hundred and fifty teachers and fifteen hundred pupils. 

The growth has been gradual and steady each year, show- 
ing an advance in numbers and interest. In 1873 the Board 


of Public Schools inaugurated the experiment, Miss S. E. 
Blow and an assistant taking charge of the first Kindergarten, 
in the Dcs Peres building in Carondelet. At the conclusion 
of the first year unprejudiced educators of St. Louis and the 
parents of the children submitted to the experiment, declared 
unanimously in favor of the new education. Three teachers 
were taught the Froebel system during this year by Miss 

In the fall of 1874 two of these teachers were placed in 
charge of Kindergartens, one at the DivoU School and the 
other at the Everett School. 

Cynics had said of the Carondelet experiment, " This is 
all very brilliant, no doubt, but these are all picked children 
of educated parentage, and the teacher, an exceptional char- 
acter, possessed of unusual talents." 

The success of the Divoll experiment among the wealthy, 
and the Everett among the poorer classes of society, and 
under the guidance of young ladies wdio were simply con- 
scientious workers, proved to every thoughtful mind that in 
the system itself was the secret of its success, and this judg- 
ment is reached by every individual who earnestly and practi- 
cally studies Froebel' s method. 

In each of these Kindergartens several youni? ladies were 
received as assistants, their only compensation being the 
privilege of learning, Miss Blow personally superintending 
their theoretical training. 

It is one of Froebel' s principles that normal training should 
be given through actual practice in the school-room under the 
guidance of an experienced teacher. This fact of apprentice- 
ship is one of the fundamental distinctions between the old 
education and the new. 

The following year, 1875, there were ten Kindergartens 
and about forty teachers, and, as yet, no pronounced failures. 
All varieties of social life had now come under the influence 
of different grades of teachers, and still the Kindergartens 
grew, an increase in the average attendance being decidedly 

The next year twenty-eight Kindergartens were enrolled, 
with a corps of one hundred and twenty teachers, the average 


attendance in each Kindergarten being about forty ; the pres- 
ent year the average is about fifty. 

Previous to the opening of these public and free Kinder- 
gartens their sphere was limited to the Avealthy. The train- 
ing alone cost the teacher three hundred dollars, besides all 
other expenses. Of course, her future pupils had to pay for 
this expense. Under such circumstances good Kindergartens 
were few and far between. For the diffusion of this knowl- 
edge the entire nation is indebted to St. Louis and her Board 
of Education . 

That in this city the work is appreciated none can doubt, 
save among those who, having eyes, see not. Avery vigorous 
attempt made by the opponents of Kindergarten education to 
repress it roused a perfect fever of excitement, and the names 
of thousands of tax-pavers were on the petitions M'hich went 
to the School Board protesting against the movement. A 
good cause must have its martyrs, and the advocates of the 
new idea may still burnish their armor ; but when an acorn 
has grown into an oak it is difficult to uproot, and the Kinder- 
garten has gained the parents' hearts through their love for 
their children. Some one has happily called the Kindergarten 
the "Paradise of Childhood," an appellation by no means 



Washington University, located at the comer of Seven- 
teenth Street and Washington Avenue, is a handsome brick 
building, four stories high, and occnpying nearly three-fourths 
of the Washington Avenue front on that bh)ck. 

The University owes its existence to the public spirit of 
Hon. Waymau Crow, wdio in 1853 drew up the charter for 
Eliot Seminary. It was incorporated in that year, with Rev. 
W. G. Eliot as President. He preferred a change of name, 
and the accidental date of its charter, the approval homg on 
the twenty-second of February, suggested its present title. 

The University was formally inaugurated in 1857, an 
oration being given at Mercantile Library Hall by Edward 
Everett Hale, and other appropriate ceremonies at Academic 
Hall. The advanced scientific school was also opened at that 
time. By an article incorporated in the charter, and placed 
beyond the power of any future directors to change — "No 
instruction, either sectarian in religion or partisan in politics, 
shall be allowed in any department of said University" — and 
no religious or political test shall ever be allowed in choice of 
professors, etc. 

The University comprises five distinct departments. I. 
The Academy, Denham Arnold, Principal. II. The Mary 
Institute, in charge of Prof. C. S. Pennell. This is a female 
seminary under the University charter, offering the same 
advantages of high intellectual culture to young ladies as are 
received l)y young men at the University. It was founded in 
1859, and has since occupied a building erected for the pur- 
pose in Lucas Place, but the increasing patronage has neces- 
sitated greater accommodations, and a fine building is now 
being erected at the corner of Beaumont and Locust streets, 


p:di;catioxal 91 

which will be occupied during the next school year. III. The 
College, Prof. M. S. Snow, Registrar. IV. The Polytechnic 
School, Prof. Culviu ]VI. AVoodward, Dean. The studies m 
this department comprise courses u\ civil and mechanical 
engineering, chemistry, mining and metallurgy, building and 
architecture ; also, a special course in science and literature. 
Rooms are iitted up with apparatus and all necessary appli- 
ances, thus aftbrding the students opportunities for practical 
work and experiments in the ditierent departments. The 
collection of minerals, rocks, fossils, et<3., number over twelve 
thousand specimens. V. The Law School, also known as the 
"St. Louis Law School," was established in 186U, but on 
account of financial and general depression during the war it 
was not opened until 18(37. George M. Stewart is Dean, and 
during its ten years of existence it has risen to such a high 
standard of excellence as to be unsurpassed, in the United 
States . 

The University library has two thousand volumes, and is 
constantly being increased. During the year frequent courses 
of lectures are given on scientific, literary or historical sub- 
jects, to which the general public have access, and a lecture 
fund of $27,000 has been given to the University by W. H. 
Smith. The endowments and property owned by the institu- 
tion are estimated at $750,000. 

There is a fine Observatory in connection with the Univer- 
sity, and very complete instruments for scientific observation 
and experiment, under the management of Profs. Woodward, 
Nipher, Snow, and others, and to those gentlemen the citizens 
of St. Louis owe much for the care and attention paid in the 
accurate training given to the numerous pupils under their 

Courses of lectures on all branches of science are given 
annually, open to the public at very small cost, and any young 
man desiring advice or counsel, secures from the professors of 
Washington University every assistance in their power to 

The liberal constitution of the College has given it a 
national reputation, as one offering the broadest culture and 
most thorough trainins; of aiiv in the United States. 



This grand institution of learning ranks among the oldest 
in the State. It stands upon the northwest corner of Ninth 
Street and Washington Avenue, fronting on Ninth Street 
and extending one hundred and thirty feet upon Washington 

It is three stories high and built of elegant pressed brick 
in an unobtrusive but substantial st3'le. In 1803 its grand 
frontage was extended north some eighty feet, immediately 
adjoining St. Francis Xavier Church on Christy Avenue. This 
last addition is forty feet deep and four stories in height. 
The first three stories are used as class-rooms, and the fourth 
floor contains dormitories for the senior students, and also the 
Philalethic Hall, where debates are conducted by the students 
under the supervision of the professors. 

The College building proper contains a chapel for the senior 
students on the ground floor. The second floor contains the 
museum and library, and on the third floor is the grand exhi- 
bition hall. The hall is noted for its beauty and taste in 
ornamentation. It possesses most excellent aooubtic proper- 
ties, and has been regarded as ohe of the finest in the cit}^ for 
public exhibitions. 

The library of the college contains over twenty-five thous- 
and volujnes. Its range includes the ancient classics, English 
literature, travels and history, the best of English and French 
fiction, philosophy, arts, science, and theology. 

Many of the rarest books in the world are found here, and 
students from all quarters of the land have had occasion to 
consult its treasures. Its collection of Indian curiosities and 
skulls, also of coins, stones, carvings, pictures and mementoes 
are among the most rare and instructive relics known any- 

This institution is well fitted to give a liberal education to 
its pupils. The studies cover a wide scope, well fitted to im- 
part a thorough education. The management is in the best of 
hands and the professors are known as among the first educa- 
tors of the land. 



This is a private select school for young ladies, situated at 
Jenuing's Station, on a commanding summit overlooking the 
city of St. Louis, remarkable for its beauty, its healthfulness, 
and its removal from all disturbing influences. The proximity 
of the Seminary to the city (thirty minutes only recpiired to 
reach the heart of the city from the Seminary) secures to 
the young ladies all the advantages for improvement offeretl 
by St. Louis, and yet it is surrounded by all the ({uiet and 
seclusion of a rural neighborhood. The elegant and well- 
arranged edifice stands in the midst of a beautiful, shady 
lawn of six acres, surrounded by pure air and abundantly 
supplied with pure water. 

The grade of scholarship is high, and the instruction 
thorough, only the very best text books being used. The 
Principal, Prof. B. T. Blewett, A.M., LL.D., who has an 
experience of twenty-five years, devotes his entire personal 
attention to class instruction, and is assisted by an able corps 
of teachers. Besides the thorough literary course, everj'^ de- 
sirable advantage is offered in the departments of instrumental 
and vocal music. Drawing, sketching from nature, painting 
in oil and water colors, wax-work, and whatever else apper- 
tains to the ornamental education of a young lady, are skill- 
full v tauirht. 


This school for young ladies is pleasantly located on the 
corner of Pine and Sixteenth streets, in a building that was for 
uiau}^ years known as the City Univ^ersit}'. When that insti- 
tuti(ni relinquished the field and liquidated, Mrs. Cuthberl 
found in it a most suitable locality for her Seminary for 3'^ouug 
ladies. The corps of teachers employed are good, the range 
of studies is quite extensive, and everything is done to pro- 
mote the good education of those coming under the care of the 
Seminary. The domestic arrangements are ample, with the 
best influences to secure a thorough education. Mrs. Eugene 
Cuthbert is the Principal. 



More than a half a century ago the Sisters of the Visitation 
estabhshed at the ancient town of Kaskaskia, Ills., conducted 
one of the most popular seminaries for the education of young 
ladies then m existence in the West. When the memorable 
flood of 1844 swept over the valley of the Mississippi, the low 
grounds on which the Visitation Convent at Kaskaskia was 
situated were completely niundated, and the inmates were 
compelled to take passage on a steamboat for St. Louis. 

Arriving here in July, 1844, the kindly sympathies of the 
people were excited in behalf of the unfortunate ladies, and 
when soon after the foundation of a new and lar^-er establish- 
ment was laid, the Sisters had the active support and assistance 
of the entire community, irrespective of church relations. In 
due time the extensive buildings on the north side of Cass 
Avenue, above Twentieth Street, were completed, and the 
Sisters opened the sessions of a seminary for the education of 
young ladies, which has grown in popular esteem with every 
succeeding year, and is at this time in a flourishing condition, 
and regarded by all as one of the institutions of which St. 
Louis people may well feel proud. 

It is generally admitted that the ladies belonging to this 
order of religion are eminently qualified by thorough mental 
training and moral discipline for the duties of instructors of 
those who are soon to take the leading positions in society. 
This opinion, so extensively entertained, serves to supply the 
academy with pupils. Accordingly it is not a matter of sur- 
prise that every year a larger number of young ladies from 
distant States and Territories are gathered into this temple of 
learning. The refinement and varied acquirements of the 
nuns offer a complete guarantee that the intellectual, social 
and moral aptitudes of those placed in their charge will be 
developed to the fullest possible extent. 

The situation of the institution is jDleasant and retired, 
though in the midst of the populous city. The buildings are 
extensive and well ventilated ; the grounds are of suflicient 
extent to permit the enjoyment of out-door recreation. The 
course of study is thorough ; the discipline excellent ; the 


moral atmosphere pervading the institution unexceptional, and 
the opportunities for a quiet and earnest devotion to study 
which are offered at the Visitation Academy can not be sur- 
passed within the walls of any institution within the city, or 
indeed anywhere in the West. About one hundred and forty 
pupils were enrolled during the spring term of 1878, repre- 
senting several States and the Territory of New Mexico. In 
every respect the Visitation Academy is commended to parents 
as a first-class educational institution, one in which young 
ladies are strictly guarded and cared for by ladies of the 
hio-hest character for intellectual and moral qualities. 


Prominent among the great educational institutions in the 
West for the past thirty-seven years is Jones' Commercial Col- 
lege, which has been the leading factor in shaping the destiny of 
a laro-e majority of our wealthiest and most prominent citizens. 
Its record is a noble one and well worthy of perpetuation, de- 
serving a proud position in the most valuable archives of our 
great city. 

The institution was established in St. Louis by E. M. Bart- 
lett & Co., in 1841, on Main, between Green Street and Wash- 
ington Avenue, at that time the most eligible location in the 
city, for Fourth Street had not yet been paved, and the busi- 
ness all centered on Main and Second streets. For the first 
four months after opening the college did not receive a single 
scholar, but before the year expired forty-five had matriculated 
for the course. 

Among the first applicants for admission were Com. C. K. 
Garrison, Isaac L. Garrison, Theodore Laveillc, J. H. Mait- 
land, Edward Tracy, and Nicholas Wahl. 

In 1843 Jonathan Jones, who is still the proprietor, assumed 
the management of the college, which prospered rapidly, and 


finding the trade of the city shifting he removed to the corner 
of Fourth and Chestnut streets, where he remained eleven 
years. Among the hundreds who graduated from the college 
while located in this place may be mentioned Com. John A., 
Wm. H. and Charles Scudder, Hon. E. O. Stanard, Robert D. 
Patterson, Henry Haarstick, John P. Keyser, Edgar Ames, 
the late John S. McCune and Napoleon Mullikin, Hon. Wm. 
H. Stone, Wm. and Henry McKee, H. C. Yaeger, H. Senter, 
Hon. J. H. Fisse, Felix Coste, Henry Hough, Conrad Fath, 
Daniel G. Taylor, Capt. Chas. Warner, and many others of 
equal prominence. 

In 1854 another change of location was deemed desirable, 
and accordingly the college was removed to the southeast cor- 
ner of Third Street and Washington Avenue, where it re- 
mained until 1866, when Mr. Jones leased the Odd-Fellows' Hall, 
corner of Fourth and Locust streets, and continued there until 
1869, wdien the college was removed to the Lucas building, 
corner of Fifth and Olive streets, and in 1877 removed to its 
present location, occupying the third and fourth floors of Nos. 
309 and 311 North Fifth Street. 

In 1869 Mr. Jones received a paralytic stroke in the right 
arm, which so disabled him that he was compelled to leave 
the city, going into the interior of St. Louis County, where 
he followed agricultural pursuits for several years, and after- 
wards spent four years in mincr:ilogical researches in the 
mountains where he entirely recovered. During his absence 
the college was run by a managing principal ; and in 1877 Mr. 
Jones returned and entered again upon the active discharge of 
his duties with renewed vigor. 

The college under the present admirable arrangement is 
one of the most complete and thorough institutions for giving 
a full course of commercial instructions, including book-keep- 
ing, penmanship, mathematics, phonography, commercial law, 
etc., in the United States. A larire room on the ri^ht hand 
side of the second floor is devoted exclusively to the instruction 
of ladies. The floor is elegantly carpeted, the walls hung 
with fine drawings and beautiful sj^ecimens of ornamental pen- 
manship. Everything comports Avith a cultivated feminine 
taste. The principals in this department are Mrs. Mary 


Pr.'ither and Miss Mary Baumgartner. On the left-hand side 
of the hall are two mairniticcnt rooms, one for mathematics and 
the other for penmanship, the former department being under 
the charge of Prof. J. W. Ellis, and the latter presided over 
by Prof. J. H. Bohmcr and Mrs. S. D. Hayden. The fourth 
floor is reserved for instruction in book-keeping for gentlemen. 
It is a grand room, fronting on Fifth Street, forty-six by fifty- 
six feet in dimension, well ventilated and perfectly lighted; 
Prof. David Allan is the principal of this department. In ad- 
dition to the rooms enumerated there are several other depart- 
ments ; one for commercial law, under Mr. Jones ; another for 
phonography, under Prof. A. A. Oldfield ; another for orna- 
mental penmanship, under F. W. Wiesehahn, unquestionably 
the best penman on the globe ; and another for the rudimentary 
branches, reading, spelling and grammar. Every teacher is 
letter perfect in their respective departments, and the student 
who enters Jones' College is taught the practice of book-keep- 
ing and can obtain as thorough instruction in mathematics as in 
Yale or Harvard Colleges. Mr. Jones' supervision is seen in 
every department, and his attention to detail is such that every- 
thing about the college, with its three hundred and fifty stu- 
dents, progresses without a jar. No better present can be 
given to any young man or lady than a scholarship in Jones' 
Commercial College, a course through which prepares them 
for every important duty in life. 




The educational advantages of St. Louis compare favorably 
with those of any other city, either in this country or Europe ; 
but, unfortunately, a prevalent belief has obtained in America 
that a finished education can only l)e procured by along course 
through Oxford, Heidelburg, Berlin, or some of those foreign 
universities whose chief advantage is found in the single fact 
that they are four thousand miles away from home. In medi- 

cal knowledge the most profound discoveries have been made 
during the past score of years by Americans, and our medical 
institutions are now looked upon with far greater favor by for- 
eign scientists than thev are by those whom every proper con- 
sideration should make their strongest supi)orters and patrons. 
The strange anamolv is likely to l)e soon realized of European 
candidates matriculating in American coWegea, and vice versa — 


a consummation born of that indefinable impulse which draws 
its inspiration from strange people and unfamiliar lands. 

While the knowledge which enables us to accumulate, and 
which furnishes the motive power for great purposes, is an im- 
portant factor in the evolution of society, it is subservient to 
that knowledge which enables us to live and dissipate the suf- 
fering ailments of the body. The establishing of a medical 
college, notwithstanding the honorable profession, the ranks 
of which it is intended to recruit, is a most difficult under- 
taking, the reason of which is not readily apparent. The fol- 
lowing- history, therefore, of one of the most successful insti- 
tions of this character in the United States, especially since 
St. Louis is entitled to the honor of its location, is of special 
interest and importance to readers generally throughout the 
country : 

\n the winter of 1839, Joseph N. McDowell conceived the 
idea of founding a medical college in St. Louis, and to give 
basis to his plans he confern^d with Dr. John S. Moore, one 
of the young but most prominent physicians in Tennessee. 
The result of the communication was the coming of Dr. Moore 
to St. Louis and the founding of a medical department of 
Kemper College. The charter being obtained without delay, 
and a faculty organized, in six months from the date of the 
first letter between Drs. McDowell and Moore, the first session 
of the new college was inaugurated by a pu])lic lecture deliv- 
ered by Dr. Moore. The first faculty comprised the following 
gentlemen, the most of whom have long since fallen into that 
sleep which ne'er awakens: Joseph N. McDowell, M. D., 
Professor of Anatomy and Surgery, and Dean of the Faculty ; 
John S. Moore, A. M., M.D., Professor of 01)stetrics and Dis- 
eases of Women and Children : J. D. Wolff, A. M., M.D., Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry ; Joseph W. Hall, M.D., Professor of the 
Theory and Practice of Medicine ; H. A. Prout, Professor of 
Materia Medica and Therapeutics. 

The first session was held in a building on the corner of 
Ninth and Cerre streets, opening on the 1st of November, 1840, 
with a class of thirty-seven, three of whom were candidates 
for graduation and received their diplomas at the close of the 
session, which occurred on the 1st of March, 1841. Amono- 


the earliest gradihates of the college still living and practicing 
are Dr. W. S. Edgar, editor of the >6''^ Louis MedicalJoarnal ; 
Dr. Illinski, a prominent physician of Illinois; Dr. Willing; 
and Dr. Murison, one of the leading physicians of ]\Ieni[)his, 
Tenn. These are but a few of the many successful and prom- 
inent graduates of the "Medical Department of Kemper Col- 
lege," and are recalled from memory, all the early records of 
the institution having been destroyed during the war. 

The second session opened with a class of forty-two, but 
directly thereafter an unfortunate difficulty arose between the 
faculty, resulting in the withdrawal of Drs. Hall and Prout, 
who organized the St. Louis Medical College, generally known 
now as the Pope School, which drew away some of the students. 
The third class, however, was so large as to assure success to 
the enterprise, and inspired the faculty with such high hopes 
of the future that they determined upon the erection of a mag- 
nificent college buikling. The determination, however, was 
not accomplished until 1849, when the building which now 
stands as a shattered ruin on the corner of Eighth and Gratiot 
streets was completed, and stood acknowledged one of the 
grandest structures in the Mississippi Valley. The reputation 
of the college spread at a rapid rate, and every session was 
opened with a largely increased class, fulfilling the most san- 
guine hopes of the faculty and friends of the institution. 

In January, 1846, owing to pecuniary embarrassments, the 
literary department of Kemper College was abandoned and the 
building sold. The medical faculty thereupon held a meeting 
at which a resolution was adopted instructing the Dean to open 
negotiations Mith the State University at Columbia, with the 
view of establishing a connection with that institution. Satis- 
foctory arrangements were concluded in Felnniary following, 
and the jVIedical Department of the State University of Mis- 
souri continued until 1857. About this time a bill passed the 
legislature prohibiting professors in medical colleges from 
practicing, and to obtain some special advantages a charter 
was applied for and granted, under which the Missouri Insti- 
tute of Science was established, with a medical department 
which w^as styled the Missouri Medical College, by which it is still 
known. The prosperity of the school continued unabated until 


the breaking out of hostilities ])etwecn the South and North. 
The differences which brought about the terrible fraternal war 
also alienated and disrupted the fraternity of the college fac- 
ulty, and so bitter and irreconcilable were the divisions that the 
pall of an eternal dissolution s(K>nied settling over the hopes, 
aspirations and prospects of the college. The darksome visage 
of war shadowed the great temple, and finally settled upon its 
grand museum of pathological and physiological specimens. 
Professor McDowell, the Dean, became unalterably attached to 
the Southern cause, and so openly expressive and demonstra- 
tive of his opinions, that his private residence and the college 
buildiu"- were seized by the Union troops, and the temple of 
science and medicine was soon converted into a military prison. 
The ruthless hand of destruction scattered beyond reclaim, not 
onlv the relics of humanity but also all the apparatus, and 
converted the magnificent lecture hall into a store-room for 
supplies, and the court-yard into a place for bloody execu- 

The hopes of many were buried in the ruins of the old 
McDowell building, and no attempt was made to revive the 
college until the year 1865, when the ravages of war had spent 
itself and Dr. McDowell returned to St. Louis to infuse new 
life into the undertaking so auspiciously begun, so disastrously 
terminated. For a second time he was aided by Dr. Moore, 
and before the year Avas finished a new faculty was engaged 
and the college re-organized. They re-occupied the old dilapi- 
dated building which was, indeed, past repair ; l)ut there was 
another hope actuating the hopeful originator. The first and 
second classes numbered scarcely fifty, and in the year 1868 
the college met with another reverse in the death of the origi- 
nator, Dr. Joseph McDowell. Dr. Moore, who had been his 
pupil, partner and friend, performed the last sad services over 
the remains of his esteemed colleague, and delivered an oration 
over the body which is still remembered as one of the most 
impressive and eloquent ever spoken. It was with great diffi- 
culty that the chair, made vacant by the death of Dr. McDow- 
ell, was filled, and the college relapsed again into Avhat it was 
at the re-organization. At length, however. Professor Paul F. 
Eve, of Xashville, Teini., was offered the position, which he 


accepted, but resigned after the first year, and returned to 
Nashville, The chair was then divided, and the positions filled 
by Drs. E. A. Clark and A. Hammer, l)ut only for a short 
time, as in the sprino- of 1871 Dr. Clark died while on the way 
to Europe, deeply lamented by all who knew him. Dr. A. P. 
Lankford, Professor of Surgery in the Kansas City Medical 
College, one of the most eminent surgeons in the United States, 
was appointed to the vacancy : and in 1872 the chair of surgery 
was consolidated and Dr. Lankford was assigned to the entire 
chair, a position he still holds with the greatest credit to him- 
self and the college. 

Directly after the re-organization following the changes 
caused by the death of Dr. McDowell, there were added chairs 
of Clinical Medicine and Physical Diagnosis, Ophthalmolog}' 
and Histology, Psychological Medicine and Diseases of the 
Nervous System, to which the following i)roniinent medical 
gentlemen were appointed : P. Gervais Robinson, M. D., one 
of the most scientific and experienced physicians in the AVest, 
was assigned to the first ; C. E. Michel, M. D., long connected 
with the college and an able lecturer, filled the second, and J. 
K. Bauduy, M. D., a popular lecturer and skillful scientist, 
was selected to the third named chair. By these additions the 
Missouri Medical Collejje advanced abreast of the leading; med- 
ical colleges in the United States. 

In 1873 the college had attained another firm footing, and 
the construction of another buildins; was aoitated. An ar- 
rangement was concluded with the Sisters in charge of St. 
John's Hospital, and in the middle of May of the same year, 
a site was selected on the corner of Twenty-Third Street and 
Lucas Avenue, and the laying of the foundation begun. The 
faculty formed a stock company, and by a liberal donation of 
their means furnished the necessary capital to push the build- 
ing to an early completion. Strange to say, perhaps, while 
the new college building was begun in 1873, and is one of the 
finest, largest and most substantial medical colleges in th(> 
L^nited States, it was so far completed that the succeeding 
course of lectures for 1873-74 were delivered in the new build- 
ing to a class, the largest that had ever matriculated in the 
college. Being located adjoining St. flohn's Hospitnl, the 


students had the advantage of clinical facilities equal to those 
of any institution in existence, which furthered its reputation 
and largely increased its classes. 

In 1874-75 the number of students was increased twenty- 
five per cent., and under the prosperity which continued to at- 
tend the efforts of the faculty, a large number of apparatus 
were purchased'and thousands of niico-photographic prepara- 
tions were added, illustrative of histology, pathology, etc., for 
the use of classes. The clinical professors spared no means to 
perfect their department, and instruments were purchased, in 
the use of which students are instructed by surgical operations 
w^hich take place daily. In 1875-7C the class had increased to 
two hundred and six students, the largest ever assembled in 
St. Louis ; but in 1877-78 the class numbered two hundred and 
forty-seven, and on the 1st of March of the present year the 
deo;ree of M. D. was conferred on one hundred and two o-rad- 
uates, and the exercises, which took ])lace in Mercantile Li- 
brary Hall, were the most interesting, and attended by the 
largest audience ever before assembled in St. Louis for a sim- 
ilar purpose. 

The surgical department has been recently materially 
strengthened by the addition of Dr. T. F. Prewitt, who takes 
charge of surgical clinics at St. John's Hospital, and Dr. John 
8. Moore, who retired a short time from the college, has re- 
sumed his position, and is quite as enthusiastic over the 
proud future of his college now as he was during any time in 
its history, for although the Missouri Medical College has at- 
tained a rank in the medico-scientific world equal to the great- 
est institutions of any country, the range of possibilities is 
always extending to the true physician, with new discoveries 
and the desire for a higher attainment in the alluring profes- 
sion. The graduates of the Missouri Medical Collejre are 
scattered over both continents, and number among the list 
many of the brightest geniuses that ever adorned the medical 
profession, among whom may be mentioned Dr. Jno. T. 
Hodgen, Prof. G. M. B. Maughs, Dr. II. Tuholske, Dr. 
Samuel G. Armour, who is now Dean of Long Island Hospital, 
Dr. G. W. Hall, Drs. John and D. McDowell, and a host of 
others of equal prominence. 


The present faculty of the college comprises the following 
well-known physicians : 

Wm. M. McPheeters, M. D., Emeritus Professor of Ma- 
teria Medica and Therapeutics. 

John S. Moore, M. D., Professor of Principles of Medi- 

G. M. B. Maughs, M. D., Professor of Obstetrics and Dis- 
eases of Women. 

P. Gervais Robinson, M. D., Professor of Practice of Med- 
icine and Clinical Medicines, and Dean of Faculty. 

A. P. Lankford, M. D., Professor of Surgery and Clinical 

J. K. Bauduy, M. D., Professor of Psychological Medi- 
cine, Diseases of the Nervous System and Medical Jurispru- 

Charles E. Michel, M. D., Professor of Histology and Dis- 
eases of the Eye. 

T. L. Papin, M. D., Clinical Professor of GynaBcology. 

H. Tuholske, M. D., Professor of Anatomy and Minor 
Surgery and Demonstrator. 

Otto A. Wall, M. D,, Professor of Chemistry and Phar- 

C. A. Todd, M. D., Professor of Physiology and Diseases 
of the Ear and Throat. 

J. P. Kingsley, M. D., Professor of Materia Medica, Thera- 
peutics and Pharmacy. 

T. F. Prewitt, M. D., Professor of Clinical Surgery. 

This list is composed of the most skillful physicians in the 
West, whose reputations are by no means local, and under 
whom the Missouri Medical College has not only prospered 
but been accorded a conspicuous position among the greatest 
institutions of either continent. 


The churches of a great city in some measure reflect the 
social and religious life of its inhabitants. St. Louis is a 
church-going city, and all the prominent sects find their repre- 
sentatives and exponents among us. Many of the edifices are 
models of architectural taste and beauty, as also the homes of 
wealthy and thriving congregations. Like the churches of all 
large cities, the majority struggle for existence, contending 
against poverty and burdensome debts. The stronger and 
more flourishing are compelled to carry along the wealvcr ones. 
It would be pleasant to give the interested reader a view of all 
our prominent churches, but limited space admonishes us that 
only a few can l)e noticed in this volume. 

After New Orleans and Baltimore, St. Louis ranks the third 
Konian Catholic city in the Union. The influence and wealth 
of this church far exceeds that of any other religious body. 
The pioneers of this region were, for the most part, identified 
with the Mother Church, and their descendants have been 
largely retained within her folds. As the city has enlarged, 
so has this church extended itself in its number of edifices, its 
membership, and its educational mfluences. 


The old Cathedral on Walnut Street, near Second, marks 
the spot where the first church edifice was erected in this city. 
Father (iibault blessed the little log church that was built with 
a struggle, and was privileged to say the first mass within its 
walls. It was the scene of devout worship for nearly fifty 
years to the inhabitants of the humble vilhiire Li<>uest had laid 
out. Since that day the Catholic Church has maintained a 
large place in the city, valuable property has been acquired, 
while imposing and ornamental structures have been erected. 





This is one of the tinest churches in the cit}^ and is located 
on Grand Avenue. It is built of limestone from our native 
quarries. It is an attractive edifice, and from its command- 
ing position shows to good effect. 



This is an elegant brick edifice situated on the corner of 
Sixteenth and Chestnut streets. The interior is finely fres- 
coed and ornamented with the utmost taste and elegance. 
Many of our most influential citizens are identified with this 
church. Rt. Rev. P. J. Ryan, Bishop of this Diocese, offici- 
ates here and has his residence adjoining the eastern end of 
the church. 


Corner of Sixteenth and Pine streets, is perhaps the finest 
church in the denomination. 

Its style is chaste and elegant, well furnished, and all its 
appointments in keeping with the wants of the congregation. 


Rev. W. V. Tudor, D. D., pastor, is a man of rare gifts, a 
good scholar, and is a gentleman of the most pleasing address. 
He is beloved by his people, and may be counted among the 
successful i)astors of the city. 

The church originally worshiped in the old building corner 
of Fifth and Pine streets until 1870, when it removed to its 
present location. 

The new editice cost something over one hundred and 
sixty thousand dollars. 


Corner of Washington Avenue and Eighth Street. This church 
has been recently fitted up, enlarged and remodeled. It is ' 'the 
down-town church," being the only one remaining near the 
hotels and business portion of the city. Seats are free, and it 
is the home for strangers and a place where the masses are 
always welcome. 


Corner of Eleventh and Locust streets. Rev. Ross C. Hough- 
ton, D.D., pastor. The growth of this church has been re- 
markable, and the same may be said of its influence for good 
upon the community. Central Church, corner of Morgan and 
Twenty-fourth streets, is an outgrowth from this noble body 
of Christians. Its pastors, since its organization in 1861, have 
been men of thought and pulpit power. Rev. H. Cox, D. D., 
their first leader, was a man of immense vigor, and brought 
the church up to great usefulness. No less powerful w^as Rev. 
A. C. George, D. D., w^ho worked with unremitting zeal, and 
was an honored acquisition to the pulpit power of the city so 
long; as he remained amono; the churches he cared for. 

Some of our most influential citizens have been identified 
with it from its earliest struggles. Gen. Clinton B. Fiske, 
Gov. E. O. Stanard, Henry C. Yaeger, A. S. W. Good- 
win, Benjamin Horton and others, have been untiring in their 
zeal and devotion to its interests from the beginning. 




Is a gem of real beauty, situated ou the Claytou Road. Some 
beuevolent hearts projected the scheme to accommodate the 
"wauts of the western suburbs. For a rural chapel it has all 
the charm of exquisite taste, convenience and comfort. 

CLAYTON cnuRcn. 


Corner of Ninth and Olive streets, is the parent church. Rev. 
Jno. Snyder is pastor. 

The record of this church for benevolence is truly remark- 
able. Under the lead of Rev. W. G. Eliot, D. D., who retired 
from the pastorate some years ago, it v.^as noted for its leader- 
ship in ever}^ good work. Washington University and INIary 
Institute received their greatest support from the leading 
members of this body. The good to a connnon humanity that 
has emanated from this congregation would be hard to enumer- 
ate. Its operations have been always upon the largest and the 
most generous scale. 




Is situated on the corner of Park and Armstrong avenues. It 
is a fine, tastj edifice, built of stone, facing Lafayette Park. 
Rev. J. C. Larned, pastor. 

It is situated in one of the most hopeful parts of the city. 
Surrounded l)y wealth, elegance and culture, it must in time 
become a large body. The church is blessed with freedom 
from debt, a capital leader and a generous membership. 


Is located on the corner of 
Rev. R. A. Holland, rector, 

It is undoubtedly 
one of the best located 
and most elegantly 
finished churches in _ 
the West. 

The appointments 
are all in the line of 
comfort and good 

The popular min- 

Chestnut and Beaumont streets. 

ister, the grand or- 
gan, and the charm- 
ing music, lend much 
to make it the great 
center of religious in- 
fluence it is acknowl- 
edged to be. 

Many of our most 
wealthy and success- 
ful citizens are iden- 
tified with it. 





Is a beautiful brick edifice corner of Jefferson and Lafayette 
avenues. Its interior is neatly furnished and has the air of 
comfort. Seats are free to all. Services are held morning 
and evening. Rev. B. E. Reed is the worthy rector. 



Corner of Locust and Thirteenth streets, fronts upon Missouri 
Park, and when completed will be a tasty and ornamental 
edifice. Rev. Montgomery Schuyler, D. D., is its beloved and 
honored rector. Tliis church was among the number driven 
westward by the march of business. Its original location was 
Fifth and Chestnut streets, where the Laclede Hotel now 
stands, and was torn down in 1859. , 



This is a gem of architectural beautv, situated on the cor- 
ner of Eleventh Street and Washington Avenue. 

Rev. Geo. C. Betts is the rector. The bishop of the diocese, 
Rt. Rev. C. F. Robertson, D. D., may also be found at this 
church when in the city. 




Corner of Lucas Place and Fourteenth Street, is a beautiful 
brick edifice. 

It is one of the most ele- 
gant structures in the city, 
comniandin<2; one of tile most 
elio-ible locations for a church . 
It fronts on Lucas Place and 
is directly west of Missouri 
Park, one of the choice 
breathing spots of the city. 

Under the i:)astorate of 
Rev. Dr. BuUard, this church 
made the selection of its pres- 
ent site, evincing no little 
faith in the future growth of 
the city in that direction. 

Rev. H. D. Ganse, D.D., 
is the pastor. The house is 
' elegantly furnished and well 
appointed. It has always 
been an influential liody of 
Christians, numbering within 


noted for their liberalitv as well as their success in business. 


Is located on the corner of Lucas Place and Seventeenth Street. 
Rev. S. J. Niccolls, D.D., pastor. 

The members of this church formerly worshiped for many 
years in the old church, corner Fifth and Walnut streets, which 
was sold. The Temple building was afterwards erected upon 
its old site. 

It is a handsome stone structure, tasty and attractive. This 
church is the center of a vcrv lar^e religious influence m the 
city. Its members are not only from wealthy Inisiness circles, 
but comprises many of the most eminent among the different 


professions. Culture, piety and good works abound with this 
body of Christians. Their pastor is noted as an organizer and 
promoter of the various activities of the church. 


Is a new stone edifice, now in process of completion, on the 
corner of Washington and Compton avenues. This new organ- 
ization, is an outgrowth from the AValnut Street Presbyterian 
Church. Rev. James H. Brookes, D.D. , pastor. It is expected 
that Dr. Brookes will become pastor of the new congregation. 
Dr. Brookes is one of the oldest pastors in St. Louis. His 
profound scholarship, successful leadership and noble Christian 
sj)irit has given him a large place in the hearts of the Christian 
people of the city. 


Corner of Lucas and Garrison avenues, Rev. R. G. Brank, 
D. D., pastor, is one of our newest and most elegant structures. 

No pains have been spared to make it not only handsome 
but comfortal)le and convenient. It is furnished with taste 
and is wanting in nothing to make it a beautiful piece of arch- 
itecture that commands universal admiration. 

Dr. Brank is known as one of our most impressive pulpit 
speakers and one of the best of pastors. 

The Presbyterians claim twenty churches, with a member- 
ship of five thousand and seventy-five, and some eight thousand 
scholars in their Sunday-schools. 


This is a modest structure on the corner of Eleventh and 
Pine streets. Rev. E. H. Rutherford, D. D., is its efficient 


Is a fine brick church, corner of Chambers and Eleventh 
streets. Rev. W. C. Falconer, D.D., is its pastor. This 
church has held its own for some years, and done good work 
in the northern end of the city. 




Pilo-rim Church, corner Washington and Ewing avenues, 
Rev. C. L. Gooclcll, D.D., pastor, was organized December 
5, 1866, Avith forty-five members. It now numbers, in its 
twelfth year, five hundred and twenty-five, with an annual 
benevolence of some ten thousand dollars. Its house of wor- 
ship is very 
and commo- 
dious. It 
is built of 
stone, with 
a spire two 
thirty feet 
high ; it will 
seat twelve 
hundred ; it 
cost, with all 
its furnish- 
ings, about 
and fifty 
dollars. In 
its tower is 
the splendid 
1 i p h a n t 
chime of 
ten bells. 

eleven thou- 
sand pounds 
one of the 
three orfour 

most musical in the country. It was the gift of Dr. R. W. Oli- 
phant, in memory of his deceased wife and son. There is also 



connected with this a valuable tower clock, striking musical 
quarter notes, after the manner of St. Mary's Church, Cam- 
bridge, England, and the Parliament buildings, London. The 
air pla^^ed is by Handel, and thought to be the finest ever 
adapted to bells. The clock and quarters, constructed by 
Howard, of Boston, are the gift of Mrs. C. L. Goodell, wife 
of the pastor, in memory of her father, Gov. Erastus Fair- 
banks, of Vermont. This church is furnished with parlors and 
all modern conveniences. It has had a remarkable growth, 
and numbers in its membership some of our most wealthy and 
influential citizens. 


There are five Congregational churches in this city, with 
an aggregate membership of about one thousand. 

The Trinitarian Congregational Church, corner Tenth and 
Locust streets, is the oldest. It was organized March 14, 
1852, and has had a prosperous and efficient life in the heart 
of this great city for 
twenty-six years. 
who was its first 
pastor, is still its es- 
teemed and beloved 
shepherd. A man of 
wide and choice cul- 
ture, of many and 
varied gifts, his Ions; 
life in the West de- 
voted to shaping and 
£i;ivm2: character to churches and institutions of Icarniui;, has 
been like the dew upon Lebanon. The church numbers about 
two hundred and fifty members. 

This is the mother church of Cono^reffationalism in this 
section and has sent out many members to form new interests 
in this city and in the suburbs. Its influence has been marked, 
and it has not been behind in tlio promotion of education and 
in all the benevolent work of the denomination. 




The Second Baptist Church is located on the corner of 
Beaumont and Locust streets. The cha[)el has 1>oeu occupied 
for sonic months since the church has ])ecn removed from its old 
home on the corner of Sixth and Locust streets. The main 
building is in course of construction, and is fast approaching 
completion. It promises to be one of the most handsome and 
imposing structures in the city. 

As in the past, so 
now it may ])e count- 
ed among the most 
influential churches. 
Its pulpit has been 
graced with such men 
as J.B.Jeter, D.D., 
Rev. Galusha Ander- 
son, D.D., and more 
recently by Rev. A. 
H. Burlingham,D.D. 
and now presided 
over by Rev. W. W. 
Boyd, whose growing 
influence gives prom- 
ise of much useful- 
Its membership has 
SECOND BAPTIST CHURCH. included such men as 

Hon.W. M.McPherson, Hon. Daniel B. Gale, Hon. Marshall 
Brotherton, and other noble spirits that have gone to their 
reward, leaving behind them noble examples of right living. 


The Third Baptist Church is located on Clark Avenue, 
corner of Fourteenth Street. Rev. Geo. A. Lofton, D.D., is its 
present pastor, known for his scholarly attainments and his 
efficiency as a pastor. The building is of brick, trimmed with 
stone, and, while it makes no claim to any special beauty, it is 
commodious, eas}^ of access, and has a cheerful interior- 



This church was organized during the ministry of Rev. 
Dr. Jeter witli the Second Baptist Church. Thirty members 
were dismissed from the Second Church to constitute this body 
in December, 1850. The ministry of Rev. Jno. Teasdale, 
and Rev. Washington Barnhurst is still very dearly cherished 
in this church. Manj^ of their relatives still find their religious 
home here, and cling to it with great tenderness. 


Located on the corner of Twelfth and North Market streets. 
It is a tasty brick building fronting on Jackson Place. Rev. 
J. V. Scotield is pastor. His efficiency as a Christian worker 
is known in this city. The zeal manifested by him in helping 
forward the erection of the Third Baptist Church in former 
years is fresh in the minds of those who toiled for its completion. 


Is a neat, cosy brick chapel, recently erected to meet a want 
long felt by the Baptist folks of this suburban village. It is 

light and airy, and has a cheerful as[)ect about it. 
church has orrown somewhat since it has had a home. 






Corner of Seventeenth and Pine streets. Rev. Dr. Sonne- 
schein is the officiating minister. He is ii distinguished Rabbi, 
of liberal education, leads in advanced ideas, and is a man of 
considerable force in his pulpit efforts. 


The Temple cost over one hundred thousand dollars, and 
was dedicated in 18G9. The congregation are regarded as re- 
formers, and are progressive, and while they believe in all the 
essentials of the Hebrew faith, they seek to give form to their 
worship in keeping with the usages of modern society. 




Mt. Sinai Cemetery is the Jewish buiying ground, situated 
on the Gravois road, south of Riv^er Des Peres. The chapel 
is located on the grounds, a neat brick and stone structure, 
built at a cost of about four thousand dollars. It is used for 
funeral ceremonies. The Rabbis of the various Hebrew con- 
gregations officiate when occasion requires. 



This trade palace is justly the pride of St. Louis. No 
structure on this continent devoted to like purj)oses, and, in- 
deed, none of the exchange buildings in all Europe can at all 
compare with it in point of magnitude and positive elegance 
and beauty. The building is located with a frontage of two 
hundred and thirt3'-three feet on Third Street with one hun- 
dred and eighty-seven feet on Pine and Chestnut streets. 

This gigantic pile of happy proportions and harmony in 
detail, of the modern Italian style, is built chiell}^ of Warrens- 
burg limestone, a native of our own State. The Doric portico, 
the emblematic figures sculptured in relief, the grand door- 
ways, and the rich, polished plate-glass windows, give the ex- 
terior an appearance of magnificence and architectural beauty. 
The main stairway is built chiefly of American walnut, with 
several varieties of hard woods, used for decoration. The ap- 
pearance to the observer is simply one of pleasing grandeur in 
keeping with the splendid edifice. 

The Merchants' Exchange secured a corporate existence in 
March, 1863, and was known for years as the "Union Mer- 
chants' Exchange." An amendatory act changed the style to 
the "Merchants' Exchange of St. Louis." 

The Chamber of Commerce was a body that had existed 
previously, for the promotion of business. By an act of the 
legislature this corporation was the means of giving this noble 
structure, dedicated to the commercial purposes of the city. 
The Merchants' Exchange rent the grand hall, with the ofiices 
and directors' room attached, from the Chamber of Commerce 
Association, at an annual rental of twenty-five thousand dollars. 

Some one thousand five hundred members comprise the 
Exchange. Initiation fee is now one hundred dollars, with an 
annual assessment of twenty-five dollars. 



Daily sessions are held from 11a. m. to 1 p. m. All the 
interests of trade are represented here, and operations are 
facilitated by the meeting of the buyer and the seller. 

The markets of the world are kept constantly reported upon 
appropriate bulletins. There is a large reading-room attached 
to the grand hall, in which may be found the representative 
journals of the land. 

Questions and disputes are settled by committees of arbitra- 
tion and appeal, thus saving frequently vexatious and unprofit- 
able litigation. Boards of inspection are appointed, whose 
certificate of grade, quality and condition of any product pro- 
motes confidence and safety in many important transactions. 

The importance of the Exchange in promoting the com- 
merce of the city can not be adequately estimated. The system 
and uniformity it has encouraged in business, the time it saves 
to thousands of dealers by having one place of meeting to make 
transactions, the aggregation of wealth and influence in pro- 
moting enterprises for public good, all attest the value of such 
an institution to the traffic of a large city. 

The Exchange Hall is .worthy of note. Occupymg the full 
leno-th of the buildino; above the first floor, it is one hundred 
feet wide, two hundred and twenty-six feet in length, and is 
seventy-nine feet high. Its magnificent windows, sixty-one 
in number, give it abundance of light and air. The ceiling 
is frescoed and adorned with panels, within which are grace- 
ful figures symbolical of the nations of the world. It is 
finished with great care, and shows a wealth of design as well 
as an artistic finish. A gallery, supported by rich brackets, 
encircles the great hall, to which visitors are admitted. 

The officers of the Exchange are as follows : President, 
Geo. Bain ; Vice-Presidents, Henry C. Haarstick and Craig 
Alexander, who are among our most efficient and valued citi- 
zens ; Secretary, Geo. H. Morgan ; Assistant Secretaries, D. 
R. Whitmore and D. H. Bartlett, both young men, and whose 
nniform politeness have won for them the universal regard of 
the members ; Doorkeeper and Janitor, Chas. Crcighton. 

It will not be considered out of place to make special men- 
tion of Mr. Crcighton. He is a native St. Louisan, in his 
forty-second year, and has occupied his present position uow 


seventeen years with signal ability and satisfaction. lie knows 
every member entitled to the privilege of the floor, and with 
uniform urbanity has won the confidence and esteem of those 
who daily frequent the hall. 

The lower part of the building is occupied by banks and 
insurance offices, Avhich, with the rent of the Exchange Hall 
and offices through the building, form a handsome revenue to 
the Chamber of Commerce Association. 


No structure upon the American continent deserves any 
more unqualified praise for practical utility and architectural 
beauty than the great steel Bridge that spans the JNIississippi 
River at St. Louis. It is a standing monument to the ability 
of the great minds who conceived and carried it forward to 
final completion. St. Louis has always wanted a bi-idge that 
would bring her into more intimate relations with the great 
State of Illinois, and render herself more accessible to the 
great trading region east of her, that looked for supplies from 
this point. 

The railway companies have long urged the scheme that 
travel and traffic might be better handled and promoted. But 
the unsettled question of a suitable foundation, the jealousy 
of rival interests, and other hindrances, which clustered about 
the completion of so important an undertaking, retarded the 
march of progress. 

The new era the Bridge brought to St, Louis is not easily 
portrayed. It must be felt and experienced by all the branches 
of trade and commerce ; the increased comfort in travel ; the 
cheapening of freight, and the enlarged intercourse it affords. 
All these items enter into the credit due to its generous bene- 
factors. The cry has been heard often by opponents that it 
would obstruct the river ; that St. Louis would be only a 


way-station on the great highway ; that freight and passengers 
would pass through, and we get no l)enetit. 

St. Louis, among the great cities of the continent, could 
not stop to put an embargo upon any project looking to the 
promotion of a common good. The highway of the nation 
must be unobstructed by an}-- narrow, sellish, or local intei'est, 
so that the world's traffic shall reach its destination with all 
speed. St, Louis, with all her highways of steel and iron, 
penetrating every section of this great land, with her wiiter- 
path to the sea, can and Avill assert herself, and secure, as she 
has in the past, that share of commerce she rightfully claims. 
She bids for business, and is willing to take her chances with 
competing centers that struggle to outrival her ; but she is not 
willing to be tardy in those enterprises which promote public 

The extreme length of the Bridge, including approaches, is 
6,220 feet, and its extreme width is 54 feet. The Bridge proper 
with its three spans, including abutments, is 2,046 feet. The 
three spans are formed with ribbed arches made of chrome 
steel. The center span is 520 feet, the two end ones are 502 
feet each. The Bridge, including the tunnel under the city, is 
11,000 feet in length, finding its terminus in the Union Depot. 
The tunnel extends from the Brido:e, runnino; under Washinslon 
Avenue to Eighth Street, thence south, passing the new Post- 
office and Custom-house. Connection is made with this new 
building by means of side-tracks, for the convenient handling of 
the mails. The entire cost of the Bridge was over ten million 
dollars. The tunnel cost about one million dollars. The rail- 
way passages run lieneath the carriage-ways and are each about 
fifteen feet in the clear and eighteen feet high. The Bridge is 
illuminated always at night. Tasty gaslamps adorn the struc- 
ture, with other ornamental figures that give it an air of elegance 
and beauty. Captain James B. Eads was Chief Engineer, and 
Col. Henr}'^ Flad the Assistant Chief Engineer. 

To these gentlemen and those Avho came forward with their 
means to promote the scheme, the city of St. Louis owes 
eternal o;ratitude, while the structure itself is an enduring 
monument to the skill and enterprise of those intimately iden- 
tified with its construction. 



St. Louis is a center toward which the great highways of 
travel converge from the distant North, the far East, the 

gleaming South, and 
the wonderful West. 
The Union Depot on 
Poplar Street, is the 
grounds where the 
various railroads cen- 
tenng here find a 
common meetinor 
place. Here the wan- 
derers may rest. The 
Union Depot often 
presents striking 
scenes and incidents 
in travel. They are 
ever cominc; and ffo- 
ing. The thousands 
who pass that way, 
and pause at that fo- 
cal point every week, 
represent all the races 
of mankind. Dusky 
wayfarers from the 
far Orient, from Jed- 
do and from Pekin, 
from Java and from 
India, pass that way, 
and pause on their 
journey. Emigrants from the valley of the Don, and the 




Kubanka en route to Kansas ; commercial travelers, hale and 
careless fellows, who know a good deal of the ways of the 
world, and carefully hold on to their " grip-sacks ;" unsophis- 
ticated youths from out-of-the-way counties, on their way to visit 
grandpa for the lirst time ; coy country girls, who liave caution, 
courage, and discretion hidden under their coyness, traveling 
to visit a sister married out West ; in fact, experienced and in- 
experienced people, black, red, yellow, and white men, from 
Europe, Asia, Africa, and the wilds of America, all i^ass 
the Union Depot, and pause for a moment in their flight. 

And then, the citizens, intent on earning a few nickels by 
transporting passengers and baggage, join in the clamor and 
add to the confusion. The arrival of trains containing emi- 
grants from the East always excites a curious interest on the 
part of the spectator. The scenes incident to such arrivals 
are illustrated in the cut below. 


And so the tide of life ebbs and flows, and for the great 
arteries the Union Depot serves as the heart. We see a great 
throng pass through to-day. To-morrow some of those who 
are in Union Depot now will be in Texas, some in Tennessee, 

9 . 

130 TOUR or ST. LOUIS. 

some in Arkansas and Kansas, while some others will be hurry- 
ing to the East through Indiana and Ohio, and still others will 
breathe the fresh air which sweeps over the bosom of the 
Northern lakes. They are here to-day together, but to-morrow 
will see them a thousand miles apart, and hurrying, still 
hurrying on — far toward the utmost verge of the continent. 
The eyes that meet to day will meet no more. 

What a picture of the life of our age can be examined and 
studied at the meeting of the ways in Union Depot ! Here 
the streams meet ; for a moment whirl and toss about, then 
divide again and flow on and on till whelmed at last in the 
ocean of oblivion. Such is life. 


Next to the great Steel Bridge, St. Louis may well rejoice 
over the achievements in the Railway Tunnel that links the 
Bridge with the Union Depot. 

How to bring the many railways centering at this point 
into one grand meeting-place from which all arrivals and 
departures could be effected and at the same time avoid the 
smoke, noise and confusion incident to such immense travel, 
was a question long discussed. It was a happy conception to 
place the approach into the city so far below the surface as to 
avoid the inconvenience attendant upon the running of trains 
through the business portion of the city. 

The Tunnel commences at the west end of the Bridije 
and runs as far west as Seventh Street, where it makes a curve 
and continues south in the line of Eighth Street as far as Clarke 
Avenue ; taking a curve westward at this point it finds a level 
with the Union Depot. 


As it passes along Eighth Street, connection is made by side 
tracks with the new post-office, whereby the greatest possible 
facility will be afforded for handling of all mall matter. 

The total length of the Tunnel is four thousand eight hun- 
dred and eighty-sL\ feet. Its construction was conducted by 
an open cut, which gave the workmen the greatest possible 
advantage in building it. Its road-bed is firmly ballasted, and 
carries a double track. The great arch is supported by nuis- 
sive brick walls, and is pronounced a triumph of engineering 
skill and a credit to those who brought it to perfection. 

The advantage to the traveling public to have all our rail- 
ways centering at one grand depot is simply incalculable. 
Untold expenses in hack fare, loss of baggage, inconvenience 
in changing from one road to another, to say nothing of hun- 
dreds of other attendant evils that would otherwise occur. 

These annoyances are saved, and the Tunnel takes its 
meed of credit as one of the factors in promoting comfort in 

Economy in the expenses of the railways centering thus is 
no inconsiderable item also to be considered, besides the 
increased facilities that are afforded to the immense traffic 
incident to a great city. 

The cost of the entire structure was something over one 
million of dollars. 


The desire universally felt to learn something of the per- 
sonal history of those men who have acted, and are acting, a 
more or le'ss prominent part in the affairs of a great country, is 
certainly natural, and can scarcely be esteemed improper. An 
extended or eulogistic biography of the living, however, ex- 
cept in rare cases, seems to be premature and out of place. 
It may be set down as a general truth, under such circum- 
stances, that either a strong personal regard will tempt the 
writer to exaggerate the picture he is to draw, and to add here 
and there some flattering touches ; or else the want of that 
intimate and actual knowledge which can penetrate to the hid- 
den springs of the whole character — at the same time that tes- 
timony no longer biased by personal feelings is not yet within 
his reach — will leave only imperfect and distorted lineaments, 
where a full and true likeness is demanded. 

To deal with personal topics, relating either to the living 
or to the dead — but more especially to the former — requires a 
great deal of delicate discretion : for the false and too partial 
estimates of a friend are scarcely less to be avoided than the 
open attacks and studied depreciations of an enemy. In the 
present instance, accordingly, we wave the formal office of biog- 
rapher, and shall aim simply at a brief record of what we be- 
lieve will most interest the reader respecting our subject. 

Hon. Thomas Allen comes of a family of historic reputa- 
tion in Massachusetts. His grandfather, whose name he bears, 
was a respected minister of the town of Pittsfield — indeed he 
was the first pastor to have charge over the spiritual interests 
of the inhabitants of that place. 

The Rev. Thomas Allen was ordained in 1764, ten years 
before the revolutionary agitation assumed a threatening as- 
pect. But the stern old pastor was not lacking in sympathy 



with the people of his native land, nor in patriotism when the 
cause of liberty called for the services of the sons of the soil. 
The Rev. Mr. Allen became one of the most earnest and zeal- 
ous of the defenders of the cause of American Independence. 
When at length hostilities were commenced between Great 
Britain and her revolted colonists, Mr. Allen left his charge 
and went into the field. He served as chaplain in several reg- 
iments, and, according to tradition, had no aversion to takin<r 
part in the conflicts and sharing in the dangers incident to the 
position of a combatant. 

When Burgoyne was advancing from Canada, to co-operate 
with the British forces in New York, in crushing the patriot 
army, the brave minister aroused his people at Pittsfield, and 
with musket in hand marched with them to share in the dan- 
gers and honors of Bennington. This action acquired for him 
the soubriquet of the Fighting Parson of Bennington Fields. 

When peace came at last, the minister returned to his 
chars^e at Pittsfield : and while he was faithful in ministering in 
the Word, and in doctrine, and in admonitions, yet his patri- 
otic impulses led him to take a deep interest in the political 
welfare of his country, and he became noted as an able politi- 
cian, adopting as his own the Jeffersonian principles as applied 
to government. 

Eev. Thomas Allen, having passed a long and stainless life, 
died at Pittsfield in 1811, leaving numerous descendants to 
perpetuate the name. He was succeeded in the Pittsfield pas- 
torate by his son, the Rev. William Allen, who subsequently 
became president of Bowdoin College, and was quite well known 
as an author in New England half a century ago. 

Nine brothers and three sisters constituted the family of 
Rev. Thomas Allen at the time of his death. All of these 
were persons of high social standing and more than ordinary 
intellectual attainments. 

Jonathan Allen, father of the subject of this sketch, was a 
man of no little force of character. Several times he repre- 
sented his native county in the lower branch of the Massachu- 
setts legislature, and also in the upper house. During the war of 
1812, he was a quartermaster in the army, and was stationed at 
Pittsfield, where at that time was maintained a large recruiting 


station and prison depot. Subsequently he was one of the 
founders of the Berkshire Agricultural Society, which proved 
to be the model for most of the agricultural societies in this 
country, and which still maintains a high rank as one of the 
most noted of the societies organized to promote the interests 
of the farming class. Of this society Mr. Allen was several 
times made president. 

As early as 1809 he became interested in the improvement of 
American flocks, and was one of the first importers of tine 
wool sheep. To carry out his design in this matter he made 
a voyage to Europe and visited Lisbon, where he purchased a 
select invoice of fine merinos from the famous flock of the 
Count of Montaco. Mr. Allen was a man of considerable cul- 
ture, and his essays and occasional addresses which have been 
preserved show him to have been a gentleman of no little vigor 
of thought. 

Jonathan Allen was twice married. His first wife was 
Elizabeth Marsh, who was a grand-daughter of Col. Israel 
Williams, noted as a loyalist during the revolutionary war. 
Col. Williams in his dav Avas the most distinguished member 
of a family which in ante-revolutionary times had been famous 
for its long array of divines, jurists, and soldiers. This union 
resulted in two children. By the death of this lady Mr. Allen 
was left with a family yet in infancy, and reason and policy 
alike suggested another alliance. Accordingly he united him- 
self with Eunice Williams Earned, daughter of Darius Earned, 
of Pittsfield. and grand-daughter of that Col. Williams already 
mentioned. Of this union eight children were born. 

Hon. Thomas Allen, the subject of this sketch, is the third 
child of Jonathan and Eunice W. Earned Allen, of Pitts- 
field, and was born August 29, 1813. At this time the parents 
of Thomas Allen resided on the glebe of one hundred acres, 
which, with other lands, had been assigned in accordance with 
provincial law to the first mhiister of the town. The Allen 
homestead was situated not more than two hundred yards from 
the center of the village. 

The scenery about Pittsfield is charming, with hills and 
dales and mountain slopes, and purling brooks, with here and 
there meadows and farms, and groves of ancient elms, and 


venerable farm-houses surrounded by gardens and orchards, 
which altogether presents a picture of beauty and loveliness 
well calculated to make those who constantly gaze upon such 
a landscape stronger, nobler, better. It was amid such scenes 
as these that Mr. Allen, passed the days of his childhood and 
early youth. 

When of a suitable age he attended the ' ' Academy ' ' of 
Pittsfield, for a short time, when his course was cut short by 
the removal of his father and family to a farm some miles 
from the village. The old method of common-school instruc- 
tion still prevailed, and the opportunities of advancement in 
scholarship in a country school were exceedingly limited. In 
winter the neighborhood school was presided over by a master 
who laid down the ferule with the coming of the spring-birds, 
and found more congenial occupation in cultivatmg the growing 
crops. In summer, a ma'am ruled in the country school. It 
would be unreasonable to expect the best educational results 
under such circumstances. Yet it was in schools so conducted 
that Mr. Allen laid the foundation of the solid scholarship and 
extensive information which is so prominent a characteristic of 
the man. 

It is undoubtedly true that much of the progress in 
learning made in these youthful days was due to the refinement 
and culture which pervaded the home of the Aliens. Into 
that home guests w^ere welcomed Avliose conversation must 
have been lessons to the younger members of the family. 

The Allen farm lay along the banks of the charming Hou- 
satonic ; and here, it is probable, the subject of this article 
acquired that taste for rural pursuits and pastimes, which is 
still a predominent feature in his character. His father's 
meadows in summer time was his Arcadia. The trout in the 
brook, the woodcock that nestled in the alders, quails and 
snipes, in turn became a prey to the youthful sportsman. He 
became an excellent marksman, and a skillful angler. But 
Hon, Thomas Allen, even as a boy, had higher aspirations than 
to make hay, shoot woodcock in the meadows, or capture the 
sportive, speckled trout. In the midst of this dreamy, yet 
active life of youth, an event happened at Pittsfield Avhich 
doubtless has exerted a marked influence over the subsequent 


career of Mr. Allen. Professor Chester Dewey, having 
resigned his chair at Williams College, established a seminary, 
since become quite famous, known as the Berkshire Gymnasium, 
at Pittsfield. Perhaps this circumstance confirmed the already 
expressed purpose of the elder Allen to give his son a liberal 
education, and, accordingly, Thomas was entered as a student 
in the Berkshire Gymnasium,- where he completed his prepara- 
tory course. 

It was while a student in this institution that Mr. Allen 
acquired a taste for literary composition, which has in no small 
measure influenced the whole course of his life. The youths 
at that institution published a weekly paper, of which Mr. 
Allen %vas an editor and contributor. A file of this old-time 
amateur journal is still preserved in the Berkshire Athenaeum. 

Having been fitted for college, Mr. Allen entered a student 
at Union College in 1829, having attained his sixteenth year 
but a few days prior to the commencement of his first terra. 
He maintained a good standing in his classes, and graduated 
in 1832. In consequence of his having left the college a few 
days before that fixed upon for conferring the graduation 
honors he received no award of honors from the faculty. He 
was elected to the position of a valedictorian to the class by 
the Philomathean Society, and delivered an address on the 
occasion, which obtained for him much applause. 

Mr. Allen commenced the study of the law a short time 
before his term at college had expired. He resolved to pursue 
that study with all diligence, but was compelled to flee from 
Albany on account of the approach of the Asiatic cholera 
scouro-e, which raged with great virulence there. Before he 
could resume his studies his father had sufiered heavy pecu- 
niary losses, which rendered it impossible for him to proceed 
as before. 

Mr. Allen was thus thrown upon his own resources at the 
age of twenty years. His father gave him twenty-five dollars, 
and he set out for New York, determined to win for himself a 
place in the ranks of the men of the metropolis. He arrived 
in that- city on the 18th of October, 1832, and took lodging at 
a private boarding-house, at the corner of Broadway and Wall 
Street. His stock of funds was not sufficient to allow him to 


lead a life of ease. He was compelled to sustain himself 
while he carried out his original design of preparing himself 
for the practice of the law. Fortunately, the law student 
found a place in the office of Messrs. Hatch & Cambrcleng, 
attorneys at law, Wall Street. His position was that of a 
clerk, with the privilege of reading the books, and the duty of 
doing much work, for all of which he received the sum of 
three hundred dollars per annum. 

In 1834 Mr, Allen became the editor of the Farn^ly Maga- 
zine^ an illustrated monthl}- journal published by J. S. Red- 
field. The duties of this position were performed during 
moments snatched from the intervals of other employments. 
About this time, Mr. Allen was engaged by the leading law- 
book publishers of New York to assist in preparing a digest of 
the laws of that State from the earliest times, which service 
he performed to the satisfaction of those who employed him, 
and received, after a year's labor, a small but select law 
library as his compensation. 

Mr. Allen Avas admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court 
of New York in 1835. The same year he received from Union 
College his degree of Master of Arts, and was elected a mem- 
ber of the Phi Beta Kappa of New York. 

In 1836, Mr. Allen, by speeches and articles in the public 
journals, supported Martin Van Buren for President. In 1837 
he visited Illinois, to look after the real estate interests of his 
uncle. General E. W. Ripley. Previous to this time he had 
been stopping in Washington ; and at one time negotiations 
had been entertained by him to become one of the editors of 
the Globe, which, however, resulted in no understanding 
mutually satisfactory. 

The Illinois land investigating tour of Mr. Allen suddenly 
terminated on his arrival at Peoria, where he first learned of 
the general suspension of payments and the great financial dis- 
tress of the country. He at once, in alnsvver to the earnest 
solicitation of eminent persons, set out for the East. The 
prospectus of the Madisonian was soon issued, and in a short 
time Mr. Allen was at his post in Washington, where, on the 
16th of August, 1837, the first number of the new organ was 
issued, with Thomas Allen as editor. The position of the 


editor may be briefly summed in a sentence, "A mixed cur- 
rency is essential to a highly civilized commercial State." 
The sub-treasury scheme of President Van Buren was not 
agreeable to the views of the editor of the 3Iadisonian, who 
had already announced his position on the currency question, 
and determined to maintain it still. At an election by Con- 
gress for public printer, the candidates vv^ere Gale & Seaton of 
the JSfational Intellif/encer, and Blair & Rives of the Globe, 
and Thomas Allen of the Madisonian ; the last-named, after a 
warm contest of three days' duration, was named public 

The Madisonian became the chief opposition organ during 
the Van Buren administration. In 1840, Mr. Allen's choice 
for President Avas Hon. William C. Rives, of Virginia, a 
moderate Democrat. But when Harrison and Tyler received 
the nomination of the AVhigs, Mr. Allen, still being opposed 
to the Van Buren party, gave them his unhesitating and ardent 
support. In 1840, on the 11th of April, the office of the 
Madisonian was destroyed by lire, but the paper was imme- 
diately re-established. During the short presidency of Har- 
rison, Mr. Allen's position was one of distinguished influence, 
and was maintained during the first years of Tyler's adminis- 
tration . 

The unsatisfactory phase assumed by national politics, dur- 
ing the early part of President Tjder's administration, induced 
Mr. Allen to consider the (juestion of a removal to the West. 
His relations with the President, and with the leading states- 
men at the Capital were of the most friendly character, and 
Mr. Webster offered the services of his great intellect and able 
pen to Mr. Allen if he would remain in Washington and con- 
tinue the Madisonian. The prospect of a long and bitter po- 
litical struggle was not agreeable to the feelings of Mr. Allen, 
and he resolved to abandon a field where abundant success had 
attended his eftbrts. 

In the spring of 1842 the subject of this sketch arrived in 
St. Louis with a view of making it his permanent home. 
On the twelfth day of July in that year, he was united in 
'marriage with Miss Ann C. Russell, daughter of William Rus- 
sell, Esq., of this city. 


Mr. Allen at first opened a law office in St. Louis, but, in 
1843, when his business aflairs at Washington were closed, he 
found himself in a position to choose his pursuits without ref- 
erence to immediate necessities. He soon closed the law office 
which he had opened in St. Louis, and began to devote his 
attention to public interests, with abilities and zeal which 
have produced great results for himself, as well as for the 
city and State of his adoption, and which arc not confined 
within State limits. 

For a few years he contented himself with the publication 
of a few papers on general subjects, and pushing some local 
projects for the good of the city, including the establishment 
of the St. Louis Horticultural Society, of which he became 

He also made a thorough study of the physical geography 
and resources of the Mississippi Valley, and in 1847, at the 
request of the St. Louis delegates to the convention held that 
year at Chicago, prepared a pamphlet upon the commerce and 
navigation of the river, which showed that his researches in 
that portion of the subject had been thorough and laborious. 

In 1848 began those labors in behalf of internal improve- 
ments in Missouri and neighboring States, which have contin- 
ued ever since, and have accomplished results which could 
hardly have been hoped for at that time. 

St. Louis, although she had some enterprising citizens, and 
was by the force of her natural position a thriving, wealthy 
and populous city, with great geographical advantages for fur- 
ther growth, was in 1849 by no means the bold, ambitious, 
public-spirited metropolis which she now is. 

In 1848 Mr. Allen wrote an address to the citizens of St. 
Louis in favor of the construction of the St. Louis & Cincin- 
nati Railway. 

At that time there were about seven thousand miles of 
railroad in the whole United States — not a mile of it Avest of 
the Mississippi River. But various projects had been broached 
for a line to the Pacific coast, and early in 1849, Senator Ben- 
ton, of Missouri, brought into Congress his famous bill for the 
accomplishment of the project. The idea was strikingly con- 
sonant with Mr. Allen's views, and at a large meeting of the 


citizens of St. Louis, called to take action on the subject, on 
the 20th of February, he reported resolutions strongly in favor 
of a national central highway to the Pacific, which were unani- 
mously passed and received a hearty response from the State 

In the October following, under a call of the citizens of St. 
Louis, written by Mr, Allen, a national convention assembled 
in this city, delegates from fourteen States being present. 
Senator Benton, Mr. Allen and others, made speeches in favor 
of the enterprise, and to Mr. Allen was entrusted the prepara- 
tion of an address-to the people of the United States and a 
memorial to Congress. 

The question of building a railroad to the Pacific coast had 
already excited a vast amount of attention, and railroad char- 
ters were from time to time granted, but the corporators were 
indifferent, and did not even take the trouble to organize the 
companies authorized b}^ acts of the legislature. Such a char- 
ter had passed in the legislature of Missouri. 

There was no purpose of any immediate use of the charter 
by the corporators ; but it dwelt upon the mind of Mr. Allen, 
who, from this time, devoted himself energetically to the sub- 
ject, contending almost single-handed against prejudice, timid- 
ity and apathy. In January, 1850, he called public attention 
to the charter, in a card, and invited a meeting of the corpora- 
tors. The meeting was held, and, as a result of the investiga- 
tion and thought which he had concentrated upon the subject, 
he read an address whose comprehensiveness of view, accuracy 
and fullness of detail, and earnestness of manner were irresist- 
ibly convincing. One hundred and fifty-four thousand dollars 
of the stock were taken on the spot, the address was circulated 
freely, and Mr. Allen was soon after elected president of the 
company. Ground was broken on the road July 4, 1851, and 
the contractors were fairly at work in September. 

In 1850 Mr. Allen was chosen for four years to the Senate 
of Missouri, whei-e he was immediately made chairman of the 
Committee of Internal Improvements. 

In the position to which he had been called as a legislator, 
he labored with fidelity and consummate abilit}^ to advance the 
industrial interests of the State. The results of such well- 


directed efforts could not prove ephemeral in character. Much 
of the subsequent growth in wealth and power of the State is 
due to the intelligent and far-sighted measures proi)osed and 
advocated by Hon. Thomas Allen. 

MeauAvhile, he had not relinquished any part of his interest 
in the great work of completing the Pacific railway. Travel- 
ing on horseback along the proposed route of the road, he 
roused the slumbering energies of the })eople in behalf of a 
work "which, so nearly concerned them, and procured numer- 
ous petitions to Congress for a grant of land in its aid. Armed 
with these, and rendered more familiar with the resources of 
the region to be opened by the road, he proceeded to AYash- 
ington and presented his case so strongly that in June, 1852, 
an act was passed granting alternate sections of land — the first 
encouragement given by Congress to a Pacific railroad. 

In 1854 Mr. Allen retired from the Senate, declining the 
renomination which was tendered him. The next few years 
of his life were largely, although not entirely, given to his 
private affairs, which had suffered somewhat by his exclusive 
devotion to the interest of the Pacific Railroad, his property, 
consisting in great part of city lots, then unimproved. 

In 1857 he was chosen president of the Terre Haute, Alton 
& St. Louis Railroad, but finding it deeply involved in debt, 
withdrew at the end of the year, recommending a re-organiza- 
tion . 

Mr. Allen espoused the cause of the Union during the late 
war, and was active in support of measures to carry out his 
principles. He was nominated a candidate for Congress by 
the "Unconditional Union Men" in 1862. His loyalty to the 
Government, which had been so openly manifested, was as- 
persed at the time, and he was defeated by means to which ex- 
treme partisans resorted in those troublous times. 

In 1865, Mr. Allen, with his eldest son and daughter, visited 
Great Britain and the continent of Europe. 

In 1866 he presented a plan for the liquidation of the 
national debt, by a grand patriotic subscrii)tion, in commu- 
tation of taxes, and also based, in part, on repayment in public 

On the completion of his house at Pittsfield, Mr. Allen 


had proposed to himself to pause in his arduous business 
career and devote himself to the rural pursuits he loves so 
well ; but his is not a nature to so pause when scarcely past 
the meridian of life. 

He himself expressed, on one occasion, the irresistible 
impulse to action which doomed him to a life of labor in the 
following words : 

" I have sometimes felt compelled to admit the truth of a 
remark made by one of my attorneys, that I am condemned 
by the Almighty to hard labor for the term of my natural life. 
What caused the sentence I do not know, but I admit its 
justice and submit to it, and thiit certainly not merely to 
amass the goods of this world, for I have long since had a 
sufficiency of them." 

It was a little more than two years before the date of this 
speech and that while Mr. Allen was haunted by his life- 
sentence, an irresistible opportunity invited him back to the 
railroad field of Missouri. The Iron Mountain road, which had 
received large subsidies from the State and from the city of 
St. Louis, was surrendered to the State unfinished, in part on 
account of the civil troubles which had recently ended. It 
was intended by this route to open the richest mineral lands 
of Missouri — some of the richest in the world — to a market ; 
while extending by its charter to Belmont, opposite the city 
of Columbus, in Kentucky, it was the great trunk line which 
should bring the traffic of the South and Southwest to St. 
Louis. Closely connected with it was the Cairo & Fulton 
Railroad, extending to the Arkansas boundary. In the imme- 
diate rivalry of cities, as well as for the permanent interests 
of Missouri, it was essential that these roads — especially the 
Iron Mountain — should be speedily completed. To this end 
the Legislature ordered their sale, by commissioners, to the 
highest and 6e6-< bidders : the latter qualiBcation was added, 
as energy, experience and resources, in large measure, were 
indisj)ensable to the rapid execution of the work. 

The two roads were sold together. We will not go into 
the particulars of the sale, which was complicated by politi- 
cians and speculators ; but Mr. Allen, who had been over-bid, 
was able to purchase the roads and their franchise from the 


successful bidders for one million dollars, with an obligation 
to the State to complete the Iron Mountain road in five years. 

A committee of the Legislature, who afterwards examined 
the matter, thought the difference of two hundred and seventy- 
five thousand dollars between the price which Mr. Allen gave 
the speculators and that which he ofiered the commissioners, 
was well paid "to individuals who would stand as first pur- 
chasers between him and the abuse of politicians." It did 
not, however, altogether avail him, for the Governor, the next 
year, seized the road on pretext of some variation in the time 
of progress, although it was conceded that on the whole the 
advance was greater than that agreed upon. 

Upon this Mr. Allen appealed to the Legislature, where, 
in a thorough investigation and discussion of the facts, he so 
completely sustained himself, that that body, more than rati- 
fying his previous title, vested the property and franchise of 
the road absolutely in himself, his heirs and assigns, subject 
only to his obligation to complete it in the specified time, 
tendering also the State aid for a branch to Arkansas, which 
he has since Iniiit. The road was, in fact, complete in August, 
1869 — the purchase having been made in January, 1867 — in 
less than half the time allowed by the contract. According 
to "Poor's Railroad Manual," having a length of two hun- 
dred and ten miles, it cost, including real estate and rolling 
stock, $10,380,000, and has a funded debt of $4,000,000. Mr. 
Allen is still President and chief owner. 

In 1871, he, wnth his associates, purchased the Cairo & 
Fulton Railroad of Arkansas, an extension of the road of the 
same name in Missouri, bought in 1867. 

The system of roads under Mr. Allen's control embraces 
about seven hundred miles of track, and is altogether the most 
imi^ortant line centering at St. Louis. Since the completion 
of his great railway system, Mr. Allen has devoted himself 
with great assiduity to the management of his vast railroad 
and real estate interests. Though long ago the possessor of 
an immense fortune, yet Mr. Allen labors as assiduously as 
any man in the State — in fact he is a hard-worker. 

In 1877, some of the bondholders became dissatisfied with 
Mr. Allen's management, because he would not sacrifice the 


interests of St. Louis and the State which he had adopted, 
and made an effort to place the road in the hands of a re- 
ceiver. The attempt proved a failure, much to the gratifica- 
tion of all true friends of the city and State. 

We have thus briefly noted some of the principal incidents 
in the career of a gentleman who has perhaps accomplished 
more in the work of building up the State and promoting its 
industrial development than any man who has ever lived with- 
in her borders. But we have not given a sufficient account of 
the gentleman whose name heads this article. Mr. Allen has 
been foremost in the advocacy of the cause of education, and 
has proved his interest in that cau&a by endowing a chair in 
the faculty of Washington University, at an expense of more 
than forty thousand dollars. Mr. Allen is everywhere recog- 
nized as a clear-headed and brilliant thinker. He has found time 
amid the multifarious labors which he has had to perform to 
carefully watch the political progress of the country, and his 
views on all questions of national politics have been eagerly 
sought by politicians and statesmen. Mr. Allen is evidently 
a believer in the wisdom inherent in the aggregate mass of the 
people, hence his general sympathy with the aspirations of the 
masses. His views on financial and other questions are some- 
what new, but clear and practical, and in full accord with the 
general tone of Western sentiment. It must not be inferred 
that Mr. Allen is wanting in independence of thought on every 
question. His whole career presents him as a man who bor- 
rows thoughts from no one, aild who is eminently capable of 
originating ideas. 

A large number of Mr. Allen's personal and political 
friends solicited him to address a public meeting at St. Charles, 
on the evening of the 22d of May, 1878. Mr. Allen responded 
in an address, which for clearness, force, and gracefulness of 
diction has been seldom equaled in this State by any of its able 
men. His views are singularly harmonious with the general 
tone of Western sentiment. The folio wino; extract is a succinct 
statement of his opinion of the character of our Government : 

<' Can we not have," he demanded, "a higher deo-ree of 
prosperity and better government at a less cost? This is one 
of the constantly recurring problems. Parties have been 


divided for seventy-seven years. All profess to have a com- 
mon object, but differ as to the mode of attaining it. These 
differences, however, as they relate to constitutional construc- 
tion, are radical. As they relate to ethics or political econ- 
omy, they are sovereign matters of incessant controversy. 
We are not the founders of our government, but we imagine 
that our fathers founded an ideal republic which we possess 
and enjoy. It is our business and duty to maintain and defend 
it in its purity, and to administer its government without ex- 
travagance, fraud or injustice. We ought to see to it that it 
is kept within its proper sphere, and that nothing is to be 
allowed for one citizen or for one State that is not conceded to 
all other citizens and all other States. That we vigilantly 
preserve the foundations of equal rights and equal protection 
in all things which concerns the States in the Union, and in all 
that concerns the souls and bodies of men, their lives, liberties 
property, homes, families, education and religion. The de- 
fense and maintenance of our republican system includes hon- 
esty and economical administration, a.nd necessarily implies the 
equal distribution of the burdens as well as of the blessings of 
government, and constant improvement, which includes the 
suppression and prevention of corruptions and abuses. These 
are the duties to which all citizens are called, and these Ave de- 
fine to be cardinal doctrines of democrats." 

On the pressing questions of the day, the labor and finan- 
cial problems, for instance, Mr. Allen is very clear and quite 
in harmony with the people of the great West, leaning strong- 
ly toward the French fiscal system, which, he believes, if ap- 
plied to this country, would bring prosperity and solve all de- 
pendent questions. 



St. Louis, Iroa Moimtm 







Bismarck ^^ \V.» 




^Poplar Bluff.<^''^" ^\ 



Few cities can boast of as many railroad advantages as St. 
Louis. Many of the railroads making this city their terminal 
point have been built within comparatively a very recent 
period. Such is the fact, however, with regard to a large 
number of the important railways in all parts of the United 
States. It has been computed that in 1870 there were about 
one hundred and twenty-hve thousand miles of railroads con- 
structed in the world, and that they had cost, on an average, 
about one hundred thousand dollars a mile for their construc- 
tion and equipment, having thus led to the creation of an 
invested capital of some twelve thousand millions of dollars — 
an amount of wealth which can be represented in figures, but 
which is too vast to be grasped by the mind so as to be clearly 

In the United States, where the railroad has become more 
a necessary condition of existence than in any other country 
in the world — not even excepting England — there were, in 
1871, according to reliable statistics, nearly fifty thousand 
miles of railroads constructed, and the yearly increase had 
risen from an average of five hundred miles annually some 
thirty years ago, or two thousand miles ten years ago, to 
twenty thousand miles in 1871. This amount of miles, it is 
estimated, caused the expenditure of eight hundred millions 
of dollars. The number of miles of railroad projected and 
completed the following year fell but little short of that 
recorded for 1871. The social, the financial, the commercial, 
and the industrial effects, which are the inevitable results of 
this new agent, furnish inexhaustible subjects for reflection 
and comment. 



The labor employed, no less than the immense capital 
invested, makes the railroading interest a large factor in the 
evolution of society, the relation of one to the other being so 
intimate that every influence which aflfects the one carries a 
corresponding influence upon the other. Thus we observe 
that labor strikes and adverse railroad legislation not only 
injure the railway companies, but the serious injury is reflected 
and magnified upon the people, but it is upon the producer 
particularly that the most serious consequences fall. The 
result, therefore, in every instance, is the very opposite of that 
sought, and until this fact is recognized there can be no equilib- 
rium of the forces which build up and replenish our resources 
and succor and sustain labor. The true interest of fanners, 
mechanics, laborers of every class, and the entire people, 
is therefore found in the success of our railroads, while the 
roads are also dependent on the prosperity of the people. 
The inter-dependency, in fact, of these great interests should 
be manifest, and when universally recognized, all differences 
will be forever adjusted. 

In making special mention of some of the most important 
railways terminating at St. Louis, and noting something of 
their history, value, extent and commercial influence, it will 
be deemed proper to begin with the St. Louis, Iron Mountain 
& Southern Railway, especially inasmuch as the vast extent 
of country opened up by this great railway enterprise had 
hitherto been almost wholly unknown to the commerce of 
this city. 

In the year 1858, the Iron Mountain Railway was comple- 
ted and put into operation between St. Louis and Pilot Knob, 
in Iron County, a distance of eighty-five miles ; and for several 
years this road was extended no further than the famous iron 
mines in that county, which gave the road its first name — 
"Iron Mountain." From 1860 to 1865, nothing could be 
done in the way of pushing the construction of the road for- 
ward, as during that period of our history the prosecution of 
all such enterprises was of course necessarily postponed. 
Very soon thereafter, however, Hon. Thomas Allen, the 
President of the road, began to adopt measures lookins: to the 
completion of this great railway thoroughfare, and almost 


RAILWAYS. ■ 149 

unaided, succeeded in negotiating for sufficient funds to accom- 
plish the end in view. 

St. Louis had secured a lucrative trade with several of the 
Trans-Mississippi Southern States, such as Kentucky, Tennes- 
see, Mississippi, Alabama and Georgia, and as a very large 
number of the orders from those States for goods, provisions, 
etc., was received here during the winter months when the 
river was closed to navigation, Mr. Allen was urged by the 
merchants especially, to first complete a railway track from 
Bismarck, on the Iron Mountain road, about seventy-five miles 
from St. Louis, to Belmont, Missouri, on the Mississippi 
River, opposite Columbus, Kentucky, and below the line of 
ice gorges. By such means St. Louis would secure direct 
connection with the Mobile & Ohio Railroad, and be enabled 
also, when necessary, to utilize the Memphis and Vicksburg 
steamers from Belmont or Columbus, down the river during 
the season of suspended navigation on the Upper Mississippi. 

Desirous of subserving the commercial interests of St. 
Louis to the extent of every means at his command. President 
Allen directed the branch road to be pushed forward to an 
<;arly comjDletion. This section of road was one hundred and 
twenty miles in length, and was a costly line of railroad to 
build, traversing, as it does, for a considerable portion of the 
distance, a country of very uneven surface. But it was b}^ 
dint of commendable energy completed in due time, and the 
rush of freight over it often exceeded the carrying capacity of 
the road, especially during the winter season. This line of 
railway has become the popular route between St. Louis and 
all points in the Trans-Mississippi Southern States. 

In 1872, the Arkansas branch of the road was completed, 
ninety nine miles in length, from Pilot Knob to the State line 
of Arkansas, and about the same time the Cairo, Arkansas 
& Texas Railroad, seventy-one miles* in length, was comple- 
ted and put into running operation. This road extends from 
a point on the Mississippi River, opposite Cairo, to Poplar 
Bluff, Butler County, Missouri, where it connects with the 
Iron Mountain. The Cairo & Fulton Railroad, from Little 
Rock to the Missouri State line, was the next important link 
in the great thoroughfare which was finally completed by 


extendins: the road from Little Rock to Texarkana, on the 
Texas State line, thus furnishing St. Louis with a complete 
first-class railway line to Galveston and all other prominent 
cities and terminal points in the State of Texas. It will thus 
be seen that several valuable railways have been united to 
form this great corporation : The Iron Mountain Railroad, the 
Arkansas branch of the Iron Mountain, the Belmont or Colum- 
bus branch of the same, the Cairo, Arkansas & Texas, and 
the Cairo & Fulton. These were all consolidated under the 
present title of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern 

By an act of Congress in 185o, and a subsequent act of 
the same body of July 28, 1860, a grant of land was confirmed 
to the company, consisting of six thousand four hundred acres 
to each mile of road constructed and operated in Arkansas, 
extending to twenty miles on each side of the track, thus 
comi3rising ten full sections of six hundred and forty acres 
each to the mile. A donation of county lands in Butler County^ 
Missouri, has also been obtained, as well also as a land grant 
from the General Government to the Cairo, Arkansas & Texas 
Railroad, lying in several of the best of the southeastern 
counties of Missouri, making a total of nearly one million 
four hundred thousand acres of most desirable land now at 
the disposal of this company. Of these lands one million 
three hundred thousand acres are located in Arkansas, and 
nearly one hundred thousand acres in Missouri. 

For general farming purposes these lands can not easily be 
excelled anywhere. The fertility of the soil is well nigh inex- 
haustible. In both climate and soil the lands are well adapted 
to the production of corn, wheat, oats, tobacco, cotton and 
hemp — the great leading staple products of the American 
continent. Besides this, stock-raising can be successfully 
carried on in any portion of country where they are located. 
The climate is mild in winter and the temperature of the 
summer is no greater than in Southern Illinois. The growing 
and maturing season is lengthy, being usually from February 
until November, thus admitting of the growth and maturity 
of all manner of crops adapted to the temperate zone. The 
country abounds in clear, living springs and unfailing streams 


of water and drought at any season of the year is unheard of. 
Water power is abundant, and saw and grist mills arc already 
quite numerous and accessible at convenient distances along 
the line of the road. Many of these lands containing the 
finest of oak and walnut, the manufacture of lumber is be- 
ginning to engage attention and is considered an excellent 

There are immense forests of graceful oaks, hickories, 
cypress, catalpa, pines, and many other variety of timber, 
the graceful foliage of which makes the scenery most pictur- 
esque and lovely, and in which the sound of the axe or saw has 
never been heard. The road plunges through the midst of the 
primeval solitudes, and growing within a few yards of the great 
iron highway are thousands of giant trees, the embryo of many 
cities, ocean steamers, and furnit ure for a nation. The pineries 
of Missouri and Arkansas are valuable almost beyond computa- 
tion ; and, when considering their proximity to St. Louis, and 
the facilities for bringing the timber into market, it is a matter 
of the greatest surprise that no more effort has been made to 
utilize this growing wealth. These lands offer an opportunity 
for remunerative speculation incomparably greater than an in- 
vestment in any other kind of real estate, while to the hus- 
bandman who settles upon them there is a sure reward for his 
industry more satisfactory than a settlement upon prairie 
lands of the West, which are generally destitute of timber, 
the first requisite essential to the success of the agri- 
culturist. A small outlay here gives large and almost im- 
mediate returns, and the source of supply is well-nigh inex- 
haustible. The labor, too, is neither hard nor difficult, but in 
many respects is an absolute pleasure, especially to the lum- 

The best of lumber can be obtained at small expense, as 
saw-mills take pay for their work in lumber, and the valuable 
timber on much of the land Avould bring in lumber ten times 
the price asked for the land. A supply of fine timber is a 
mine of wealth to the farmer in time and money saved, as the 
owners of prairie farms, who have to haul their fuel and fencing 
five to ten miles, will readily admit. Fine bodies of rich, 
productive lands, such as these, and situated on a great laihvay 


thoroughfare, within easy reach of a first-class market, are 
not often found for sale on terms which enable the poorest of 
people to buy and own them. 

The railway company offer these lands to persons who may 
wish to purchase, on ten years' credit. At the time of the 
purchase only six per cent, interest on the cost of the land 
need be paid. The same sum is required the second year. 
The third year one-ninth of the principal and six per cent, 
interest on the remaining part of the principal, and each year 
thereafter another ninth of the principal and six per cent, 
interest on the remainder is required, and so on until all the 
purchase money is paid. The prices of these lands range from 
two dollars and fifty cents to ten dollars per acre, according 
to their proximity to any shipping station on the line of the 
railway. Occasionally, of course, there are some very choice 
parcels of land belonging to the company that are held some- 
what higher than the prices mentioned. But all are exceed- 
ingly cheap and easily obtainable by any man of ordinary 
industry. If parties desire to pay all cash at the time of 
purchase, or part cash with shorter time between the deferred 
payments, a fair and equitable deduction is made. With such 
favorable opportunities to acquire homes and become proprie- 
tors of the soil, many people of even comparatively indigent 
circumstances have little excuse for crowding the many dilapi- 
dated and unwholesome tenements of the laro:er cities. 

Those desiring full particulars concerning these lands, or 
any portion of them, will receive satisfactory information on 
the subject by addressing Hon. Thomas Essex, Land Commis- 
sioner at Little Kock, Arkansas, at the company's depot. He 
is well informed regarding everj^thing pertaining to his depart- 
ment, and his statements can be implicitly relied upon. Com- 
munications touching the same matter of inquiry and in rela- 
tion to the lands in Missouri also may be addressed to W. A. 
Kendall, Esq., Assistant Land Commissioner at St. Louis, 
who will give them immediate attention. Any who may wish 
a personal interview with Mr. Kendall will find him in the 
land department at the general offices of the company, sit- 
uated on the northwest corner of Fifth and Market streets, 
St. Louis. 


It will be seen that the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & South- 
ern Railway is one of the most important thoroughfares in 
the West. It has six hundred and eighty-five miles of road 
in actual operation, and with its connections affords to St. 
Louis a trade area of almost unlimited value. It opens the 
door to Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama and Geor- 
gia, in the Southeast, and to Arkansas, Texas and Mexico, in 
the Southwest. By its course through Arkansas and its 
numerous and extensive Texas connections, it has brousfht to 
St. Louis a trade in cotton which has already been worth to 
the city millions of dollars. Cotton is specially mentioned 
because it is comparatively a new trade at this point, and for 
the further reason that it promises great expansion in the 
future. By far the largest part of the one million five hun- 
dred thousand acres of land owned b}^ the railway company 
is timbered, very fertile and tillable, and it is not assuming 
too much to say that in every ten years at least one hundred 
thousand acres of this new land will be brought under cotton 
culture, thus furnishing an increase of about seventy-five 
thousand bales of cotton in St. Louis receipts, to say nothing 
of the natural increase of that commodity on lands not belong- 
ing to the company, in both Arkansas and Texas, 

Within the past three years another important branch of 
road has been built, giving direct rail connection with Hot 
Springs, by forming a junction with the Iron Mountain Rail- 
road at Malvern, twenty-five miles distant. This already 
famous resort for invalids is daily becoming more noted and 
popular, and it is not chimerical to prophesy that one day 
Hot Springs will be the greatest resort of the kind in the 
world. One serious drawback to its greater notoriety is the 
disputed title to the Springs, lately adjudicated in favor of the 
Gdvernment ; but with a complete settlement of this annoying 
question, capital will'be invested sufficient to make the Springs 
the finest on the continent ; magnificent hotels and public 
buildings will be put up, and the uncouth valley in its natural 
ruggedness will be transformed into rich scenery and busy life. 

Little Rock is another important point on the Iron Moun- 
tain, which is growing rapidly, and already stands the 
acknowledged metropolis of the great State of Arkansas, 


pregnant with promises of the greatest city in the Southwest, 
a distributing point for the cotton and cereal product of that 
section, and an immense manufacturing city. Her tributary 
connection with St. Louis is such that the prosperity of Little 
Kock is the prosperity of our own city, and she is therefore 
entitled to our assistance. The trade with the Southwest, 
opened up by the Iron Mountain road, is in its incipiency, but 
its growth and development is surprisingly rapid. 

We have mentioned Poplar Bluff, Missouri, and Texarkana, 
as railway junctions. I^oplar Bluff, situated on Black River, 
which from its clearness well merits the name "Le Claire," is 
a very promising town, surrounded by the most favorable 
country both in the high and in the low lands. No district 
can present better timber and richer lands than the bottoms ; 
nor can the advantages of the high lands be surpassed. It is 
a center for much of the business from Arkansas west of White 
River, and draws much of the trade from Ripley and more 
western counties of Missouri. 

Texarkana is at the junction of various railroads, and is 
also destined to be one of the principal cities of the South- 
western country. 

The St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway has 
always been and is managed with consummate ability and 
signal success. President Allen has been constant and unre- 
mitting in his efforts to perfect it in all its various departments, 
and in this he has been well and ably assisted by all the other 
officers of the corporation, among whom it will not be invidious 
to, mention the well-known and experienced General Manager, 
W. R. Arthur, Esq., and the worthy and popular Superintend- 
ent, Col. A. W. Soper, gentlemen of the very highest order 
of merit and managerial ability ; Mr. Marquand, Vice Presi- 
dent ; Mr. D. W. McWilliams, Treasurer ; Hon. S. D. Barlow, 
Secretary and Assistant Treasurer ; J. W. Wallace, Auditor ; 
Messrs. Thoroughman & Warren, Mr. W. R. Donaldson, and 
J. M. Moore, Attorneys ; Col. E. A. Ford, General Passenger 
Agent ; Seth Frink, General Freight Agent, and the Land 
Commissioner and Assistant, referred to elsewhere ; Mr. Bil- 
lings, Paymaster, and the other officers not mentioned here by 


name, comprise a corps of railroad officials difficult to excel 
anywhere in energy, experience and fidelity to trust. 

The Board of Directors is composed of the following named 
gentlemen : 

William II. Swift, New York ; John Bigelow, New York ; 
Joseph Lowrey, New York ; George C. Ward, New York ; 
George S. Morison, New York ; Henry G. Marquand, New 
York ; Thomas Essex, Little Rock ; Girard B. Allen, St. Louis ; 
Sylvester H. Laflin, St. Louis ; William R. Allen, St. Louis ; 
S. D. Barlow, St. Louis ; Thomas Allen, St. Louis. 



Any notice of the great lines of railroad radiating from St. 
Louis which did not include special mention of the St. Louis 
& Southeastern, would be far from complete. This enter- 
prising road has done much to extend the commerce of this 
city and open up a grand railway route — almost trans-con- 
tinental in extent — through the States of the Southeast to the 
Gulf of Mexico and the South Atlantic seaboard. Connect- 
ing, as it does, St. Louis with Nashville, Tenn., it extends 
through four great States, traversing in its course a wealthy, 
fertile and beautiful country, noted not less for its varied and 
enchanting scenery than for the value of its agricultural and 
mineral products. This road, though built within the past few 
years, already ranks among the most important in the West 
and South, having opened up to commerce avast areaof coun- 
try whose immense wealth in minerals — especially coal — cereals, 
tobacco and cotton, has added largely to the business of the 
towns and cities on its line and at its termini. 

The St. Louis and Southeastern furnishes the shortest and 
most direct route to Evansville, Nashville, Chattanooga, At- 
lanta, Augusta, Columbia, Tallahassee, Jacksonville, Fla., the 
ports on the Gulf and the seaboard cities of the Southeast. It 


is very fortunate in its numerous and close connections with 
other railroads, which enable passengers to easily reach places 
off the direct line of the road. It is, in fact, the shortest line 
between the Northwest and the Southeast. The entire train 
starts from the Union Depot in St. Louis and crosses the 
Mississippi River over the great steel bridge, and is the only 
line running Pullman sleeping cars on all night trains from 
St. Louis to Nashville, Tenn. ; close connections being made at 
Nashville with all trains for the South and Southeast. The 
passenger trains are made up of first-class coaches, well fur- 
nished, and combining all the modern improvements, including 
the Westinghouse air-brake and the Miller safety platform. 
The express trains leaving St. Louis daily by this popular 
through line arrive in Nashville ahead of all others. 

At Ashley, 111., about sixty miles from St. Louis, the South- 
eastern crosses the Illinois Central Railroad. At Enfield it 
crosses the Springfield branch of the Ohio & Mississippi Rail- 
road ; at Carmi the Cairo & Vincennes Railroad, and at Evans- 
ville connects with the Evansville & Crawfordsville Railroad, 
and the various lines of steamers on the Ohio River. From 
McLeansboro, 111., a branch extends to Shawneetown, cross- 
ing the Cairo & Vincennes road at Eldorado, and passing by 
the immense coal mines and salt wells at Equality, 111. ; at 
Nortonville, Ky., the Elizabethtown & Paducah Railroad is 
crossed ; at Guthrie the Memphis Division of the Louisville 
& Nashville ; and at Edgefield Junction a union is formed 
with the main line of the Louisville & Nashville road ; while at 
the city of Nashville, as already stated, connection is made with 
railroads traversing the South in every direction. 

The road is kept in excellent order and is well equipped in 
every respect, and its trains are always in charge of careful 
and competent men. According to a recent report of the Gen- 
eral Manager, the road is not only doing well for these times 
but steadily gaining ground. The freighting business is already 
large and rapidly increasing in volume, and must continue to 
increase as the productiveness of the country becomes more 
and more developed. Its share of the business arising from 
the interchange of products between the Northwestern grain- 
growing and Southeastern cotton and tobacco growing States 


is very large, and its local traffic will soon be fully equal to its 
capacity for transportation. The productive wheat, oats and 
corn lands along the line of the road, and the Avell-nigh inex- 
haustible coal fields over which it passes, will constantly prove 
never-failing sources of freightage, and will very materially 
affect the manufacturing interests of St. Louis, Evans\dlle and 
other cities on its line. The railway is under a most careful 
and able management and its patrons can always rely upon 
fair dealing and courteous treatment from its officers and 

The St. Louis & Southeastern Railway (consolidated), 
comprises the St. Louis Division, 151 miles in length ; the 
Nashville Division, 155 miles; the O'Fallon Branch, 6 miles, 
and the Shawneetown Branch, 42 miles. Total length of line 
of the road, 353 miles. The general offices of the company 
are among the most tastefully arranged and attractive in the 
city of St. Louis, and are located in the elegant new building 
on the northwest corner of Third and Chestnut streets. 

Of the officers of the Southeastern it is but just to say that 
they all are thoroughly competent men and faithful in the dis- 
charge of their respective duties. Gen. James H.Wilson, the 
General Manager of the road and its former Vice-President, is 
a gentleman of superior executive ability and of much decision 
and force of character. He is a thorough scholar, being a 
graduate of West Point, and is one whose talents and acquire- 
ments would distinguish him in any community or in any 
pursuit in life. Mr. John W. Mass, General Passenger and 
Ticket Agent, has been practically identified for many years 
with railroading in this country, and has been identified with 
the road from its beginning. He is a most energetic officer 
and thoroughly practical in all his business relations, with a 
complete knowledge of all the duties pertaining to his respon- 
sible position. Mr. Chauncey H. Crosby, General Freight 
Agent, also occupies an enviable position as a reliable, practical 
business man. He guards and manages the interests intrusted 
to him with fidelity ; and hence their prosperity. 



This proposed tnins-contineiital highway for commerce in 
many respects is the most important road St. Louis has. The 
objects of the corporation, as expressed in a pamphlet pub- 
lished several years ago, is to build a railroad connecting the 
interests of the Atlantic and Pacihc coasts, on a parallel of 
latitude (the 35th) perpetual! // free frotn snoir. The Atlantic 
& Pacific Railroad Compau}- was incorporated by an act of 
Congress July 27, 1866, and with the act of incorporation a 
grant of lands was made to the company of ten alternate 
sections on each side of the road when it was completed 
through any State, and twenty alternate sections when it was 
completed through any Territory. The road also came into 
possession of the lands donated to Missouri in 1852 as an in- 
centive for the construction of a raib'oad fi"om St. Louis to the 
western boundary of the State. 

In 1872 the Atlantic & Pacific road took a lease of the 
Missouri Pacific, and the roads were operated under a single 
management about four years, when a dissolution was made 
in 1876, when the name of the company was changed to the 
St. Louis & San Francisco Railway, and has since remained 
an independent organization. 

The road is now in complete running order to Vinita, 
Indian Territory, a distance of 365 miles, equal to the entire 
length of the State of Illinois. Some of the most important 
towns along the line of the road are Cuba, Rolla, Lebanon, 
Marshfield, Springfield, Pierce City, Granby, and Neosho, all 
thriving places, with good schools, fine churches, handsome 
public buildings, large stores, and every evidence of the most 
cultivated society. 

At Cuba the road forms connections with the St. Louis, 
Salem & Little Rock, a road of forty miles length, which j^en- 
etrates the rich iron regions of Dent and Crawford counties. 
At Pierce City it connects with the Missouri & Western Rail- 
road, which is completed to Oswego, Kansas, and has a branch 
running to Joplin, the largest town in Southwest Missouri, 
and the queen city of the greatest lead mines in the world. 
By these branches St. Louis is placed in direct relations with 



this invaluable mineral section, making the St. Louis & San 
Francisco Railway the conveyance for the millions pounds of 
lead and zinc mined and smelted for this market. Another 
connection at Pierce City will soon be made with a projected 
road extending to Fayetteville and Fort Smith, Arkansas, 
which, when completed, will prove a large feeder and valuable 

At Vinita the St. Louis & San Francisco connects with the 
Missouri, Kansas & Texas, and thereby forms a direct route 
to Texas and the great Southwest. 

By examining the map, showing connections and the 
counties this great road penetrates in its course towards the 
Paciiic slope, it will be seen that its importance to St. Louis 
cannot be overestimated. Starting from the great commercial 
center of the continent, it makes a graceful swoop down through 
the almost eternal spring of a developed and yet richer un- 
developed country, where the pregnant lands of a beautiful 
territor}' are impatient!}' awaiting the voice of the husband- 
man and the kiss of his plow. The germ of a big harvest lies 
on every hill and labors in the confines of every valley, avIumv^ 
it only awaits the turning of the sod to burst out in rich 

Through the great Southwest, upon an errand of immense 
commercial import, runs the St. Louis & San Francisco, con- 
fident in the near dawn of a new empire, in which the brawn 
of the farmer will rule, and the subjects will be the laughing 
grain and the noisome cattle. Of these beautiful and i)roliHc 


lands, over 900,000 acres are for sale on such terms as enable 
every man of the most limited means to own a tarm and be- 
come as independent as an autocrat ; to make himself a home 
where wealth, health and happiness are so complete and 
bounteous as to preclude the entrance of any ills or misfor- 
tunes. The work is but to sow the seed and reap the harvest. 
Concerning the officers of the St. Louis & San Francisco 
Railway, some mention at least is certainly appropriate in this 
connection. Hon. James Baker, the President, was for many 
years the attorney for the Atlantic & Pacific and the Missouri 
Pacific railroads, under the consolidation of the two roads. 
He is a gentleman of ripe experience, and his knowledge of 
the desiijns of the road and influence in the makino; of the 
Texas & Pacific Railroad an accomplished fact, make him an 
inestimable executive officer. 

C. W. Rogers, the Superintendent, has been actively con- 
nected with the road since 1871, and aside of his thorough 
railroad knowledge he has an unlimited number of friends, 
whose friendship is important to the road. He is devoted to 
his duties, always courteous, and his fitness for the position he 
occupies is conspicuous. 

D. Wishart, the General Freight and Passenger Agent, 
although not yet thirty years of age, is one of the most active 
and efficient men in the railroad service. His intuitive tact 
and thorouijh understandino- of his duties is acknowled2i:ed in 
railroad circles, and in the dual position he occupies no one 
could exhibit greater competence. 

W. H. Coffin, the courteous Land Commissioner of the 
road, with headquarters in this city, has devoted many years 
of his life, as well also as much of his means, to the promotion 
of the interests of the road. Mr. Coffin is a gentleman of the 
greatest popularity, one who thoroughly understands his 
business, and an officer with whom it is an absolute pleasure 
to come in contact. 





There is no line of railway converging into the Mississippi 
basin more popular with the public than the Vandalia. It is 
the band of all others that binds the West and East in indis- 
soluble ties of commercial intei-course. The Vandalia branch 
proper is that portion of the road between Terre Haute and 
St. Louis which was completed on the 14th of June, 1870. 
The Indianapolis and Terre Haute division was finished in 
1855, and is therefore one of the oldest roads in the West. The 


two divisions were united under one oro^anization and manajje- 
ment in the year 1870, since which time the road has been one 
of the most potent factors in the development of Central Illi- 
nois and of St. Louis herself. It has immediate connections 
with the Pan Handle and Pennsylvania railroads, traversing 
the most fertile and romantic districts of the Middle States ; 
passing through the most magnificent scenery, doubling the 
highest mountains and plunging through the most graceful 
valleys of the continent, and entering New York City by the 


shortest and most direct route to the Northeastern seaboard 

The Yandalia was the first road crossing the Mississippi 
River to introduce the Westinghouse air-brake ; the first to 
run through cars to New York, and the one to initiate the 
limited lightning mail ; and following up their advantages over 
competing lines, it has just added sumptuous Pullman hotel 
cars, in which passengers can secure their meals or luncheons 
at the same prices charged at the eating stations. In the adop- 
tion of new improvements to secure the comfort and safety of 
its passengers it has been the pioneer, and its competing roads 
only imitators. The road-bed, though but eight years old, is 
laid with stones, and is so substantial as to prove invulnerable 
from freshets, especially as its system of culverts is as perfect 
as nearly any of the oldest Eastern roads. The track is of 
steel rails, and its coaches are magnificent, including Pullman's 
drawing-room and sleeping palaces. One of the novel feat- 
ures of the Vandalia Through Line, which eftectually provides 
against all possilnlity of collision or other accident, is what is 
known as the " Block Signal System." The telegraph sta- 
tions are surmounted by graceful towers, in which are three 
signals — one indicating danger, another caution, and the third 
safety. These stations are of a sufficient distance apart to 
warn approaching trains and give the engineer information as 
to his safety in driving his train at a rapid rate. In fact, there 
is nothing omitted, no care nor money spared to make the road 
what it is, the finest and best equipped road running into St. 
Louis ; and the safest, shortest and most economic line to New 
York and the East ; taking passengers through on quicker time 
and whirling through the most gorgeous and awe-inspiring 
scenery, the finest cities, including Yandalia, the ancient capi- 
tal of Illinois, and the capitals of Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania 
and New Jersey ; through Altoona, Bryn Mawr, and over the 
great railroad bridge at Fairmount Park, on to the metropolis of 
America, in better style and more satisfactory manner gener- 
ally than any other line running eastward. 

The Yandalia is officered not only by men of the most dis- 
tinguished experience and ability, but with gentlemen whose 
dispositions are such as to win the popular esteem of the 



public. W. R. McKeen, the President, is an experienced rail- 
road gentleman of large means and is thoroughly enterprising 
und progressive. Major John El. Simpson, the General Mana- 
ger, is beyond question one of the most popular railroad officials 
in the West, He has won his Avay up from newsboy and tele- 
graph operator through the successive gradations of railroad life, 
in every position exhibiting qualifications eminently fitting him 
for promotion ; careful of his charge and devoted to the inter- 
ests of his employers, until now he is the head and directing 
spirit of one of the finest lines of railway in America. N(> 


person ever approached Major Simpson that did not always 
find him affable, kindly and a perfect gentleman. These char- 
acteristics, added to a sound judgment and signal ability, have 
made him a favorite with the people and secured the largest 
patronage for his road. Charles E. Follett, the General Pas- 
senger Agent, IS one of the oldest and most accomplished pas- 
senger officials in the country, and a most valuable adjunct to 
the road. H. AV. Hil)bard, the General Freight Ao:ent, is 


thorough in his position and is very popular with Western ship- 
pers, enjoying a large acquaintance and performing duties few 
men are fitted. for. F. M. Colburn, the General Ticket Agent 
in charge of the Company's office at No. 100 North Fourth 
Street, is an old St. Louisan, having been born on the present 
site of the Everett House in 1826. Fred, as he is familiarly 
called, has an extensive acquaintance, and is the most popular 
agent in the West. He is the very embodiment of true cour- 
tesy, and in his resj^onsible position is an indispensable feature 
of the road. All these gentlemen appreciate their relation to 
the public ; are devoid of that unnecessary stiffness so often 
exhibited by officials, and have i^luced themselves upon a plane 
with shippers and passengers, thereby not only popularizing 
themselves individually but building up a business for the road 
much larger than that of any competing line. 


The history of the St. Louis, Kansas City & Northern 
Railway is a long one, and were it given here complete would 
cover many pages without subserving any particular purpose ; 
we deem it only necessary, therefore, to present the road in 
its relation to the commerce of the great West. The road 
was, up to 1871, known as the *' North Missouri," running 
from St. Louis to Ottumwa, Iowa, with a branch extending to 
Kansas City. About this time the company was reorganized 
and another management succeeded, by whom the most mate- 
rial improvements have been made. Chief amongst these was 
the construction of the iron l)ridge across the Missouri River 
at St. Cliarles ; this structure is one mile and a quarter in 
length, seventy-five feet above the low-water surface of the 
river, and cost $2,100,000. But with this large expenditure 
the improvements of the road only begun. New rolling stock 
was added, steel rails supplanted the iron, new branches Avere 
constructed, and the largest and finest machine shops west of 



the Mississip})! were built at 
Moberly, which cover an 
area of 117,352 feet of solid 
buildings, with a yardage of 
two hundred acres. 

But the improvements 
continued unabated, marking 
at every step the determina- 
tion of the mana2:ers to make 
it the finest road in the "West. 
The next addition was the 
rejjlacement of the regular 
passenger coaches with mag- 
nificent parlor -chair cars, 
which have reversible seat's w 
with tall backs, and all the | 
comforts of an easy rockino;- '^ 
chair. In these cars passen- 5, 
gers are exempt from the ^ 
annoyance of shiftless and ^ 
cramping positions, but go p 
bowling over the smooth ^ 
steel rails with an ease which ^ 
can only be likened to a ride 
on scudding banks of clouds 

When the new Union 
Depot was built, the St 
Louis, Kansas City & North- 
ern Railway entered the cit} 
at the foot of Biddle Street, 
and every conceivable oppo- 
sition was used io prevent 
the road from rcachins: the 
central passenger depot. But 
the antagonism, virulent and 
active as it w^as, could not 
prevail against the settled 
purpose of its officers. A 

branch from Ferguson station, ten miles distant trom the city, 


was pushed to completion, which required more than a mile of 
tunneling through solid rock and deep trenching a greater 
part of the distance. This branch crosses the northeast corner 
of Forest Park, over a beautiful viaduct, and the company has 
built an ornate depot at the entrance of the park for the ac- 
commodation of passengers to and from this sylvan, orna- 
mental enclosure. 

These improvements have involved the expenditure of more 
than $5,000,000, but large and almost extravagant, yet neces- 
sary, as they are, did not complete the designs of the manage- 
ment. The grandest scheme remains yet to be detailed, not 
as a conception, but as the full fruition of accomplishment. 
St. Louis has for years sat as one a-hungered upon the banks 
of a stream and watched the bread cast by fraternal hands float 
by beyond her reach. We had a great stream, but it brought 
not the rich cereal products of the North to our doors, for 
Chicago's latitudinal lines of railway had grasped the trade of 
our own rightful territory and held it a willing captive because 
St. Louis had no facilities for nourishing and wooing the fair 
Ceres of Minnesota and Iowa.' But the change has come» 
like a lover o'erleaping the fretted Avails which divined eternal 
separation, and the bonds of natural union have at length been 
forged by the construction of a through line of road from St. 
Louis to St. Paul and Minneapolis. This was the last grand 
achievement of the St. Louis, Kansas City & Northern Rail- 
way, and now it may repose for a time upon its aegis and say 
to competition, "What is there to offer?" This great line of 
railroad has now its connecting links trans-continental, and is 
the longitudinal thoroughfare for the products of the North in 
their natural route to the sea ; spanning three states and grasp- 
ing the trade of an empire ; penetrating the lieautiful region 
of blue waters, salubrious atmosphere and Indian lakes ; 
through a territory of illimitable expanse and boundless re 
sources ; a route of magnificent scenery and pleasure to tour- 
ists from the South, and the main channel for the commerce 
of the Northwestern States : surely the combination of advan- 
tages is complete, and the claim of the road to superior facili- 
ties, most elegant equipment, best management, and the finest 
country to support it, must be acknowledged. 


B. W. Lewis, Esq., the President, is a gentleman compar- 
atively young in years, but one who fully comprehends the 
responsibility he assumes, and with no faltering spirit sets 
about the task of accomplishing results which will advance the 
interests of the company. Thomas McKissock, the Superin- 
tendent, has an extensive experience and is pronounced one of 
the best railroad managers in America. Charles K. Lord, the 
General Passenger Agent, is undoubtedly the most popular 
ticket agent in the West. He has been connected with the 
road since 1874, and was advanced to his present position in 
six months from the date of his first connection with the com- 
pany. He has every characteristic to popularize him with the 
public, and with a thorough knowledge of his duties, in which 
he takes supreme pleasure, his services are of inestimable 
value to the road. A. C. Bird, the General Freight Agent, is a 
gentleman of courteous address, and an adaptability to the 
duties of his position ; with an extensive acquaintance and 
universal popularity, he brings a large prestige to the road, 
which is demonstrated by the rapid increase of freight busi- 
ness since his induction into office. 

With such a corps of officials and the advantages men- 
tioned, the St. Louis, Kansas City & Northern Railway is 
unquestionably one of the great roads of the continent, and an 
artery of commerce of inestimable importance to St. Louis. 



Crossing from the east the magnificent steel bridge which 
spans the "Mighty Mississippi," and passing through the 
tunnel which wends its way under the very heart of the city, 
the passenger arrives at the St. Louis Union Depot, and finds 
himself safely landed in readiness to take the train of the 
most popular Western thoroughfare, the Missouri Pacific 
through line. It is the great fast mail route to the far West, 
and its two daily express trains are always filled with people 
en route to Missouri, Kansas, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, 
Arizona, Nebraska, Dakota, Wyoming, Utah, Idaho, Montana, 
California, Oregon and Washington Territory. 

To all of these various States and Territories, the Missouri 
Pacific and its connecting lines affords a direct and advanta- 
geous route, and through trains and through sleeping cars run 
between St. Louis and the principal Western cities. 

lu addition to the foregoing, it may be stated that the 
Missouri Pacific road-bed is in the best of order ; in the track 
steel rails of the heaviest pattern are used, and its trains are 
thoroughly equijjped with the Miller Platform, Westinghouse 
Air Brake, and other appliances conducive to safety, comfort 
and speed. 

From St. Louis to Sedalia, one hundred and eighty-nine 
miles, the Missouri Pacific through line passes through the 
most picturesque portion of the State of Missouri. 

Between these two cities are located many flourishing 
towns and villages, among which may be named Kirkvvood, 
Washington, Hermann, Jefferson City (the State capital), 
California and Tipton, all live, " go-a-head " places. From 
Tipton a branch road extends to Boonville, where connection 
is made by means of the steamer " Headlight," for Arrow 
Rock and way landings on the Missouri River. 

Sedalia, the Queen City of Central Missouri, has a popu- 
lation of about twenty thousand souls, and is the junction for 
the branch road to Lexington, Missouri, and also for the Mis- 
souri, Kansas & Texas Railway, which extends its iron arms 
down through Southern Kansas and the Indian Territory to 
Denison in Texas. The city is of ])ut a few years' gro>\-th, 


but its success has been un[)arallolcrl in the history of Western 
towns, and it looks forward contidentlj to a still brighter 

The distance from St. Louis to Kansas City is two hundred 
and eighty-three miles. The city is the metropolis of West- 
ern jSIissouri, and is the great objective point for travelers to 
all parts of Kansas and the far West. 

Between Sedalia and Kansas City the principal towns are 
Knobnoster, Warrensburg (near which place is ol^tained the 
finest building stone), Holden (a junction point for the road 
to Harrisouville and Paola), Pleasant Hill (from which point 
a road is built to Olathe and Lawrence), Lee's Summit and 

Radiating from Kansas City are the roads to southern 
Kansas, to Omaha, the Black Hills and California ; to Denver, 
the Rocky Mountains, the San Juan countrj^ southern Colo- 
rado and New Mexico. Beyond St. Louis it is the great dis- 
tributing point for the whole country lying between the 
Missouri River and the Pacific Ocean. 

Across the Kaw River into Kansas, Wyandotte comes next, 
in order; then Leavenworth, one of the principal cities of the 
State, and near which is located the military reservation and 
Fort Leavenworth, an old established Government post. 
Winding northward, the road runs along the banks of the 
*' Muddy Missouri" until it reaches Atchison, forty-seven 
miles distant from Kansas City, and three hundred and thirty 
miles from St. Louis. 

The road is officered by Commodore C. K. Garrison, Presi- 
dent ; Oliver Garrison, Vice-President ; A. A. Talmage, Gen- 
eral Superintendent; Frank E. Fowler, Acting General Pas- 
senger Agent; J. A. Hill, General Freight Agent; Charles 
G. Warner, Acting Auditor; O. L. Garrison, Cashier. 




The business of banking belongs almost exclusively to 
modern times. Money changers and coin depositories were, to 
some extent, known to and patronized by the nations of an- 
tiquity ; but the banking business as now recognized and carried 
on throughout the civilized world is, for the most part, of very 
recent origin. The development of the world's great natural 
resources, the enormous increase of the products of the soil, 
and the growth and spread of commerce, have created a 
necessity for all the branches of the modern banking business. 
It is certainly difficult now to conceive the possibility of a 
large, cultivated, and industrial population existing without a 
bank ; and it has been argued that much of the political sub- 
serviency of ancient times was caused by the very want of 
independence which the absence of such an institution made 

The banking system has been improved from time to time, 
until it has now become well nigh perfect. The carry in <>• on 
of the late war necessitated a uniformity of system in the 
banking operations of the country, and to Salmon P. Chase, 
the then Secretary of the Treasury, the people are indebted 
for the introduction of our present system of banking — a 
system which, according to the expressed views of many 
approved financiers, is a marked improvement on. that which 
has obtained for so many years in England. Tlie national 
banks invest their caj^itals in the bonds of the Government, 
and by deposit of these in the hands of the Treasury, receive 
a proportionate amount of their value in notes, countersigned 
and issued by the department, and thus provide for the circu- 
lation among the people of an issue which is guaranteed by the 



credit of the National Government. Thus the unity and uni- 
formity of the currency, together with its stability, have been 
secured. National bank bills now circulate freely without 
question, and at par, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and the 
business industry of the country is no longer liable to the 
annoyance and danger of loss which formerly were the logical 
accompaniments of the unsafe, unstable, irresponsible currency 
furnished by the banks of fifteen or twenty years ago. A 
great reform was thus accomplished in the matter of banks 
of issue, as well as a coherence of organization in the divided 
and isolated portions of the country entirely in accordance 
with the present progressive era of the world, which tends 
towards introducing union and the mutual sympathy of a 
common destiny among mankind, in the place of the jealousies 
and isolations which have hitherto marked the progress of 
humanity upon the globe. 

There is no actual necessity, however, of any extended 
general review of this subject in a work of this character. 
It will suffice, that banks are universally recognized by all 
civilized communities as indispensable institutions, and as St. 
Louis contains several great and influential banking houses, it 
will be entirely apropos to introduce to the reader a leading 
representative of them — one of the foremost of these institutions 
in the West. A visit to the St. Louis National Bank, and a brief 
description of it, its history and the volume of business it 
transacts, will, therefore, not prove uninteresting to the general 

On the northwest corner of Chestnut and Third streets, in 
that conspicuously grand building and triumph of architecture, 
known well throughout the West as the "Merchants' Ex- 
change," is situated the equally well-known St. Louis National 
Bank. A few steps up the solid stone stairway, and a short 
turn to the left brings the visitor to the portal through which 
he enters the spacious and handsomely appointed main apart- 
ment of the institution. Everything in this large and elegant 
room seems adapted in taste and utility commensurate with 
the high character of the bank and its legion of patrons. 
The numerous long, high desks, each with its quota of busy 
accountants, piles of books and pyramids of canceled checks, 


drafts and other papers, afford at once an impressive and 
interesting spectacle. Added to this scene, the k)ng counter 
fronting the entrance is lined with customers during banking 
hours, each transacting his business or waiting his turn, pass- 
book in hand, whilst others are engaged at outside desks 
filling out checks or tickets of deposit. All are busy ; all are 
in a huriy, and vast Avealth is constantly flowing in and out 
over the counter, yet everything moves along easily, quietly 
and systematically. 

Conspicuously in the corner of the front room near the 
entrance, easily acceptable to all, sits the Cashier, Mr. John 
Nickerson, busily attending to his official business, but never 
too closely occupied to note the wishes of his patrons or 
courteously answer their questions pertaining to any business 
matter of mutual interest. He bears no resomblance to the 
unapproachable, ornamental class of officials, unconscious of 
everything except their own importance, but manifests by 
word, as well as deed, that he understands the functions of his 
position, and exercises them with accuracy and promptness, 
and to the satisfaction of all concerned. On the desk of the 
Cashier an electrical machine prints or stamps upon endless 
strips of white paper the gold and stock telegrams which are 
almost constantly passing over the wires, thus furnishing 
reliable information respecting all classes of securities in 
London and New York. 

Passing; throuo-h the crowds waiting; in front of the windows 
of the " receiving teller," the " paying teller,'' the " note 
teller," etc., the Directors' Room in the rear of the bank is 
reached. It is ample in its dimensions, w^ell ventilated, and 
elaborately furnished in every respect, impressing one with an 
idea of elegance, yet maintaining a utilitarian, business-like 
air. In this room is to be found during all business hours, the 
w^idely-known and popular President of the bank, Mr. William 
E. Burr, who, like the Cashier, is always employed, yet always 
ready to turn toward the door and greet his visitors with a 
pleasant and encouraging salutation. He keeps himself con- 
stantly informed regarding the business of his bank, and knows 
its entire scope and magnitude day by day and week by week. 

The St. Louis National Bank was founded in 1857, and at 


that time was called the '• Bank of St. Louis." It was then 
located on Chestnut Street between Main and Second streets, 
and was well patronized from the beginning. It was changed 
to the St. Louis National Bank in 1864, and removed to the 
building on Olive Street, opposite the Post-office. Having 
sold that building, it moved in 1875 to its present commodious 
quarters. The bank has a capital of half a million of dollars, 
in addition to which it has a cash surplus of $100,000. It 
handles more than two hundred and fifty million of dollars 
annually, and has the most extensive country business of any 
bank in the city. The Government funds collected in the city 
and in a large extent of surrounding country are all deposited 
in this bank. All the collections of the Internal Revenue 
Office, as well as those of the Post-office and the Bankrupt 
Courts, are placed in this bank, and swell its deposit account 
to an enormous extent. 

The first President of the bank was Mr. John J. Anderson, 
who was elected in 1857, and served until 1860. His suc- 
cessor was Mr. R. P. Hanenkamp, who served until 1863, 
when Mr. Burr was elected, and has retained the office ever 
since. The following-named gentlemen constitute the present 
Board of Directors : Wm. E. Burr, Nathan Cole, J. G. Chap- 
man, S. H. Laflin, F. Mitchell, I. M. Nelson, J. G. Priest, J. 
L. Stephens, J. H. Wear. 

During the severe financial troubles of 1873, the St. Louis 
National Bank increased its volume of business to a wonderful 
extent. Its stability being well known, new customers fl^ocked 
to it by hundreds, and it was enabled to loan several hundred 
thousand dollars to some of its less fortunate contempo- 
raries. When the failure of the National Bank of the State 
tied up for the time being the deposits belonging to the Bank- 
rui^t Courts, the St. Louis National promptly came to the 
rescue, and advanced u^jon its own responsibility, nearly a 
hundred thousand dollars in cash. This liberality so clearly 
entitled it to tlie deposits of the Bankrupt Courts, that its 
well-earned claim could not be disputed. Great as the 
business of the bank has been during the past twenty years, 
it is still augmenting with unexampled rapidity, and in another 
decade it will have attained a business trulv collossal. 



The Broadway Saviiiirs Bunk, one of the stannch and popular 
moneyed institutions of the West, has made a success no less 
than remarkable, as its history will show. The bank was 
organized March 4, 1.S69, Avith a subscribed capital of $;)()0,()()(), 
twenty per cent, of which was paid in, giving a v»'orking capital 
of $60,000. It was located on the corner of Broadway and 
Carr Street, where it still remains, in the center of a large 
commission business and convenient for the horse, mule and 
cattle trade. The institution was organized upon a non-divi- 
dend declaring basis, by which the pro tits have been added to 
the surplus until its actual working capital has l)een swelled 
from $60,000 to $285,000 in the short period of nine years. 
Few banks can show so favorable exhibit, and wherever it can 
be done the officers are entitled to the fullest meed of praise. 
During the great panic of 1873 and later in 1876, the Broad- 
way Savings Bank met the shock without a sign of trepidation 
and retained the coniidence of its depositors. The officers of 
the bank, who have held their positions since its organization, 
are : L. S. Bargen, President ; J. P. Krieger, Sr., Vice-Presi- 
dent ; J. P. Krieger, Jr., Cashier ; H. Grass, Assistant Cashier. 

]Mr. Barren is an old citizen of laro;e means and unblem- 
ished character, worthy of the most important trust and con- 
fidence. Mr. Krieger, Sr., was among the first to propose the 
organization of the bank, and he has utilized his extensive 
acquaintance, large fortune and ability, in promoting the 
interests of the bank. His son, J. P. Krieger, Jr., now in his 
thirty-fifth year, has been entrusted to a large extent with the 
management of the bank, and displayed a business knowledge 
and adiiptal)ilitv possessed bv few of our commercial men. 
In addition to his arduous duties as cashier of the l)ank he is 
the treasurer of the St. Louis Public School Fund, in whicli 
position he has given the most perfect satisfaction . 

The growth of the bank has been rapid and uniform, until 
its deposits now aggregate $1,200,000. This favorable show- 
ins^ not only reflects honor upon the officers, but upon the 
directory also, and gives proof of its stability and bright promise 
for the future of the bank. 



Among the prominent brokers of the West, as ■well also as 
favorably known throughout the money centers of the country, 
P. F. Keleher & Co. stand conspicuous. A confidence, born 
of the vicissitudes of many years, constitutes the mainspring of 
their successful business, and a large and ready capital, with a 
credit baUmce of ripe experience, make their services valuable 
to patrons and profitable and honorable to themselves. 

The firm is composed of P. F. Keleher and Wm. C. Little, 
both gentlemen of large banking experience, having received 
their earliest education in the leading financial institutions of 
St. Louis. The firm was first established by Mr. Keleher in 
1870. He afterwards became connected with Mr. Asa "W. 
Smith, under the firm name of Keleher, Smith & Co., which 
association was dissolved in 1874. 

Shortly afterwards Mr. Keleher removed to No. 307 North 
Third Street, where he formed a copartnership with Mr. Little 
on May 1, 1876. Their business increased rapidly and it was 
soon evident that to transact the increasing volume it was 
necessary to extend their facilities by removing into more ca- 
pacious quarters. Accordingly the building No. 305 Olive 
Street was refitted and changed to accommodate their business, 
into which they removed June 1, 1877. The increase, how- 
ever, still continues, until now the firm of P. F. Keleher & 
Co. are second to none in St. Louis. Li 1877 the volume of 
their business was double as great as it was in the year 1876, 
and the transactions thus far in the present year shoAV a cor- 
respondingly gratifying exhibit. 

Their facilities are not surpassed by any house in the West, 
and they stand prepared to operate in anything pertaining to 
finances. Their drafts in all parts of Europe are promptly hon- 
ored, and their experienced services sought by dealers generally. 

Messrs. Keleher & Co. are now making a specialty of buy- 
ing, selling or adjusting defaulted bonds, and compromising 
the indebtedness of counties, cities and towns of this State. 
They deal, however, in all kinds of bonds and securities, and 
persons entrusting business to their care will have their inter- 
ests efficiently and honestly cared foi-. 




This old and reliable bank presents a showing in its last 
semi-annual report which entitles it to a leading position anions 
the solid financial institutions of America. Being non-dividend 
declaring, its strength is constantly increasing by a rapidly 
enlarging reserve, giving it a basis of unciuestioned solidity. 
C. B. Burnham, Esq., the President, is an officer Avhose repu- 
tation as a banker and citizen is such as to give him the un- 
bounded confidence of every St. Louisan. Hon. Nathan Cole, 
now member of Congress, is Vice-President, and J. C. Van 
Blarcom is the Cashier. 

The following is the report of the condition of the Bank of 
Commerce at the close of business for December 31, 1877 : 


Cash, .... 
Sight Exchange, . 

U. S. Bonds and Premium, 
Missouri State Bonds, 
Bills Receivable, 
Exchange Maturing, 

Real Estate, 
Furniture and Fixtures, 
Suspended Debt, 

$7G4,62() 59 
342,991 70 

$483,552 79 
281,067 80— 

56,256 70 

286,735 00— 

1,680,438 83 

844,808 56— 2,525,247 39 

35;292 90 

9,112 09 

54,004 65 

$3,731,269 32 



Reserve Fund, 

Due Depositors, 

Due Banks and Bankers, 

Guaranty Fund, net profits for 1877, 

$ 300,000 00 

. 739,046 57— $1,039,046 57 

1,961,609 54 
. 632,153 09— 2,593,762 63 
98,460 12 

$3,731,269 32 




St. Louis has been noted for the past half century for the 
solidity of her banks and commercial institutions : her neigh- 
bors, however, charge her with conservatism, as though it were 
a crime ; but if conservatism is the vital, elementary principle 
of cautiousness, which it undoubtedly is, St. Louis can admit 
the charge with a pride which puts to l)lush those cities whose 
capital has rested upon an uncertain basis since 1873. 

Among the many staunch banking houses of our city, that 
of the Banking House of Bartholow, Lewis & Co., located 
at No. 217 North Third Street, is worthy of historical notice. 
It was established as a private bank in 1866, under the man- 
agement of Thos. J. Bartholow, Avho conducted the business 
until 1872, when the bank was incorporated under the title of 
the Banking House of Bartholow, Lewis & Co. 

The management of the institution has always been noted 
for its liberal policy towards correspondents, and its business 
has been gradually increasing, until it is now regarded as one 
of the most important moneyed institutions of the city. The 
well-known character of one of the original members of the 
firm, now the principal stockholdei;, has made the bank popu- 
lar with the interior banks of the West, and from the date of 
establishment it has transacted the business of a large number 
of banks having to carry balances to their credit at this point. 

Its foreign exchange business is specially noticeable on 
account of its extensive correspondence on the Continent and 
England, as well, also, as a large personal acquaintance with 
many of the heaviest bankers in Europe. , 

Mr. Jno. D. Perry, the President, is one of our oldest and 
most esteemed citizens, who was one of the original stockhold- 
ers in the old firm. His large exijerience and excellent judg- 
ment have made him a successful banker, and his character is 
of such sterling value that he enjoys the confidence of business 
men not only of the city but the entire State. 

The directory of the l)ank include some of the wealthiest 
and best merchants of the West. 

Mr. Iglehart, as Cashier, is well adapted to the duties 
of his position. He is a gentleman of unchangeable courtesv. 


always ready to do an accommodating service, ever present at 
his post of duty, and discharges his imi)ortant offices with the 
most perfect satisfaction to the board and patrons of the hank. 
Notwithstanding the stagnation of the times and the small 
demand for money, the Banking House of Bartholow, Lewis 
& Co. have done, and are still doing, a profitable business, 
which fact attests the popularity of the bank and the estima- 
tion in which it is hv St. Louisans. 


One of the most important modern advances made is the 
establishment of the express business. It is in keeping with 
the telegraph, the telephone, and kindred improvements to 
expedite business transactions. We give but a brief mention 
of the three leading companies. 

Adams Express. — Their office is located at No. 212 North 
Fifth Street. C C. Anderson, long and favorably known, is 
the local manager. His thorough business life, coupled with 
courteous manners, has given him a large place in the esteem 
of our business community. He is an express man in the 
fullest sense, and handles his office with skill and satisfaction. 

American Express — Is conveniently located at No. 501 
North Fourth Street. Edwin Hayden is its efficient agent. 
He has not been behind any one in practical ideas for giving 
the public every facility for the rapid transit of goods. He is 
an approachable gentleman, and a prompt and reliable business 
man. He has won the respect and confidence of the business 
men of St. Louis. 

United States Express. — Its office is No. 500 North 
Fourth Street, with D. T. Parker as its local agent. The im- 
mense business done by this company is handled by him with 
skill and promptness. He is always accommodating and ready 
to facilitate the business of his Company to the convenience of 
those havins business with the office. 

i**-'Wsiiiiw*ill§! ,'J 



The character and extent of the commercial houses of a city 
largely indicate its business thrift and solidity. To the several 
American cities containing the old, wealthy and influential estab- 
lishments whose firm names are familiar to all parts of the coun- 
try, this remark is especially applicable. The great dry goods 
concerns of this country have alwaj's wielded a most potent 
influence, and as culture and taste and refinement become more 
and more the leading characteristics of communities, that in- 
fluence will continue to grow and exi^and. In this important 
respect St. Uouis has for many years been extensively adver- 
tised, and no where in the West or South is there a dry goods 
house of more wealth, prominence and commercial influence 
than the long established firm of Samuel C. Davis & Co. 

The business of this well-known firm is co-extensive with 
the Western States and Territories, and many of the leading 
States of the South, as well as the Territories of the Southwest. 
It is the oldest representative of the dry goods trade of the 
city — an establishment that has passed through all the varying 
phases of the growth of the great commercial metropolis of the 
Mississippi Valley, and that has borne a leading and conspicu- 
ous part in the transaction of the most important trade of the 
citv. A house of such a fame — earned throug-h decades of 
time — may well merit, in a city's history, something more than 
a passing notice. 

It is nearly half a century since this mammoth business 
house was founded ; and it now occupies the best dry goods 
building in the United States. This grand and elegant struct- 
ure is situate on Washington Avenue and Fifth Street. It is 


182 TOUR or ST. LOUIS. 

five stories high, with fronts in iron ; Italian style of architect- 
ure, and bearing even with massive strength a light and grace- 
ful appearance, Avhich arises from the single sheets of plate 
glass that form the windows, and which cost thirty thousand 
dollars in gold in Paris. The erection of the building was 
commenced in August, 1871, and it was occupied in March, 
1873. This line specimen of architectural strength and beauty 
has a frontal of one hundred and seventy-five feet on Fifth Street 
by one hundred and twenty-five feet on Washington Avenue, 
and contains, including the basement, six floors. In the rear 
of this immense building there is a broad, well-paved area left 
open to insure a sufficient light, as well as to facilitate the 
reception and delivery of the enormous quantities of goods 
which are daily handled by the firm. 

Passing from the imposing exterior to the interior, the 
promise from without is more than fulfilled in the wide view 
and perfection of detail that meets the eye. Running through 
from front to rear, at a distance of about twenty-five feet apart, 
are rows of iron columns with Corinthian capitals, supporting 
the floors above. Light is amply provided for, being admitted 
from three sides — on the east and south the windows being 
only separated from each other by the iron work which forms 
the two fronts. On tables arranged with something like math- 
ematical precision, are to be seen the goods that belong to the 
departments represented on this floor. These are foreign and 
American dress goods, including silks and prints, in fact all 
varieties belonging to the entire dry goods line of business, to 
an extent impossible to enumerate here. From the basement 
to the uppermost floor of the Ijuilding, extend four separate 
elevators, each of which, unlike the majority of elevators in 
other business houses, has automatic doors that close the hatch- 
way or shaft at every floor as the elevator passes through, so 
that safety against a fall down the shaft is assured. These 
elevators work quietly and eflectively. One of them carries 
up goods in original packages ; another carries goods upon 
trucks to be distributed on the various floors ; a third conveys 
goods down that are prepared for shipment, and the fourth is 
used only for passengers. Everything proceeds without the 


slightest irregularity or confusion, and the work of many 
hands goes on day by day silently yet systematically. 

It is a marvel to witness the amount of merchandise taken 
in and out by way of the basement of this commodious build- 
ing in one day. The engine, another adjunct worthy of special 
notice, is situated in a cosy room in a corner of the basement,, 
is of forty-horse power and does its work quietly and welL 
It is an elaborate and beautiful piece of machinery, similar to 
the one which carried away the premium at Philadelphia during 
the great Centennial exhibition. The basement is made to 
extend under the sidewalk of' the streets, and is fully lighted 
through the thick glass set in iron-work overhead. It is also 
provided with fire-proof vaults, in which the old books and 
accounts of the firm are preserved. The preparations made 
by this firm for the extinguishment of fires are as extensive as 
they are ingenious. Each floor is provided with fifty feet of 
best rubber hose and nozzles, the same in size as that used by 
the city ; the power to force the water being furnished by a fire 
pump in the engine room of greater capacity than any of the 
city fire engines. In case, however, the fire should originate 
at a time when there was no steam in the boilers, connection 
is provided on the outside, to which any of the city engines 
may join their hose and throw water through the hose belong- 
ing to the firm upon any floor or into any apartment of the 

It is impossible, in a comparatively brief notice, to furnish 
anything like a full or even fair description of the contents of 
the various floors of this immense establishment. Mention in 
general terms can only be made. The sixth floor comprises 
the large apartment where all the packing is done. All goods 
sold come up to this room, and are so arranged in separate 
parcels, invoiced, labeled, packed and weighed, that mistakes 
of any kind are of rare occurrence. The fifth floor comprises 
the " notion room" of the house, and a view of it can not fail 
to be of lively interest to the beholder. Well nigh an acre of 
tables is presented, covered with all manner of fancy and use- 
ful articles, embracing jewelry, rubber goods, perfumeries, wil- 
low-ware, stationers' articles, besides a thousand other things 
in the "notion" line, sesthetically grouped and systematically 


classified and assorted, so as to require the least time in mak- 
ino- selections. The fourth tloor is stocked with furnishing 
goods, hosiery, linens, gloves, etc. The third floor is devoted 
to ladies' dress goods, silks, cassimeres, cottonades and 
cloths of every description in astonishing quantities, show- 
incr the tremendous stock which this firm carries in order to 
supply the demands of their patrons. It must be admitted 
that no ordinary degree of ability, experience and promptness 
of action is requisite in the head of the house to so handle this 
vast quantity and variety of goods as to secure a profit out 
of the business. The dry goods market is subject to great 
fluctuation, and the danger of carrying any considerable stock 

of such o-oods over from one season to another is far more 


imminent than the uninitiated suppose. 

It is now verging on half a century since Samuel C. Davis, 
the senior partner of this firm, first came to St. Louis from 
Brookline, Mass., and entered into the business of that day in 
a little store at Market and Commercial streets, then the busi- 
ness center. His partner was J. R. Stanford. Their trade, 
like all other trade of the day, was barter as well as sale ; but 
it was profitable nevertheless, and, what is of more conse- 
quence, it grew steadily with the city. As the first stocks 
comprised each department of trade, so, too, as the business 
increased, a large jobbing trade was conducted by the same 
house in dry goods, boots and shoes and in grocei'ies. 

Changes in the firm from time to time occasionally occurred, 
but the controlling interest always remained with Mr. Davis, 
and his active and sagacious mind directed the operations of 
the business. Mr. Stanford retired after a short time, and 
John Tilden and Eben Eichards became partners. The great 
fire of 1849, the most sweeping conflagration that has ever 
visited St. Louis, just stopped short of their house in its de- 
structive course. In 1857 the business was removed to Nos. 
8 and 10 North Main Street, where it remained many years, 
and where it assumed proportions that made it the pride of the 
city. In 1867 both Mr. Tilden and INIr. Richards retired, and 
the pei'sonnel of the firm became that which at present exists, 
viz : Mr. Samuel C. Davis, Mr. Andrew AV. Sproule and Mr. 
John T. Davis. The departments devoted to boots and shoes 


and to groceries increased Avith the general business and soon 
demanded separate houses for themselves, and thej were ac- 
cordingly removed to No. 12 North Main Street. It was, 
however, found that the dei^artments outside of the dry goods 
detracted from the concentration and order of manajjement 
that Mr. Davis had always regarded as so desirable. Thr 
grocery department was, therefore, sold in 1872, and the boot 
and shoe department in 1873. In March of the latter 3^ear, as 
already stated, the magnificent building now occupied was 
first opened for business, and each year since has shown an 
enormous increase in sales. The number of employees is now 
about ninety in the house, besides those whose duties are out- 
side . 

The management that has carried forward so successfully 
this grand auxiliary of this city's growth and wealth is no less 
entitled to commendation than the facilities which they have 
provided for concentrating trade in St. Louis. Their trade 
extends all over the Western States and Territories, and grows 
rapidly and surely with each new opening of communication. 
It stretches into Nevada, Montana, Utah, Indian Territory 
and New Mexico, as well as throughout Missouri, Kansas, 
Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ar- 
kansas, Louisiana and Texas. This most enterprising house 
is pushing the trade of St. Loiiis with a healthy and vigorous 
energy and a success that is fully evidenced by the present 
conspicuous and influential commercial position it occupies. 

J>«)I)1), BROWN & CO. 


DODD, BROWN & CO.,— Wholesale Dry Goods. 

St. Louis, favorably situated as she is in the great l)asiu 
of prolific resources, is nevertheless largely dependent upon 
her wholesale jobbing interests, particularl}' that of dry goods, 
which has been one of the prime factors in our improvement, 
with an influence of growing importance and centralizing 
power. The history of our great dry goods jobbing houses, 
like that of Dodd, Brown & Co., is therefore an inseparable 
part of the biography of individualized St. Louis, and is no 
less interesting as an article than it is valuable as a historical 

In January of 1866, Samuel M. Dodd and James G. 
Brown associated themselves, under the firm name of Dodd, 
Brown & Co., in the wholesale dry goods business. They 
located on the corner of Main and Locust streets, in a four- 
story building, twenty-five feet wide by one hundred and 
twenty long, and well filled with what was then considered an 
immense stock. Their sales the first year aggregated one 
million two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, giving them, 
almost at once, a front rank in the trade. The firm continued 
business at the original store until 1869, when they were com- 
pelled to secure a larger building to accommodate their largely 
increased trade. They accordingly removed to No. 217 North 
Main Street, where they remained until their business outgrew 
the capacity of the building and forced them a second time 
into more capacious quarters. At this time the bridge was in 
process of construction, and the foresight of the firm pictured 
W^ashington Avenue, and Fifth Street in the vicinity, the great 
business thoroughfare and central mart for the city's jobbing 
trade. When Dodd, Brown & Co. announced their intention 
of havinsr an immense buildinor erected on the corner of Fifth 
and St. Charles streets, into which they proposed to move 
their business, it was thought by many to be too radical a 
change. But the plans of the firm were carried out, their 
removal into the new building being made in the year 1871. 
This maornificent edifice is five stories in height, with an 
immense basement, well finished, the area of the entire build- 
ing covering about sixty thousand square feet. Their move 


proving successful, they were directly afterwards followed by 
every wholesale dry goods house on Main Street. The advan- 
tages of their removal were twofold, and can now be well 
appreciated. Main Street was too narrow and dark to permit 
of the rapid handling or favorable inspection of goods — two 
drawbacks which operated seriously against the trade, and 
reflected correspondingly upon the general trade of the city. 
How well their judgment has been verified is attested by the 
enormous increase of the dry goods jobbing business in St. 
Louis, and that of Dodd, Brown & Co. in particular. An 
imperfect idea of the magnitude of their trade may be gained 
by a knowledge of the following facts : Their sales, as before 
mentioned, aggregated a million and a quarter the first year 
they were established, but these sales were made at prices 
nearly three hundred per cent, above the prices asked for the 
same goods now, making one dollar now the equivalent of the 
purchasing power of three dollars then. Last year their 
sales amounted to five million dollars, and their trade this 
spring is fully twenty-five per cent, larger than ever before, 
consequently they must handle twenty times the goods now 
that they did in the year 1866. Such an enormous business 
gives the firm a great leverage of advantage over competition, 
as it permits them to sell goods at closer margins and yet 
secures for them a satisfactory aggregate of profits. . 

The building is provided with all the auxiliaries necessary 
to facilitate the business, having three large elevators, two of 
which handle freight and the other is used for passengers. 
Throughout the entire year five or six regular buyers for the 
house are in the Eastern and foreign markets securing addi- 
tions and supplying deficiencies in the stock, and at the store 
there is one almost constant stream of goods arriving and 
going out. The commercial fingers of this great house hold 
in their grasp a trade which extends from the Gulf to the 
British Possessions, and from Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee 
and Alabama, to the Pacific — a wide domain, but in which the 
ramifications of Dodd, Brown & Co.'s business are seen in 
almost every town of any importance. To attend properly 
to such a trade requires -a system of the most complete 
thoroughness, and a knowleds^e of business both natural and 


polished by a long course of education. Every department 
must be separate, superintended by a competent head, and 
yet the whole must be under an organization which blends the 
entire business as perfectly as the prismatic tints of the 
rainbow. This perfect system is not only profitable to the 
firm, but gives advantage to their customers. Dodd, Brown 
& Co. is one of the leading representatives of St. Louis 
interests, and their name has become co-extensive with the 
country as a house of immense capital, superior stock, admi- 
rable foresight and judgment, and indomitable pluck and 
enterprise . 

J. H. WEAR, BOOGHER & CO.— Dry Goods. 

The dry goods trade, which is invariably the great interest 
by which the importance and prospects of a city are measured, 
has few better representatives of its wealth commanding power 
in the West than the firm of J. H. Wear, Boogher & Co., 
now recognized as one of the best wholesale houses in the 
Mississippi Valley. While wealth is one of the elements of 
success, it is a resultless ingredient without the combination 
of business sagacity, which acts as a governor in the regula- 
tion of the force which capital impels. In the history of the 
rise, progress and development of this great dry goods house 
we find an illustration of the part which ability plays in the 
stages of prosperity, and the subordination of capital to 
adaptability and enterprise. 

J. H. Wear embarked in the wholesale fancy dry goods 
business with a small stock in the year 18G3, associating with 
him Jno. W. Hickman, under the firm name of Wear & Hick- 
man. Their oriirinal location was on the corner of Main and 
Chestnut streets, where they remained until 1865, when they 
removed to a more convenient building at No. 319 North Main. 
Here the firm did a prosperous business under the stimuhition 
of the excitement consequent upon the close of the war, when 


DRY GOODS "Business. 191 

high prices and general extravagance were the chief character- 
istics of our people. 

In the year 1867 Mr. Hickman disposed of his interest in 
the house and the firm name was changed to J. H. Wear & 
Co. Under this title the business flourished and gained a 
reputation most envial)l • throughout the AVestern States. 
Mr. Wear, although a young man at the date of entering 
business for himself, nevertheless pursued a policy creditable 
to a much older and more experienced tradesman, and at once 
took rank with the most substantial jobbers in the city. He 
was distinguished for his polished courtesy and adherence to 
strictly honest principles, which popularized him with the 
Western people, who of all others most admire an accommo- 
dating and upright disposition. 

Finding his quarters too circumscribed for the proper 
transaction of his rapidly increasing business, in the spring of 
1871 Mr. Wear removed to No. 508 North Main Street, a 
much larger building, where his trade continued its steady 
and satisfactory growth. But realizing that the wholesale 
trade was quitting the narrow avenue which gave it birth and 
nourishment for nearly half a century, Mr. Wear reluctantly 
submitted to the inevitable, and concluded to aid in the cen- 
tralization of the business which was surely threading its way 
towards Fifth Street and Washington Avenue. Accordingly, 
J. H. Wear & Co. shifted their base of operations and leased 
the magnific'ent structure, then recently completed, on the 
corner of Fifth and Washington Avenue, into which they 
removed on the 1st of January, 1875. This building is not 
only one of the largest and most ornate in the city, but its 
arrangement for the dry goods business is perfect. It is six 
stories in height, with immense plate-glass windows, which 
flood every floor with an abundance of light, giving the best 
possible advantages for a fine display and careful inspection of 
the stock. It has entrances on the two great business thor- 
oujjhfares of the citv, with a rear "entrance from the allcv, 
where all the receipts and shipments are handled. There are 
two steam elevators in the building for conveying customers 
and goods from floor to floor ; and, in fact, every convenience 
is provided to facilitate the business of the concern. 


On the 1st of January of the present year (1878) Jesse L. 
and John P. Boogher were admitted as partners, and the firm 
name Avas again changed to J. H. Wear, Boogher & Co. The 
Boogher brothers were for many years members of the firm of 
Henry Bell & Son, and were of the house of Daniel W. Bell, 
late successor of Henry Bell & Son, up to the date of Mr. 
Bell's death. They are gentlemen of large experience, and 
bring with them a large acquaintance and valuable prestige to 
the new firm. The house has one of the best corps of salesmen 
to be found an^^where in the West, and there is every guar- 
antee to customers that in all their transactions with J. H. 
Wear, Boogher & Co. they will be treated with a considera- 
tion most satisfactory. 

The firm has recently added a full line of staple domestic 
goods to the general stock of fancy dry goods, formerly carried 
by J. H. Wear & Co., which is securing for the house a large 
additional trade and Avill result in an immense increase of sales. 
Their business this spring has already reached an increase of 
fifty per cent, over the transactions of any previous period, 
and in every sense the firm is in as prosperous condition as 
any wholesale house in the West. Their goods are now sold 
throughout the entire section west of the MississijDpi River ; 
also Illinois and Indiana on the east. The firm is constantly 
extending its commercial grasp upon new acquisitions in the 
States and Territories beyond the Rocky Mountains. 

WM. BARR & CO.— Retail Dry Goods. 

In writing the history of our great institutions it is 
generally by comparison ; but occasionally there is found a 
branch of business, so far in advance of its particular trade, that 
no comparison is possible, save to make it the standard, and 
speak relatively of the others ; such is the position Wm. 
Barr & Co. occupy in St. Louis. This famous retail dry 
goods house was first established in the year 1849, on the 
comer of Third and Market streets, the then business portion 




of the city. The store, however, remained there only a few 
months, when a more desirable building was found on the 
corner of Fourth and Olive streets, into which they moved and 
remained there until 1857, the year of the great panic. The 
business center of a great city is constantly shifting, and it is 
only the most penetrating foresight that can fix its future 
locations ; but, fortunately for Wm. Barr & Co., their predic- 
tions that business would move northward on Fourth Street, 
have been verified, and have resulted in the enormous trade 
they now have. When they moved into the building they now 
occupy it was at a time when everything was unsettled, and 
hundreds prophesied a failure ; nevertheless, the firm depended 
exclusively on their own judgment, and fitted up the first floor 
for their business. 

It is difiicult, now, to imagine Wm. Barr & Co. doing 
business on a single floor of their present house, minus the 
Third Street addition ; but such was the modest pretensions 
of their business until about 1859, when additions became 
necessary, and have been continued, until now the house covers 
an entire block, being bounded by Third, Fourth, Vine and 
St. Charles streets, and is four stories in height in front 
and .five stories in the rear. Large as this building is, it is 
insufficient for the proper accommodation of their business, 
and another important change will soon be imperative. 

Wm. Barr & Co. have the most admirable system controlling 
their immense interest ever devised ; so complete indeed that 
it is as though held in a single hand. They now^ have on their 
pay-roll over three hundred employees, and retail two million 
dollars of goods annually, with a much larger trade now than 
ever before. Yet, everything moves as perfectly as a simple 
engine ; and the thousands of customers which swarm the 
store, as well also as the hundreds of orders for goods by 
mail, are attended to promptl}'^ and satisfactorily. Everything 
about the store is system and prosperity. To designate the 
iirticles in which the firm deals, would be to mention the entire 
categor}^ of manufactured dry goods and notions, millinery, 
shoes, dress goods, upholstery,, etc., ad infinitum. Their 
store stands unrivaled by any west of New York, and its 
possibilities can not be approximated. 



D. CRAWFORD & CO.— Retail Drt Goods. 

The success of our business interests is the true measure of 
our prosperity, and the development of our industries forms 
the index and prophetic vision of our ultimate attainments. 
The histor}'- of many of the leading commercial houses of St. 
Louis reads almost like a legend in which the subject has been 
christened by some magical officiary. For is it not a fact that 
hundi'eds of capitalists have been swept out of sight by the 

flood of bankruptcy whilst their next door neighbors Iimvc 
prospered and been guided at all times by fortune, who nc\ or 
tired of showering gifts upon them? One of the most notable 
illustrations of this fact is found in the following pertinent his- 
torical sketch of the great dry goods establishment of D. 
Crawford & Co. 

Immediately after the ciose of the war, in 1866, 1). Craw- 
ford and A. Russell formed a co-partnership under the linn 


name of D. Crawford & Co., and entered the dry goods busi- 
ness at No. 418 Franklin Avenue, with a cash capital of two 
thousand three hundred dollars. At this date Franklin Avenue 
was only a residence street, and so far distant from the com- 
mercial outskirts of the city, that the attempt to build up a 
business on any part of that now bustling thoroughfare was 
regarded as absurd, and, indeed, ridiculous. Foresight is the 
most valuable characteristic of a business man's ability, and to 
possess it is to hold the key which unlocks the secret doors to 
success. But while foresight is the most potent adjunct in the 
administration of trade, it should always be in accord and 
combination with the sagacity and adaptability which attracts 
patronage and skillfully handles every interest advantageously. 
That D. Crawford & Co. represent a unity of these most 
favorable elements is abundantly demonstrated by their career. 

It would be tedious to enumerate in detail the several im- 
portant changes the firm have made in their establishment 
since the day they displayed their first stock of goods in the 
the small, narrow quarters, in the dingy side street, as it were, 
at No. 418 Franklin Avenue. It is sufllcient, perhaps, to say 
that they have made no less than six large additions to their 
original house, and have at length built up one of the greatest 
dry goods establishments in America. 

But this information does not convey an adequate idea of 
the extensions made and the magnitude of the firm. The last 
and most important addition to the house was completed in 
the later part of ^lay of the present year (1878) which is a 
building in itself, and one of the grandest and most ornate in 
the city, being three stories in height, with ceilings fifteen feet 
in the clear, and of the most elaborate architecture. It was 
constructed after a design and under the superintendence of 
J. B. Legg, one of the finest architects in the Mississippi Val- 
\ey, who expended much of his ability and ingenuity to make 
of it one of the best adapted buildings for the dry goods busi- 
ness that was ever built. R. F. Park, the contractor, has per- 
formed his part of the work equally well, and the idea of every 
one concerned in the perfection of its details has been 

The great dry goods house of D. Crawford & Co. now 


occupies one-quarter of a l)lo('k, liaviug a frontage of one 
hundred and twenty-five feet on Fifth Street, and one hundred 
and ten feet on Franklin Avenue. It is ornamented and lisrhted 
by twelve magnificent show windows, each of which is ten 
feet wide by thirteen feet in height, fitted with solid plate- 
glass, each glass weighing nine hundred and ten pounds, the 
largest west of New York. In addition to these immense show 
windows there are five sky-lights, one of which is sixteen feet 
wide and thirty feet long, and the others sixteen feet wide by 
twenty feet in length, through which the flood of a mellowed 
sunlight streams constantly upon every department of the store, 
giving customers an advantage for inspecting goods possessed 
by no other house in the city. A handsome passenger elevator 
of the Otis patent has also been put in to convey patrons to 
the upper floors where the millinery stock is displayed. 

F'rom an original stock, purchased at a time, too, when prices 
were three times higher than they are now, and an investment 
of two thousand three hundred dollars, D. Crawford & Co. 
have increased their business until now they carry a stock in- 
voicing one hundred and seventy-five thousand dollars, and 
their annual sales reach the enormous sum of one million dol- 
lars. Everything about this truly immense institution reflects 
the most admirable system. The business of the house is done 
on the division of labor principle, there being twenty-six dis- 
tinct departments in the store, and at the head of each there is 
a separate buyer and the acounts.of each are also kept distinct, 
so that the several departments are actually so many different 
stores, the whole deriving its powers from an administration 
represented by Messrs. Crawford & Russell, the former direct- 
ing the sole management of the house and the latter superin- 
tending all the purchases. 

The total number of employees of the firm is one hundred 
and fifty, and yet, numerous as they are, their capacity is 
severely taxed to attend to the wants of the great rush of pat- 
rons which continually swarm the store. Five men are em- 
jjloyed whose sole duties consist in arranging the display of 
new goods in the magnificent show windows ; two others are 
employed to write show card prices, and recently a printing 


department has been added in which two expert printers are 
employed striking ofl' checks, bill-heads, dodgers, etc. 

One of the great features of D. Crawford <fe Co., and one 
which gives them both precedence and preference, is their ad- 
mirable system of buying. They spend more money than any 
other house in the West in looking up bargains, having at all 
times a large corps of expert buyers in both the home and 
foreign markets, watching for favorable opportunities to take 
stocks of any size from live thousand to fifty thousand dollars, 
.for which spot cash is always paid. By this means purchases 
are effected on terms it is impossible to obtain by the ordinary 
way, and in consequence D. Cmwford & Co., can invariably 
sell goods of equal quality far below the prices asked at com- 
peting houses. 

In the construction of their new addition, already referred 
to, the entire building was supplied with the mercurial alarm, 
by which the earliest indication of fire is communicated at 
once to the Salvage Corps. The house has connection, also, 
with the American District Telegraph Company's office, and 
the watchman is thereby kept constantly on the alert, being 
required to communicate with the office every half hour through- 
out the night. 

D. Crawford & Co. are not only among the largest retail 
dry goods dealers in the United States, but are equally heavy 
dealers in millinery, ladies' ready-made suits, underwear, hats 
and caps, notions, etc., and in the coming fall (we write in 
June, 1878,) the firm will add to their business the largest 
stock of boots and shoes ever brought to this market, and will 
accomplish a revolution in that branch of trade as they have 
in dry goods. The increase of their business is beyond prece- 
dent and incomparatively greater than that of any establish- 
ment in the West. Throughout the most stringent times of 
the past decade their trade has been constantly enlarging, and 
the year 1878 will evidence an increase of fully thirty-three 
and one-third per cent, above their business of any previous 
year. The reason of this is found in the facts above narrated ; 
they are specially adapted to the business, and by a proper utili- 
zation of means at their command they are enabled to undersell 
all competition. D. Crawford & Co. are entitled to the credit 


of having made Franklin Avenue the great retail trade thor- 
oughfare of the city, and of liaving built up the hirgest busi- 
ness on the smallest capital and in the shortest time of any 
dry goods house in the United States. Mr. Crawford writes 
all his own advertisements, and his accomplishment in this 
direction is really marvellous, for his invitations to the public 
are so ingeniously and skillfully Avorded that they are as inter- 
esting reading matter as a beautiful story. By a S3^stem of 
almost unlimited advertising, and offerino^ bari>:ains that can 
be obtained at no other house, the firm name of D. Crawford 
& Co. has became as familiar throughout the entire West as 
though it were an administration in itself, and thousands of 
orders are constantly pouring in from every State and town 
within a radius of five hundred miles, making the house a 
focal point for the retail dry goods and millinery trade of an 
immense tributary territory. This firm has done an inestima- 
ble amount of good to the city at large, by developing a trade 
that has not only made D. Crawford & Co. the most popular 
house in the West, but has reflected a corresponding honor 
upon St. Louis, and brought many thousands of people here, 
who would undoubtedly have gone to other cities for their 
purchases had not D. Crawford & Co. offered facilities and 
prices below the possibilities of all other houses. 


H. D. MANN & CO.— Retail Dry Goods. 

St. Louis is one of the great dry goods centers of America, 
and claims justly the largest number of strictly first-class dry 
(roods houses — barring New York — of any city in America. 
Among this preferred list stands, in most conspicuous position, 
the popular firm of H. D. Mann & Co. This house was or- 
ganized in the early part of 1871, establishing busmess at No. 
421 North Fourth Street. Its members had previously been 
connected with one of the largest and most successful retail 
business of one of the largest Eastern cities. They adopted 
the same principles in their business here as there, viz : to sell 
only goods of merit and give all patrons the best possible value 
for their money, AA^hether a spool of thread or an expensive 
silk dress. This is strictly adhered to now, and in a measure 
accounts for their rapid and unusual success. The firm started 
as dealers in dry goods exclusively, in which line they opened 
one of the finest assortments of articles of this special trade 
ever seen in St. Louis. 

Early in 1875 the firm leased the large building, Nos. 417 
and 419 North Fourth Street, Avhich was remodeled and ar- 
ranged for the dry goods business, into Avhich they removed 
Avith a larger stock than thcA' had ever before carried. The 
ncAV store-room is the most perfectly lighted of an}" in the 
city, and all the business is concentrated upon a single floor, 
thus providing against the labor of climbing stairs and the use 
of uncomfortable elevators. 

The house of H. D. Mann & Co. make a specialty of 
dry goods only, and in that respect differ from any other St. 
Louis firm, and in their immense stock Avill be found new and 
original patterns not kept by any other house in the city. In 
their order department Avill be found orders for goods from 
every State in the South, west of Alabama, and from all the 
Western States. The aggregate of their annual sales is very 
large and constantly increasing. EA'ery article in stock is 
marked at a price from Avhich no deviation is made, so that a 
child can buy of H. D. Mann & Co. as cheaply as a grown 
person, and no misrepresentation as to price or quality is per- 
mitted by any one in their employ. 



i iiiii. mwm Ill iiniiiit imiiiiii i -j- 

| MVi;r.»=<-#miii.My,g--i 


The mighty doUar is truly the ruling influence of the age, 
to which all mankind bows in sweet subserviency ; but it is 
indisjjensable in all the relations of life, and the question, 
which is the key to domestic economy, is therefore the means 
which involve the expenditure of the fewest dollars to secure 
our comfort and happiness. The time was, and that not long 
ago, when a hundred cents was the equivalent of our least 
necessity ; but with the quick- 
ening of competition and manu- 
facture, prices declined while 
ingenuity increased, until now 
a dollar is the hub and felloes 
of our comfort. True, it will 
not buy a palatial mansion, a 
coach and four, nor a round- 
trip ticket and three months' 
leave of absence to the Paris 
Exposition, but invested in ar- 
ticles of prime use and domestic 
importance at such an institu- 
tion as the St. Bernard Dollar 
Store, it will secure a portion 
of worldly goods that w^ill con- 
summate the material part of a 
long season of family comfort. 
A visit to St. Louis is not com- 
plete without a critical inspec- 
tion of the St. Bernard, the 

contents of which fairly confound the visitor l)y the profusion 
of elegant articles, comprising almost every conceivable house- 
hold utensil, ornament, notion, fancy goods, etc., and the yet 
more surprising price at which they are sold. This represent- 
ative institution of a si^ccial feature of St. Louis' attractions 
was founded in the early part of 1869, ])y Charles A. and 
James W. Fowle, under the iirm name of Charles A. Fowlc 
& Co., at No. 406 North Fourth Street, under whose proprie- 
torship it continues at the same place of original location. 


The house, though a hirge one even in its infancy, has grown 
rapidly, until now it has nearly twice the trade of any similar 
business in America, not even excepting the Dollar Stores of 
New York City. A wise policy has directed its management, 
and the ability exhibited in the selection of its stock has 
popularized the St. Bernard, not only in St. Louis, but for 
hundreds of miles in all directions. 

It has always ])een a grave question with the patrons of 
the St. Bernard how the jDroprietors could afford to sell their 
goods at such an immense reduction on the prices asked for 
the same articles by other houses in the city. Every suc- 
cessful merchant has his secrets in trade — we call them secrets 
for the want of a more convenient name, but they are more 
properly l)usiness tacts and acuteness in driving bargains. 

One of the great advantages possessed by this house is 
obtained by making all its purchases in a pool with several 
other large houses of like character, and in buying and selling 
exclusively for cash. They have a buyer in the East contin- 
ually securing new goods at the most favorable prices, and 
from January to July, they have another buyer in Europe, 
who samples the best and most stylish goods of American 
manufacture, and has them duplicated at much lower figures 
by foreign factories. This course is necessary, because 
Americans are most skillful in modeling and designing, but 
in many articles can not compete in prices with foreigners. 

Another advantageous feature of the Dollar Store is found 
in the absence of refuse or "hold over" stock. Not beina: 
confined to any special lines, they can refuse to order should 
prices be too high, until a decline takes j^lace, consequently 
they are enabled to control their market. Frequently, too, 
manufacturers finding themselves over-stocked, and the season 
well advanced, will sacrifice their surplus stock ; but they are 
careful not to estal)lish a precedent b}^ cutting prices to the 
regular trade, and rather look for an outside house, like the 
Dollar Store, to whom they can quietly unload. 

A cardinal rule wdth the proprietors of the St. Bernard is, 
never to buy an article they can not sell at a lower figure 
than the same can be bought at the other stores in the city, 
and to do this requires adaptabilit}^ to the bushiess and a 


thorough knowledge of the trade, ])ut that the rule is enforced 
will not be questioned by any one that has visited the estab- 
lishment. ; 

The St. Bernard Dollar Store comprises one large retail 
sales-room on the hrst floor, and four other immense floors, 
which are kept constantly crowded with goods, from and to 
which large shipments are being constantly made. Although 
the greater attention is paid to the retail department, yet the 
house does a, very large jobbing trade throughout the AVest, 
and the business is so great as to tax the facility of their 
large house to transact. As a special business, it is one of 
the most complete and comprehensive to be found in the 
country, and an inspection of its stock inspires the greatest 


The dictates of fashion are most arbitrary, and the goddess, 
though fickle and coy, is most exacting ; hence her whims are 
commands which the aristocratic world has nothing to do but 
obey. Paris, the city of pleasure and the unctions seat of 
gayety, has, for many years, been the capital and court of 
Fashion, who, from her exalted position, sways with subtle 
power and rules both continents. And whatever may be said 
by rebellious subjects to her disparity, it can not affect Fashion's 
dominions or make her power less potent. So long as eyes 
can feed on lovely sights, so long will style con\mand not only 
the greater admiration, but the more Drofound respect of 

America acknowledges the better taste of Paris in matters 
of dress, and we are therefore only the imprints of her stereo- 
types, adopting her suggestions or dressing as she dictates. 
Consequently the most proficient dealer in such articles as 
millinery in this country is that one who is most expert and 
particular in securing the latest importations of Paris fashions 
and introducing the freshest novelties. Every large city has 


its popular exponent of fashions in millinery, and the one so 
acknowledged is, of course, the recipient of the most gracious 
favors in the way of trade from the creme de la creme of that 
community. To hold such a position to society in St. Louis 
is an honor which can not be readily estimated, and one, too, 
which may well excite the envy of competition. In perj^etua- 
ting the history of our representative business interests, our 
opinions must l)e influenced by the popular verdict, which we 
only ho^je to reflect; hence, in according to C. E. Blell the 
position as Fashion's exponent of millinery in St. Louis, we 
are but reducing to print the universal acknowledgment of 
the critical judges, who are the fair ladies of our city. 

Mr. Blell bes-un business as a fashionable milliner in the 
year 18G1, in circumscribed quarters at No. 319 North Fourth 
Street, where he has remained ever since. His capital was 
small, but owing to the excitement of the times and the liber- 
ality of money-holders his prospects were flattering and trade 
grew apace. All the profits of his business he re-invested, and 
with its increase he added new facilities for meeting the de- 
mand. Thus Mr. Blell has pursued the even tenor of his way, 
giving his entire attention to the details of the business, culti- 
vating his naturally fastidious and critical taste, and educating 
himself in the desires of the pul)lic. One of his unalterable 
rules is to never allow his customers to be dissatisfied with 
their purchases, and never to represent an article other than 
it is. By the exercise of such a wise policy Mr. Blell has suc- 
ceeded in building up the largest millinery trade in St. Louis, 
and is securing for himself a reputation as an honest dealer and 
one thoroughly posted in the latest styles. 

Mr. Blell's salesroom is about twenty feet wide by one 
hundred and twenty-five feet deep, and admirably arranged for 
the display of his elegant stock. The front and north side of 
the store is a succession of show-cases, which are filled with 
designs, beautifully trimmed hats of the latest patterns, gor- 
geous plumage, artificial flowers, and the variety belonging to 
the business. The south side of the room is reserved for the 
packed stock, which includes new receipts, the samples of 
which only are oi^ened. In the rear is the trimming depart- 
ment, where several skillful milliners are busily engaged 


trimming hats to order. At a desk in the center of the south 
side of the room stands Mr. Blell, who maintains a watchful 
eye over the business, and sees that the long files of ladies 
which constantly swarm the store, each with a different want, 
is properly waited on by his large force of lady clerks. In 
addition to this duty he handles all the cash, quite enough to 
employ one person, yet he finds time to greet every one pleas- 
antly and listen to propositions and complaints. He was born 
to urbanity, and this characteristic of his nature is a large 
element in his success. 

Summing up his business, Mr. Blell is not only the 
acknowledged fashionable milliner in St. Louis, but his prices 
are the most moderate and his stock the most complete. He 
is in constant receipt of new goods, the greater amount of 
which are direct importations of his own, bought through co- 
operative houses in Paris, by which he not only secures the 
very latest accessions to fashion, but which also gives him the 
advantage of first hands, enabling him to sell at the lowest 
possible prices. Blell' s is the emporium of fashion in St. 
Louis, and the depot of supplies for a large number of dealers 
in the West, and is truly a representative St. Louis house. 

L. BAUMAN & CO. — Wholesale Jewelers. 

Among the many truly representative business houses of the 
Mississippi Valley — the prime factors in the evolution of our 
commercial supremacy, and the sinews of our strength and im- 
portance — the immense jewelry establishment of L. Bauman 
& Co., No. 314 North Fifth Street, is boldly conspicuous. 
The foundation of the present business of the house was laid 
by L. Bauman, Esq., in 1844, in a small house on Market, 
between Main and Second streets. Notwithstanding the com- 
paratively non-importance of St. Louis at this early date, ]\Ir. 
Bauman prospered in his trade, and in 186G extended his 
fticilities largely by taking in as partners, Mr. A. Kurtzeborn, 
and Sol. and Meyer Bauman. The firm name then became 


L. Bauman & Co., and continued without further change until 
1872, when M. A. Kosenblatt, our present Collector of State 
and City Revenues, was admitted into the firm, but the title 
of the house remained as before. The firm is now composed 
of M. A. Eosenblatt, A. Kurtzeborn, and Sol. and Meyer Bau- 
man, each holding an equal interest in the concern. 

The wholesale jewelry establishment of L. Bauman & Co, 
is beyond compare the largest west of New York, exceeding 
in its stock and aggregate sales the best houses of Philadel- 
phia, Baltimore, Cincinnati or Chicago, carrying from year to 
year a stock invoicing two hundred thousand dollars. 

The firm are the manufiicturers' agents for St. Louis and the 
Southwest, for the best American clocks and American watch 
movements and silver cases ; also for silver-plated ware, such 
as tea-sets, castors, fruit stands, cake baskets, salvers, candle- 
sticks, jewel boxes, etc. 

Their annual sales of clocks now reach 55,000 ; 14,000 
American watch movements and cases, and 2,000 Swiss 
watches ; in addition to which they sell 50,000 pennyweights 
of solid gold chains, and manufacture all their gold watch- 
cases. The}' are also manufiicturers' agents for the genuine 
Rodgers knives, forks and spoons, and carry the most com- 
plete assortment of materials used by watchmakers and 
jewelers to be found in America, comprising everj^thing from 
diamond dust to a jeweler's anvil. They are large importers 
of French clocks and bronze statuary, and optical goods, such 
as spectacles and opera glasses, besides carrying the largest 
stock of gold-headed canes to be found in the West. 

The building occupied by L. Bauman & Co. is five stories 
in height, with finished basement and massive stone front, and 
is thirty feet wide by one hundred and twenty feet in depth ; 
every part of the building is utilized by the firm, the first floor 
being the ground store-room, wherein the wealth of an Inca 
is displayed most lavishly, and the other floors devoted to the 
reserved stocks and manufacturing ; and the total sales of 
the house reached the enormous sum of six hundred thousand 


MERMOD, JACCARI) & CO.— Jewelers. 

The pride of a great city centers in the character of its 
representative institutions, and it is therefore only the truly 
metropolitan interests that are worthy of a position in the 
historical archives of a "Tour of St. Louis." Amonjr the 
first of the great establishments in which our pride is para- 
mount, is the colossal jewelry house of Mormod, Jaccard & 
Co., located on the corner of Fourth and Locust streets, the 
fashionable center of the city. 

The jewelry business under Messrs. Mermod & Jaccard 
has been conducted for the past thirty years, but the organi- 
zation of the present firm was accomplished in the 3'ear 1864, 
when they established themselves in their present location. 
The store-room on the corner of Fourth and Locust, at the 
time of its occupancy by the firm, was only one-half its 
present size, but the increase of their business has been so 
constant as to compel them to make many large and impor- 
tant additions. The house of Mermod, Jaccard & Co. now 
includes the double store-room on the corner, the large build- 
ing in the rear, fronting on Locust Street, and the third and 
fourth floors of the building adjoining the corner. On thes(^ 
floors are the jewelry and solid silverware manufactories, the 
entire area being ten thousand square feet, and every foot 

The firm is now not only the largest dealers in jewelry and 
silverware in the Mississippi Valley, but the only firm paying 
spot cash, under all circumstances, for every accession to their 
enormous stock. The advantage this system gives them can 
be well understood, by which they obtain the benefit of a dis- 
count equal to ten per cent., and enabling them to sell propor- 
tionately below the prices of every competing house in the 
West. Mermod, Jaccard & Co. have a reputation based upon 
the reliability of their goods, and whilst houses often 
suffer a debasement of their stock in order to sell low, therein' 
profiting upon the ignorance of their patrons, this firm will 
never abuse the confidence of their customers bv such undue 


advantao-e. Every article in their superb and unrivaled stock 
is marked in plain figures , from which no deviation will be 
made. They calculate each article's intrinsic and commercial 
value, and offer their goods upon the very smallest margin, 
s^o low indeed that, quality considered, no house in the West 
can come into successful competition with them. By this new 
policy persons from a distance can order and obtain goods 
from Mermod, Jaccard & Co. of as prime quality and low 
price as though they made their purchases in person. This 
system has a ring of honesty in it that must add greatly to 
the already high and enviable reputation of the firm. 

J. B. LEGG & CO.— Architects. 

The first ambition of man is a graceful habitation which 
links the social ties in beautiful harmony, and is the precursor 
of solid comfort in after years. In every country the charac- 
ter of the public and private buildings is the barometer of its 
civilization and the index of the prosperity and happiness of 
its people, and as such St. Louis stands as one blessed among 
the sisterhood of cities. 

Among the long list of accomplished architects in the city, 
the firm of J. B. Legg & Co. are most conspicuous. They 
have a large business, extending over several States, and have 
designed and constructed a large number of our most palatial 
residences, magnificent public buildings and commercial 
houses. Mr. Leo;": established himself as an architect in this 
city about eight years ago, and though young at that time, his 
ability was soon recognized, and his advancement became 
rapid, until now his business is the largest of any architect 
perhaps in the West. Among the large number of buildings 
erected after his designs and under his superintendence, maybe 


mentioned the Illinois Institute for the Blind at Jacksonville ; 
Anzeiger Building, St. Louis ; Public School Building, Litch- 
field, Illinois ; Centenary Church, Pine and Sixteenth streets ; 
St. Paul's Church, Mount Calvary Church, Samuel Cupples' 
paper bag factory, D. Crawford & Co.'s new building, St. Louis. 
Of the hundreds of handsome residences are those of Geo. 
E. Morehouse and Wm. F. Busher, Decatur, Illinois ; Hon. 
Moody Grubb and Col. McWilliams, Litchfield, Illinois; J, 
M. Hamill and Dr. West, Belleville, Illinois; Dr. J. F. 
Haws, Charleston, Missouri; E. Allison, Clinton, Missouri; 
Henry Sheppard, Springfield, Missouri ; B. F. Cauthorn, 
Mexico, Missouri ; George McGoverns, Kirksville, Missouri ; 
Joseph M. Steer, Webster, Missouri ; Wm. J. Thompson 
and Wm. Hooker, Little Rock, Arkansas; Edward Mead, 
Oak Hill; N. G. Pierce, T. Z. Blakeman, F. C. Bonsack, 
Capt. Wade, St. Louis. 

Last January Mr. Legg associated with himself Charles C. 
Helmers, Jr., son of Mr. Helmers, of Dodd, Brown & Co., 
who for the last four 3^ears was an earnest student of architect- 
ure in Europe, and is a young man of bright promise, and 
already an expert in the business. The office of J. B. Legg 
& Co. is in the Insurance Exchange Building, Fifth and Olive 
streets, where they keep constantly on hand hundreds of de- 
signs of all kinds of buildings, and are ever ready to impart 
all information pertaining to their business. About two years 
since Mr. Legg published a book on architecture, entitled a 
"Home for Everj^body," with an issue of six thousand copies, 
and so great has been the demand for them they are nearly 
disposed of to their patronage from eighteen or nineteen 
States, and they are now preparing an enlarged edition, which 
will soon go to press. 




A. A. MELLIEK. — Our REPRESENTATm: Druggist. 

The character of an establishment, like that of individuals, 
is generally measured by its success, and in presenting our 
readers with a panoramic view of the great industries and com- 
mercial marts of St. Louis, it is important in the selection of 
representative institutions and establishments to consider those 
most successful. 

The drug trade of this city has 
assumed an entirely new and dis- 
tinct jDhase during the past dozen 
years, so distinct, indeed, that in 
the entire history of the business 
during so long a time past, not a 
single chapter would apply to the 
trade of to-day. This change had 
its origin in the tributary exactions 
of Eastern monopolists, in a sys- 
tem that obtained and flourished 
until within the past few years. 
The abuses which prevailed so long 
have been greatly corrected by the 
determined opposition of such 
larse and influential druo^sjists as 
A. A. Mellier, Esq., who, in con- 
nection with othei-s, have sought, through energetic, organized 
effort, to remove the evils mentioned and promote the general 
interests of Western druggists. 

It is, therefore, no less the man than the institution of 
which he is sole proprietor, that A. A. Mellier's drug store 
finds appropriate position in this volume as the representative 
druo- house of St. Louis. 

The attention to details necessary to form a correct descrip- 
tion of an establishment tires a reader by carrying him into a 
prosaic realm unsuited to the tastes of all save metaphysicians, 
we will therefore attempt only to outline the features of this mag- 
nificent establishment and the processes out of which it grew. 
Twenty-one years ago Mr, Mellier begun the drug business 
in St. Louis under the firm name of Richardson, Mellier & Co., 

. DEUGS. 211 

but shortly afterwards the title of the firm was changed to 
Scott & Mellier, with place of business on the corner of Main 
Street and Washington Avenue. This co-partnership existed 
but a short time, when Mr. Mellier purchased his partner's 
interest and became sole proprietor. His trade developed rap- 
idly and very soon he was recognized as one of the largest 
wholesale druggists in the West. 

In 1875, Mr. Mellier's keen foresight pictured Washington 
Avenue, from Sixth to Tenth streets, as the coming center of 
trade, and in considering the main advantages of removal had 
his attention specially drawn to the benefits to be derived from 
the establishment of a retail prescription and fancy goods de- 
partment, in conjunction with his extensive jobbing business. 
This resulted in the selection of Nos. 709 and 711 Washino-ton 
Avenue, which building was fitted up in the most elaborate 
style, being finished from bottom to top with all modern con- 
veniences, not only for the comfort of his patrons but to facil- 
itate their business intercourse. The many whc throng the 
establishment daily attest the wisdom of the proprietor and the 
success of his method of conducting this department. 

The building has a frontage on Washington Avenue of 
forty-five feet and a depth of ninety feet, running back to the 
alley which separates the main building from the warehouse, 
and is four stories in height. The front is elegantly finished, 
with massive iron columns, and large plate-glass windows, 
which light every room as perfectly as though the full gush of 
sunlight fell athwart them. 

The retail department, on the ground floor, is the finest as 
well also as the largest in the city, a description of the fur- 
nishing and arrangement of which would only pale the attrac- 
tions of the place. We have, perhaps, all seen such perfect 
adaptability of articles to the positions occupied, and the ex- 
quisite display of costly ornamentation that excites a feeling 
higher than admiration, which we instinctively refuse to picture 
by words — such a place is Mellier's retail department. The 
advantage derived from his wholesale business enables Mr. 
Mellier to put up prescriptions, retail his medicines, and sell 
his fancy goods much cheaper than the exclusively retail dealers, 
and operating upon this basis he has become a blessing to the 


hundreds who have been compelled to pay exorbitant prices ; 
in fact, his figures are nearly fifty per cent, less than others, 
with a fair margin yet remaining. 

The four floors of his large house, as also the four-story 
warehouse in the rear, are filled with every conceivable article 
having any proper connection with the drug trade, and a stock 
larger in the aggregate than any other drug store in St. Louis. 

The upper floor of the warehouse is the compounding de- 
partment for Mellier's proprietary medicines, many of which 
are in national use, such as the "Imperial Tonic Bitters,'* 
"Santonine Worm Candy," "Mellier's Cod Liver Oil," "Mel- 
lier's Essence Jamaica Ginger," "Chapman's Cough Syrup," 
"Mellier's Compound Extract of Buchu," "Texas Stock Con- 
dition Powders," "Mellier's Arnica Liniment," etc. 

In another department of the warehouse several operatives 
are busily engaged in the manufacture of Elliot's Patent Sad- 
dle Bags, an article of recognized prime importance to all 
physicians. Mr. Mellier is the proprietor of this valuable in- 
vention and does his own manufacturing. These bags are 
made only of the best calf-skin, and are the most convenient 
and admirably adapted companion for physicians ever put upon 
the market. They need only to be seen to secure immediate 
favor, their advantages being so numerous as to recommend 
them to every one. 

Imperfect as this notice necessarily must be, the reader can 
not be otherwise than impressed with the importance of Mel- 
lier's drug store to the commercial interests of St. Louis, and 
the assurance that it well deserves its immense patronage. 

CHEEVER, BURCHARD & CO.— House Furnishing. 

In every large city there are certain popular and represent- 
ative houses of a special line of goods, founded upon the com- 
pleteness of their stock and enterprise of the proprietors, to 
which the public turn with a certainty of finding just what they 
desire, and that, too, of the best quality. What A. T. Stewart 


is to New York, Worth is to Paris, Field, Leiter & Co. to 
Chicago, Wni. Barr and I). Crawford to St. Louis, is the firm 
of Cheever, Burchard & Co. to our own city — firms that have 
gained the most extensive reputation and become the public's 
great emporium for special lines of goods. 

The original firm, out of which grew the house of Cheever, 
Burchard & Co., was established in the year 1846 by Warnc 
<fc Merritt, and was located on Market, between Main and 
Second streets, in what was then the heart of the business 
center of St. Louis. They carried a very large stock and did 
a commensurate business until 1849, when their bouse was 
destroyed by the great conflagration of that year. Phoenix- 
like, they rose from the ashes of their burnt offering, and 
secured quarters in one of the first of the new buildino-s 
directly afterwards erected on Main, between Chestnut and 
Pine streets. 

In the year 1858 Mr. Merritt disposed of his interest in 
the store to Mr. Cheever, when the firm name was chansred to 
"Warne, Cheever & Co. The business of the city at this time 
begun to extend up Main, Second and Fourth streets, and the 
£rm saw the importance of establishing their house in the 
advance of the moving trade ; accordingly, they leased their 
present store in the Collier Block, in the year 1861, at that 
time the finest block of buildings west of New York. 

No new changes occurred in the business until 1870, when 
IVIr. Warne retired and the name of the firm was changed to 
its present title, Cheever, Burchard & Co. The house deals 
in house-furnishing articles generally, making a specialty of 
silver-plated ware, cutlery and children's carriages, in which 
last-named article, they are the largest dealers in America. 
They are also large manufacturers of bird cages ; and keep an 
extensive stock, which comprises nearly every conceivable 
article of household use, in which special line they have no 

Cheever, Burchard & Co. are the head and front of their 
particular business, and have secured a trade, both jobbing 
and retail, that is no less than surprising. They keep four 
men constantly in the country, and their goods may be found 
in use in nearly every family in the Mississippi Valley. 



Of the numerous institutions interesting to those of 
aesthetic culture, there is none more worthy of favorable 
mention in this work, than the mammoth musical emporium 
of Story & Camp, Nos. 912 and 914 Olive Street. This 
house now contains more than two hundred sample pianos of 
the most famous manufacturers, including the Chickering, 
Stein way, and Decker Brothers, each of which have their own 
particular merits, and acknowledged by all the great musicians 
to be the three leading pianos of the world. These instru- 
ments are made in grand, square and upright cases, from the 
plainest to the most elaborate finish. This house also deals 
in the Mathushek and Haines pianos, which for moderate 
prices are well made, of full and powerful tone and very 

The Story & Camp pianos have, however, acquired an 
honorable position and reputation among musicians, which is 
constantly increasing. They are remarkable for sweetness, 
brilliancy, endurance, power and general excellence. All the 
modern improvents are combined in them, and every purchaser 
is given a written guarantee fully warranting the instrument 
for five years. The trade and the public will find them the 
best and most acceptable medium-priced pianos in use. 

Story & Camp are also general Western and Southwestern 
agents for the celebrated Estey organs, which for thirty years 
have sustained a reputation that has placed them beyond com- 
petition. The manufactory producing these instruments is 
the largest organ factory in the world. No other organ has 
gained an equal popularity, and none but first-class instru- 
ments in every respect are allowed to leave the establishment. 

Story & Camp stand at the head of the musical trade of 
the West. Their establishments here and at Chicago are the 
two largest west of New York. The members of the firm 
rank high among our successful merchants and manufacturers. 
They have built up one of the strongest and best mercantile 
houses in the country, and their establishment is both an honor 
to themselves and a credit to St. Louis. 




One of the chief monu- 
ments to the inventive jren- 
ins of the day is the Singer 
Building, located on the 
corner of Fifth and Locust 
streets. This is one of the 
largest and most ornate 
edifices in the West, and is 
a representative institution 
of the success, superiority 
andpopularitj'of the Singer 
Machine. The building was 
contracted for on the 2 2d 
of October, 1872, and was 
completed and occupied in 
the latter part of 1874, its 
cost approximating six hun- 
dred thousand dollars, a better idea of which may be obtained 
by the accompanying illustration than by a written description. 

The new Singer Family Sewing Machine, 
which has been reduced thirty dollars less 
than former prices, has obtained a popu- 
larity unparalleled by any piece of ma- 
chinery ever patented. One of the best 
indications of its superiority over all com- 
petitors is found in the comparative sales 
of machines during the past several years. 
In 1876, the year of great depression, 
while the sales of all other machines fell 
off largely, the Singer increased from 181,260 in 1875 to 
262,316 machines in 1876, and in 1877 increased to 282,812. 
The manager of the Singer Sewing Machine Company in this city 
is D. Snitjer, Esq., a gentleman of ripe experience and alfable 
disposition, always ready to impart all information desired. 
He is assisted in liis immense business by an able corps of 
clerks, and has every facility for the expeditious transaction of 
the affairs of the company. 



Among the marvels of mechanism in this age of ingenuity 
and industry, the sewing machine is most conspicuous, havuig 
wrought an ahuost magical change in the improvement of 
woman's condition, by lessening her drudgery and opening 
new avenues for her labor. The history of this great inven- 
tion, although full of absorbing interest, is out of place in this 
work, except that portion which refers to the company named 
in the caption. While Elias Howe is awarded the credit for 
having invented the sewing machine, his claim to the honor 
rests upon as frail a tenure as the merit which credits Ameri- 
cus Vespucci with the discovery of America. Howe's machine 
was at best a very clumsy, tedious piece of mechanism, but 
nevertheless a vast improvement upon the hand needle. It was 
the ingenuity of Wilson, now of the famous/ firm of Wheeler 
& Wilson, that gave to the sewing machine the perfecting 
parts — the magical touches which made it the complete and 
obedient servant it now is. The inventions of Mr. Allen B. 
Wilson include the foot and fore-action feed, two of the most 
important adjuncts to the machine, without which, indeed, 
the mechanism of Mr. Howe would be of comparatively very 
small service. 

The Wheeler & Wilson Company was established in 1852, 
in which year they manufactured and sold about four hundred 
machines ; in the following year their sales reached seven hun- 
dred and ninety-nine, and shortly afterwards the increased 
demand caused the company to abandon their small factory in 
Watertown for a more capacious factory in Bridgeport, Conn., 
which has been enlarged and added to, until now it is one of 
the largest, as well also as one of the finest, manufactories in 
the world. The sales have been rapidly increasing every year, 
and in 1877 footed up over one hundred and fifty-four thous- 
and machines. 

The rivalry between the numerous machines put upon th(^ 
market has been, for many years, and is still very strong, and 
the honors won have generally been upon the liasis of strict jus- 
tice. At the Vienna Exposition, held in 1873, the competition 


was very bitter, and the judorment of the awarding com- 
mittees was never expressed until the most critical examina- 
tion of the articles in their respective departments Avas made. 
After the most scrutinizing inspection of all the sewinii- 
machines on exhibition was concluded, the award for superi- 
ority in all general features was made to the Wheeler & 
Wilson ; and the judges, not content Avith even so distinguished 
recognition of the machine, presented ]\Ir. Wheeler with the 
grand medal of honor for being the greatest promoter of sew- 
ing machine industr}' in the world. Honors have since fallen 
fast upon the Wheeler & Wilson machine, it having received 
the highest awards at the Centennial Exposition, and tirst 
premiums at the State fairs of every State in the Union. 

The latest improvement of these grand machines is known 
as the " W^heeler & Wilson's New No. 8," which combines 
every superior feature of all other machines, and new ones 
introduced by the manufacturers, and is in every sense the 
embodied perfection of all sewing machine mechanism. These 
machines, superior as they are to all others in the execution, 
of their work, lightness of running, simplicity of construction, 
and their adaptability to all needle work, either light or heavy, 
are sold at as low prices and on as favorable terms. The 
headquarters of the Wheeler & Wilson Manufacturing Com- 
pany, for the territory adjacent to St. Louis, is at No. 415 
North Fifth Street, this city, the office and salesroom being 
under the management of A. B. Howard, Esq., an experienced 
and courteous agent. The building is very large and well 
lighted, giving intending purchasers the most favorable condi- 
tions for examining the various styles of these popular 
machines. To see the construction of the New No. 8, and the 
elegance of its workmanship, is sufficient to demonstrate its 
superiority, and excites the most impatient desire for its 
immediate possession. 


EUGENE PAPIN & CO.— Carriages and Buggies. 

There is no article made by human hands conducive of 
more genuine enjoyment, or more healthful and exhilarating 
pleasure than a perfectly made carriage or buggy. Skimming 
over the gentle undulations of the road, with every nerve in 
repose for the keen appreciation of the effects, is only a step 
removed from flying ; while the swift luxurious motion is far 
more pleasurable than a siesta on the thick and lazy clouds. 
The great diflerence between the several kinds of spring vehicles 
made must necessarily qualify the simile : the best, like the 
"Eclipse," furnishing the most beatific enjoyment, while the 
poor buggy produces a correspondingly inverse result. The 
representative manufacturers of top and open , buggies in the 
Mississippi Valley is Eugene Papin & Co., whose factory is at 
Nos. 900 to 908 Clark Avenue. 

Among the finest buggies made by the firm, in which the 
latest improved springs are used, are the "Dexter," "Saladee," 
"Eclipse," the last one named being, in every respect, the 
easiest, cheapest and best buggy ever made by any factory. 
Its vast superiority consists in its simplicity, lightness, 
strength, durability and ease of motion, representing, in short, 
the improvement of all others in combination, which makes 
the "Eclipse " superior in every feature. In addition to the 
points of superiority named, the " Eclipse " is the most ele- 
gant in appearance ; it has no rigid perch to throw the hind 
wheels out of track ; there can be no side motion to the buggy 
body when the weight is unevenly distributed on the springs ; 
it is less liable to get out of repair ; the springs are made of 
the best English steel, and the spring-heads provided with 
Saladee' s improved anti-friction spools ; and lastly, there is 
positive safety from accident in case of a broken spring, as 
the springs are so combined and rigidly united at the cross- 
centers that either of the springs may be broken without 
letting the body fall below the cross-stays. 

Eugene Papin & Co. also manufacture all the latest styles 
of buggies, and keep in stock a large number of handsome 
vehicles, all of which are sold as low as the superior workman- 
ship and extra quality of the material used will admit. 



The individual members of the firm tiro Eugene Pjipin iind 
Edward A. Bohnes. Mr. Papin is a descendant of one of the 
oldest St. Louis families, and the name is connected with many 
of the most important en- 
terprises which have pro- 
pelled our city so rapidly 
into the realm of metro- 
politan greatness. 

Mr. Bolmes, the junior 
member, is also an old cit- 
izen, but for the last sev- 
eral years he has spent a 
greater portion of his time 
traveling through the 
South in the interest of 
the firm. He has a most 
extensive and popular ac- 
quaintance with the trade, 
and by his business talents 
he has succeeded in draw- 
ing an immense portion of o 
the trade of that section :< 
to St. Louis which form- 
erly went East. The firm 
is now making strenuous 
exertions to secure the 
patronage of Mexico, and 
already their efforts are 
realizing excellent re- 
turns. The cnteriorise and 
exceptional character of 
the carriages made by Eu- 
gene Papin & Co., entitle 

them to the highest consideration of the public, and their 
present success is au indication of a proper appreciation of 
their worthy efforts. 


ALOE & HERNSTEIN.— Optical and Surgical 

That perseverance and attention to details will always win, 
find excellent illustration in the business career of A. S. Aloe, 
the largest dealer in optical and surgical instruments in the 
Mississippi Valley. Mr. Aloe begun business as an optician 
in the year 1862, occupying a small room in the building on the 
northwest corner of Fifth and Chestnut streets. His means 
were limited, which made his progress slow, and success seemed 
uncertain. In 1864, he changed the location of his business to 
the corner of Third and Olive, where he remained until 1867, 
when he again moved, to No. 206 North Fourth Street. Here 
the dawn of success appeared to him, but not without the most 
persistent effort and diligence. In the year 1875, Mr. Aloe 
associated wdth him W. H. Hernstein, Esq., and added surgical 
instruments, starting a manufactory at No. 311 North Fourth 
Street, up-stairs, which is still running, giving employment to 
fifteen skillful workmen. Their business increased rapidly, 
until the firm was forced to seek a more capacious building, and 
in April, 1877, they removed to their present location, north- 
east corner of Fourth and Olive streets, one of the most eligi- 
ble positions and finest store-rooms in the city. 

The stock carried by Aloe & Hernstein comprises every con- 
ceivable optical, surgical and mathematical instrument in- 
vented ; and nearly all their goods are of their own manufact- 
ure, enabling them to give the most complete warrant to every- 
thing they sell. The firm are now not only the largest dealers 
of the kind in the West, but are also the largest manufacturers 
of mathematical and surgical instruments. 

Mr. Aloe is a gentlemen who has attained his present high 
position by a display of the most astonishing energy ; and St. 
Louis credits him with an enterprise few possess. Mr. Hern- 
stein is thoroughly posted in the business of surgical instru- 
ments, and gives to this department his exclusive attention, the 
partnership being confined to these goods, Mr. Aloe remaining 
alone as a dealer in optical instruments. Their business is 
very large and their facilities unsurpassed, which enables them 
to sell their goods at closer figures than their competitors. 

SCALES. 221 


The name of Fairlnanks is synonymous with the instru- 
ments with which justice measures equitably to all. To men- 
tion Fairbanks is to think of scales ; to see a scale is to 
remember Fairbanks. 

No other name in the commercial world is more widely 
known. Not only in the State of Vermont, where the name 
first became known and honored ; not onl}^ in the mighty 
federation of States, in which Vermont is one of the least ; 
not only in the family of nations, dominions, provinces and 
colonies, wherein the English language is employed, but in all 
lands to which commerce has extended, the name of " Fair- 
banks' Scales" is familiar. 

In the distant East and the remote West, in the h}^Dobo- 
rean regions, and in sunny tropic lands, everywhere, among 
traders who recognize the ethics of honor, equity and integrity, 
Fairbanks' scales may be found, as the instruments which 
justice employs in executing equitable transactions between 
man and man, so to-day the Fairbanks' Scale Works is one 
of the most widely known of American industrial establish- 
ments. The Messrs. Fairbanks in the pursuit of scale-making 
have kept pace with the onward strides of a rapidly moving 
world ; have met all the varied demands for weio-hinjx machines 
from all parts of the habitable globe, so that their list of scale 
modifications now numbers more than six hundred. 

Mr. Thaddeus Fairbanks, the inventor of the scale, now, at 
the advanced age of more than four-score years, is hale and 
erect, with mind active and precise as it was almost half a 
century ago. In token of recognition of the benefits conferred 
upon the whole commercial world by his genius, he has 
received civic decorations from a half dozen sovereigns, has 
been knighted by an emperor, and decorated b}^ a Moslem ruler. 

They have now sixteen branch houses located in the prin- 
cipal cities of this country, with one house in London, the 
great mart of the world ; so it may safely be said that the 
Messrs. Fairbanks are more closely identified with the com- 
mercial interests of our whole country, yea, the whole world, 
than any other American manufacturing establishment. 


Their house in St. Louis, under the style of Fairbanks & 
Co., occupies the spacious building Nos. 302 and 304 Wash- 
ington Avenue, where may be found almost every variety of 
their world-renowned standard scales. 

H. GRIFFIN & SONS.— Leather and Binders' Materials. 

It was a practical philosopher who first declared that 
*' there is nothing like leather," an expression which has 
since become an adage of frequent ai^plication. The trade of 
St. Louis in leather is an important industry, which is con- 
stantly growing in importance, and is worthy of recognition 
in this compendium of our city's wealth and commercial 

The representative firm of a special branch of the leather 
trade of St. Louis, is that of H. GriiEn & Sons, No. 304 
North Main Street, who are the only importers of book-binders' 
stock west of New York city. This house was established in 
New York as early as 1836, and in 1871 the firm established 
a branch here, originally locating at No. 24 South Third, re- 
moving to their present place of business early in 1877. The 
house deals in moroccos, Russian leather, colored and book 
skivers, fleshes, roans, calf and lamb skins, English book 
cloth and marble papers, glues, gums, gold leaf, brilliant rul- 
ing inks, cloth and stencil boards, and book-binders' materials 
of every description, including numbering machines, emboss- 
ing presses, perforators, ruling machines, table and card 
shears, backing and stabbing machines, finishing rolls, stamps, 
etc., etc. In connection with this business it is important to 
mention an advantage they give patrons offered by no other 
house west of New York. The firm carries the larg-est stock 
in their line in the United States, and either import or manu- 
facture all the goods they handle. This is a great feature of 
the business of New York, but St. Louis receives the identical 
benefits thus obtained by the firm, for all the goods of the 
branch house here are also direct importations made in original 



packages ; hence the St. Louis house make all their quotations 
at the same prices as the New York firm, and sell all their 
goods in strict accordance with the legitimate and original 
numbers, grades and sizes. 

H. Griffin & Sons have only sought the patronage of first- 
class buyers, who appreciate the advantages of buying direct 
from first hands and in original packages. The trade of this 
house is co-extensive Avith the West, having been built up here 
in a very short space of time by Mr. G. H. Griffin, who is in 
charge, and yet every year witnesses an immense increase in 
their sales. Parties dealing with this house save a large jier- 
centage over prices asked elsewhere, and always secure prime 


One of the best known places in St. Louis is doul)tle8s 
No. 30,5 North Seventh Street. If you have never been there 
the query, " Why best known? " is pertinent, and it is for the 
benefit of those who are at a loss to determine the remarkable 
feature of the place that these pages are written. 

On the outside of the building a sign is noticed, •' F. A. 
Durgin, Manufacturer of Solid Silverware," whirh has dis- 
tinguished the place for the past 
seventeen years, and every citi- 
zen knows it to l)e one of the 
most reliable houses in the 

On entering the building you 
at once perceive that it is a 
mine of ornamental wealth, and 
the fitting up is in keeping Avith 
the magnificence of the silver- 
ware so lavishl}'^ disph\yed. But 
the elegance of the surroundings is not the feature of the phuHi. 





Approaching to the rear of the room, you will find a gentleman 
seated hy a small desk, busily engaged with his correspondence, 

with perhaps a small box of watches 
by his side. This is L. Dresser, 
the General Western Agent of the 
New York Watch ComiDany. So 
far, there is nothing remarkable in 
either the place nor the gentleman 
you find within : but if you ask the 
oentleman at the small desk to 
show you some of his watches, 
then surprise will take possession 
of you. 
^vhat you will see : Mr. Dresser will go at once to a 
safe which occupies a corner in the rear of the room, and 
pulling out one of the shallow drawers, he will set before you 
two or three dozen of the finest appearing time-pieces ever 
brought to the city. 

If you desire making a purchase you will be certain to 
remark that these watches are more expensive than you desire. 
Mr. Dresser will startle you with the reply that the watches 
are very cheap, being sold at only ten dollars each, and that 
every watch is guaranteed for the period of one year. 

Well, no one will blame you for being so thoroughly 
surprised as to make incredulity manifest on your countenance, 
for that is precisely the manner all are afiected to whom Mr. 
Dresser makes the reply ; for the watches are an exact imita- 
tion of the fifty and sixty dollar railroad time-pieces which 
met with such a large demand two or three years ago. 

But don't be deceived by any one who will tell you that 
these watches are only an imitation, so far as looks are 
concerned, and are unreliable time-pieces ; for the fact is that 
there never was a better watch made than these ten dollar 
watches sold by Mr. Dresser. The cases are made of nickel, 
are heavily and handsomely designed, and the works are 
manufactured by the New York Watch Company, and are 
stamped with that company's trade-mark, and accompanying 
each watch is a solemn guarantee that it will keep correct time. 
These watches are made in two styles, the open face and 


double case. The open fiice is i)rotectcd by a thick, flat 
crystal, and the dial is clear and well defined, and every part 
of either style is as perfect as the ingenuity of man can make it. 

Those not acquainted with the pecnliarity of nickel will 
very naturally be impressed with the idea that the metal will 
corrode or otherwise lose its beauty, and is intrinsically' worth 
very little. The facts are these : While silver is more precious 
than nickel, its value fcjr purposes to which nickel is applied is 
not nearly so great. In the first place, there is nuich similarity 
in appearance of the two metals when polished, and a person 
carrying a nickel-case watch can readily deceive anyone not 
familiar with the delicate differences into the belief that the 
nickel is in fact a silver case. 

But there is only a shade of distinction between nickel and 
silver ; for in the watch case the former is far superior in the 
following respects : First, there is infinitely more durability in 
nickel, because it is twofold the harder metal ; second, there is 
greater lustre on polished nickel, which will never become dim ; 
and lastly, it is not so liable to injury from falling, and it is 
almost impossible to deface it. 

The works are made as strong as the cases, and so perfectly 
that they can not get out of order, except by forcible means. 
Mr. Dresser, who has sold thousands of these watches in the 
past five or six months, is so well acquainted with their 
superiority over all other watches in the market, that after a 
purchase of him is made he is ready to refund the money at 
any time provided the watch fails to give satisfaction. The 
watches are sold for ten dollars and delivered to any part of 
the country by express. Any one from a distance ordering the 
watch has the privilege of opening the package and examining 
it before pajdng the C. O. D. collection, and if the watch does 
not come up to expectation, the party to whom it is addressed 
is under no obligation to take it. 

These terms are made for a twofold purpose : First, because 
there are so many swindling advertisements in the papers, 
such as excellent time-pieces for three dollars, a seven-shooter 
revolver for two and a half dollars, etc., sent to any address 
CO. D., all of which are nothing more than mere toys with- 
out any value, and those knowing this fact presuppose all other 


advertisements of cheap articles ; second, because the watches 
are always certain to give satisfaction, and Mr. Dresser can 
therefore afford to allow an examination of the express package 
before the money is paid. 

Mr. Dresser has added another style of watch, which is 
destined to become very popular. The works are of the 
reliable Waltham manufjicture, and the cases are gold-plate, 
of beautiful design, and as good in every sense as the most 
costly gold watch. They are made both open and double case, 
and sold at the wonderfully low price of eighteen dollars, and 
every watch is warranted for one year. 

Mr. Dresser also deals in handsome nickel chains, which he 
sells at prices ranging from one to three dollars, and fine rolled 
gold-plate at from three and a half to eight dollars. By calling 
or writing to No. 305 North Seventh Street, you can meet 
with the Surprise foretold, and find the finest, best and cheapest 
watches ever put upon this or any other market. 

THOMPSON, TEASDALE & CO.— Woolens and 
Wool Yarns. 

Six years ago the firm of Thompson, Teasdale & Co. was 
established at No. 312 North Main Street, for handlinir on 
commission, woolens and wool yarns. The house was a 
recognized necessity, and the ability with which the business 
has been conducted secured a large trade for the firm, 
which has been constantly increasing ever since. Another 
important branch of the business is dealing in manufacturers' 
supplies, machinery, cotton warps, dye stuffs, etc., in which 
line this is the only house in St. Louis, but since it fills the 
wants of customers most satisfactorily, there is no opportunity 
for competition. 




The above illustration represents the Jaccard Building, on 
the northeast corner of Fifth and Olive streets, erected and 
occupied by Eugene Jaccard & Co., the oldest business firm in 
the city, being established since 1829, and the largest jewelry 
house in the West. Besides the spacious sales-room on the 
first floor, which has a frontage of fifty-seven feet on Fifth 
Street, and is furnished with marble counters and richly carved 
walnut and French plate-glass cases, they have fitted up their 
basement in elegant style for the better display of their exten- 
sive stock of real and imitation bronzes, Parian marble stat- 
uary, French clocks, and other articles of an artistic character. 
There will also be found in addition to the above, a line of 
novelties, such as artistic pottery, choice selected pieces of 
Limoges, Gien, Longwy, and other French Faience Royal 


Worcester, Copcland, Minton and Wedgewood porcelain and 
Majolica ware, Dresden porcelain, etc. ; very beautiful Vienna 
gilt goods, brass finished bronze goods, etc. ; no such complete 
assortment is kept by any other house in the city. This 
establishment is one of the attractions of the city, and will 
amply repay a visit. 

MARCUS A. WOLFF & CO.— Real Estate. 

No record for industry and enterprise in this city can be 
found to exceed that which has been made by this firm, 
located at No. 316 Chestnut Street. Mr. WolflT, the senior 
member, has been its moving spirit and the chief cause of the 
success that may be attributed to it. The management of 
large estates, the placing of loans upon property, and the 
collection of rents, are the prominent characteristics of their 

Some four thousand tenants pay rentals to this firm for 
the occupancy of stores, shops, dwellings and apartments that 
have been placed by landlords in their hands to collect. 

The dual relation they sustain to both the owner and the 
tenant, calls for the best of business talent, and for the most 
affable manners. The extent of their operations fully attest 
their ability and popularity. 

M. A. Wolff & Co. do the largest real estate business in 
the city. Their transactions at times involve very large sums. 

Mr. Wolfi* has occupied some very important and respon- 
sible positions in the management and settlement of estates 
committed to his care, and his promptness and fidelity attest 
the confidence reposed in him by some of our best citizens. 



H. & L. CHASE.— Bags and Bagging. 

One of the comparatively now industries of the West 
which has given St. Louis an impetus in the extension of her 
commercial supremacy, is the manufacture of bags, l)urla[)s 
and bagging. While this interest employs more largely the 
India jute, yet it uses an immense quantity of home pro- 
ductions, such as cotton, hemp, flax, etc., which of itself has 
materially stimulated the cultivation of these crops, and given 
employment to a large number of persons. 

The representative bagging factory and tirni of St. Louis, 
and, indeed, of America, is that of H. & L. Chase, whose 
house occupies Nos. 8, 10 and 12 North Main Street. The 
parent factory is in Boston, where it was established in 1845, 
and has been doing an immense business ever since. The St. 
Louis branch of H. & L. Chase was founded in 1866, at No. 
14 South Commercial, where it remained a few years, when, in 
order to secure the much-needed additional room, they removed 


to No. 1 South Main Street, then to No. 17 North Main. Their 
business increased at a surprisingly rapid rate, and soon out- 
grew the capacity of their second and third houses, and, in 
1872, they removed into their present large building, where 
they have the necessary room for their office, factory and ware- 
house. This structure is six stories in height and has an area 
on its several floors of nearly forty thousand feet. The factory 
is run by a fifteen horse-power engine, which supplies the 
power for running the machinery, the elevators and printing 
presses. It employs eighty operatives and turns out annually 
millions of bags. In addition to the manufacture of bags of 
all kinds, including flour, ham bags, ore bags, burlaps, wool 
sacks, gunnies, seamless, flax twine, etc., the firm gives special 
attention to the printing of flour sacks, in which business their 
facilities are equal, if not superior, to those of any similar 
firm in America. 

H. & L. Chase have branch houses- also in Chicago and 
Kansas City, but the St. Louis branch is the largest of the 
concerns, save that of the parent Boston house, which is the 
largest institution of the kind in the United States. The 
business was established here and has since been -conducted 
by F. H. Ludington, Esq., a gentleman of practical ideas and 
actuated by unlimited enterprise — the push and vigor which 
establishes success where a thousand others would fail. He 
is devoted to the duties of his position, and uses every honor- 
able means to advance the interests of the firm, and with what 
results is best told by the immense business of the branch he 
represents : the hum of ceaseless machinery, activity of the 
numerous employees, extent of the trade, and the many 
evidences of the greatest prosperity noticeable in every avenue 
and nook of the establishment. 



St. Louis has been, for several years, recognized as the 
great stove manufacturing city of America ; her proximity to 
the hirgest iron beds in the workl ; situated upon a mighty 
river, which courses to the sea, and withal being a focal 
point for the trade of a new and thriving empire, enterprise 

was compelled to grasp these natural advantages and make 
her the manufacturing city of the continent. The progress 
of our factories has been made in the path of tlie pioneers ; 
after rearing their rude habitations as a mere ^jroteclion from 
the most unldnd elements, the sturdy yeoman tiieu turn their 
thoughts to the more accessible comforts, and among their 


first wants is a cooking stove. It was these well known char- 
acteristics that caused sucli earlj attention to the manufacture 
of stoves in this city, and the rapid settlement of the West 
has created a demand, to supply which several large foundries 
have been established here. With the increase of foundries 
rivalry began, which caused a development of the industry 
most wholesome to the public and satisfactory to the best 

In selecting only the representative institutions of St. 
Louis, in their respective lines of business, the Excelsior 
Stove Manufacturing Company must head the list of that 
industry, not merely above all others in the West, but so far 
in advance thatany comparison would be invidious and unjust, 
for it now ranks as one of the largest and most successful 
stove companies in the world. 

The foundation of the business of the Excelsior Manufac- 
turing Company was laid by Giles F. Filley, in the early part 
of 1849, the year of the great fire and the cholera scourge. 
The foundry was located where it still stands, but was a small 
affair compared with what it is now, although for that time it 
was regarded as an immense institution, employing thirty 
workmen, and turninoj out eio-ht thousand stoves. In 1852, 
Mr. Filley patented the Charter Oak stove, which was then so 
far superior to any stove ever made in this country, that the 
great demand for it gave an immense impetus to the busi- 
ness, two thousand six hundred and nineteen Charter Oaks 
being sold the same year, and in the following j^ear, 1853, an 
enlargement of the foundry was made. Three years later two 
additional mouldinjj floors were added, makins; five in all, with 
a capacity for two hundred and fifty stoves j^er day. 

In 1874, the office and sales-room of Mr. Filley was moved 
from the old building into a new edifice erected that year, 
including Nos. 612, 614, 616 and 618 North Main. This 
buildinoj is one of the most maornificent structures in the 
West, and is a representative monument of the great business 
it was built for. It has a frontage on Main Street of eighty- 
four feet, five stories in height, and a depth of one hundred 
and sixteen feet, running through to Commercial Alley, six 
stories in heisrht. The office and sales-room is on the first 



floor, which is beautifully lisrhtcd, is eiijhtceu feet in heif^ht 
and filled with the finest display of stoves and tinware to be 
found in America. The aggregate floor space iu the building 
is equal to one and one-half acres, on whii'h there is displayed 
over two hundred and fifty difterent varieties of heating and 
cooking stoves, and every conceivable article of culinary use. 
On the 1st of January, 1865, the Excelsior Manufacturing 
Company was incorporated as a successor of Giles F. Filley, 
with Mr. Filley as President, a position he continues to hold. 
Since the organization of the new company, Mr. Filley has 

directed several important improvements, and given to the 
manufacturing department a management almost unequaled. 
The foundry, located in the northern part of the city, covers 
four and one-half acres of ground, and gives employment to 
over three hundred and fifty men, yet large as this force is, 
and stringent as the times have been during the past five years, 
the Excelsior Company has not discharged a man nor dimin- 
ished their production, which reaches fifty thousand stoves 
annually. They melt, on an average, forty tons of metal per 
day, which is more than the consumption of any otlier stove 
foundry in the United States. 


The total number of stoves made since the works were 
established is over 750,000, of which number there were sold 
313,650 Charter Oaks up to May 1, 1878. 

To speak of the Charter Oak in mere terms of com- 
mendation does not present its merits in an understanding 
manner, for it has attained a position in the Mississippi Valley 
of such great popularity that its vast superiority is acknowl- 
edged and tlie good points of other stoves are discussed only 
relatively and by comparison with the Charter Oak. A num- 
ber of shipments of these stoves have been made to Europe 
and other foreign countries, and are in use in every State and 
Territory of America. Its superior excellence consists in the 
admirable workmanship and prime quality of material used 
in its construction ; perfect draft, cleanliness, line baking 
qualities, durability, and handsome appearance. 

The Excelsior Manufacturing Company, while making a 
specialty of the Charter Oak cooking stove, are large manu- 
facturers of heating stoves, some of which have already 
attained a remarkable popularity. 

The Evening Star has been sold for the past twenty years, 
and is a beautiful pattern for a wood-burning stove, is 
economic, and gives the most perfect satisfaction. But the 
styles and merits of the large number of different stoves made 
by this indeed Excelsior Company, can not be given in a neces- 
sarily short review of our representative industries, and our 
advice to the readers of a " Tour of St- Louis," can therefore 
only be couched in a request to visit the sales-room of the 
company and make an inspection of the stock there exhibited, 
which can not prove otherwise than interesting, even should 
no purchases be desired. 




ST. LOUIS STAMPING CO.— Granite Iron-Ware. 

The St. Louis Stamping Company is not only a represent- 
ative interest of our own city but of the United States, having 
outgrown the boundaries of an ordinary reputation, and since 
the manufacture of that famed article of household use. 
Granite Iron-ware, the compan}^ in its great labors has 
leaped the confines of the country and founded a trade across 
the ocean, which is swelling at a rapid rate. 

The Niedringhaus Brothers were organized as a company 
in the year 1860, for the manufacture of tinware, with an 
original capital of one 
thousand dollars, loca- 
ting their factory on the 
corner of Tenth St. and 
Franklin Avenue, where 
they employed only three 
hands. In the year 1866 
the name of the organi- 
zation was changed to the 
St. Louis Stamping Com- 
pany . Stam p e d tin ware 
was then a new thing, but 
it commended itself so 
highly, being cheaper, 
having no soldered seams, and 
found immediate favor with the 
sales increased — the first year reaching seven thousand dollars 
— and the capacity of the factory was increased in })roi)ortiou 
to the demand. 

The first location was such that the compau}^ were unable 
to make the improvements necessary for their business, and 
compelled them to move, a favorable site for the requisite 
buildinjis beins: found on the corner of Second and Cass 
Avenue. Here they erected a four-story brick building, occu- 
pyino- nearly a quarter of a block, and a large Avarehouse on 
Main and Cass Avenue. 

In the year 1876, F. G. Niedringhaus, President of the 
company, secured letters patent on a process for making 

much more durable, that it 
public. Year by year the 


granite iron-ware, one of the most useful inventions for house- 
hold convenience ever discovered. Immediately thereafter 
machinery was added for plating all their stamped ware with 
granite, since which time granite iron-ware has become one of 
the indispensable adjuncts of every household. So great was 
the demand for this standard article that a new and larger 
building became necessary, and in March last was completed 
for the company one of the finest factories in the city, being 
five stories in heiijht and coverina; three-fourths of a block. 
The entire works of the St. Louis Stamping Company now 
occupy two entire blocks, employ four hundred and fifty men, 
work up annually five hundred and fifty tons of iron and four 
hundred tons of tin, and their sales have increased from seven 
thousand dollars the first year to seven hundred thousand 
dollars for the year 1877, with a corresponding increase for the 
year 1878. 

The granite iron-ware is now not only sold in every hamlet 
and city in the United States, but also in England, Germany, 
France, South America, West Indies, and, in fact, almost 
throughout the civilized portion of the world. Patents on the 
process for its manufacture have been secured in nearly all the 
countries of Europe, and granite iron-ware will shortly be man- 
ufactured in all the important cities of that country. 

A word concerning the ware itself is important in this con- 
nection, although it is fair to presume that its great merits are 
known to almost every man, woman and child in America. 
Granite iron-ware has been submitted to the crucible test and 
analysis of every chemist of any note in the United States, and 
their reports all agree that granite iron-ware has no delete- 
rious substance whatever about its composition, the granite 
coating being nothing more than an ordinary granite fused to 
a glass upon the iron vessel. 

As to its superiority over any other ware in use, it may be 
positively asserted that any comparison would be invidious. 
Granite iron-ware, aside of its beauty, which is really a great 
feature in its favor, is indestructible either by fire or rough 
usage ; it will endure constant use for a life-time, is not sub- 
ject to rust or corrosion, and will not change the slightest in 
any service it may be put to. Its first cost is but little above 


the ordinary tin or iron vessels, and for constant use it is more 
than a hundred-fold clieaper. Wherever exhibited in compe- 
tition with other wares, at the Centennial Exposition and all 
the State fairs, it has invariably been awarded the first 
premium, and every 3^ear must only serve to make its irreat 
superiority and invaluable properties the more universally ac- 
knowledo;ed in all countries on the elobe. 


Marble, cold but chaste, has done much towards softening 
and refining the manners of civilized nations. Even in the days 
of the old jorimeval sculptors, whose first touches kindled a new 
life, dumb, yet full of spirit, there was a strong pervadino^ 
influence of a new culture and the awakening of an attribute 
that had before remained unknoAvn. Angelo and his famous 
school aroused the world and pointed to a destiny now almost 
consummated ; the seeds thus sown have borne fruit unto all 
people, and civilization is writing its inspiring history on tablets 
of marble, perpetuating it as were the first laws given to man. 

In our own country sculpturing and work in marble has 
attained a high state of perfection ; the advance has been so 
remarkable, indeed, that while Rome may repose in the bliss- 
ful realization of her conquests and conception of the highest 
embodiment of the fine arts, yet it was reserved for us to live 
in the marble age and see her finest arts vastl}-^ improved. 
Amono; the jxreat institutions of St. Louis to which wc refer 
with the most exultant pride, is the St. Louis Mantel and Grate 
Company, which has brought the West to an understanding of 
the beauties of marble in the rich and yet expenseloss adorn- 
ment of our homes ; a company that has carved a reputation 
in stone which is fast finding a lodgment at our lirosidos and 
imparthig a happier spirit and influence upon our social lives. 

The company is an old one, but moved into its new building 
in September last. A larger portion of their Avork is done at 
several branch yards more convenient to the stone used, though 


the parent sales-room and yard is located at No. 24 South 
Eleventh Street, this city. While the firm deals in iron and 
slate mantels, their great specialty is marble, in which line of 
goods they have distanced all competition in the West, both in 
price and elegance of workmanship. In this connection it is 
important to disabuse the public mind of the idea that marble 
mantels are expensive. This belief was at one time founded 
on fact, but with the universal reduction on the price of build- 
ing materials, marble mantels have declined proportionately 
until the old belief, which, for some strange reason, still ob- 
tains, is a popular fallacy. Marble mantels are not only inex- 
pensive, but, beautiful as they are, they are cheaper than 
wooden ones. A good wood mantel, including grate, fender 
and summer piece, set in place, will cost about eighteen dollars, 
while a fine marble mantel, solid and attractive, accompanied 
by all the fireside auxiliaries, set in place ready for fire, costs 
but twenty dollars. This price is made by the St. Louis 
Mantel and Grate Company, and of course is about fifteen per 
cent, lower than the same articles could be purchased elsewhere 
in the city, for this company has such superior facilities for 
manufacturing marble goods that they can afford to sell much 
lower than their competitors and yet make a reasonable profit. 

The samples of mantels and grates displayed by this com- 
pany at their sales-room, is one of the finest sights to be wit- 
nessed in St. Louis. The room is about one hundred feet deep 
by forty feet wide, and on both sides, as well also as running in 
a double row down the center of the room, is a variety of 
mantels which excites the greatest admiration for the ingenuity 
of man. There are mantels for the humble cottage in keeping 
with modest possession, and up through all the gradations of 
wealth to the palaces of the over-rich. By these the fireside 
becomes a witching chamber, with its graceful arching, beau- 
tiful columns, decorated balustrade, rich carvings and halo- 
surrounded aperture, out of which we almost expect to see 
appear some child of imagery, with gossamer wand, to effect a 
transformation that shall make the surroundings equally beau- 

In addition to their specialty of marble mantels, the com- 
pany manufactures enameled grates and the celebrated ' ' Star ' ' 



cooking ranges, and are the sole agents in St. Lonis for 
Minton's Enijlish encaustic tiles and Bibb's original Baltimore 
fireplace heaters. The officers of the corporation are : S. 
Hand, Presid(Mit, who is an old dealer and successful manufac- 
turer of marble goods ; C. E. Hand, Secretary, a young man 
of excellent business qualifications ; and D. C. Deegan, who is 
one of the best practical cutters in the West, Superintendent. 
These gentlemen have combined a large experience with an 
abundant capital, and having extraordinary facilities, can 
manufacture and sell their goods at a great reduction under 
the prices charged by competing yards. 


In making a tour of the metropolis of the West, among 
the more important industries, there is no factory of greater 
interest than that of the St. Louis Hot-Pressed Nut and Bolt 
Manufactory. The man whose genius invented the machines 
used by this company in the manufacture of hot-pressed 
nuts and washers, was Richard H. Cole, Esq., who for many 
years before followed the humble, but no less honorable, trade 
of a blacksmith. His shop was located on Main Street, 
between Ashley Street and Cass Avenue, where he conceived 
and perfected his great invention. 

Mr. Cole had no difficulty in securing the requisite capital 
for constructin2: an extensive establishment on Biddle Street, 
between Second and Collins streets, where several of his 
machines were put into operation. The fame of the inventor 
and invention soon spread over the continent, and in a short 
time a large demand was made upon Mr. Cole for territorial 
rights, and orders were sent in for the machines from various 
sections in the East, and also from several countries of Europe, 
to which places machines were sent and have been working 
constantly ever since. 

On January 1, 1874, the establishment erected by Mr. 
Cole was purchased by the present owners who at once 


organized the St. Louis Hot-Pressed Nut and Bolt Company, 
with Wm. H. Stone as President ; O. Breden, Superintendent ; 
and A. W. Duryee as Secretary. The company has since 
made large improvements, both in the buildings and additional 
machinery ; among the latter, being improved bolt-heading 
machines, with supplementary machines for pointing and cutting 
screws and tapping nuts ; also a machine for manufacturing 
horseshoes, which works with lightning rapidity, completing 
a horseshoe ready for use, from the bar, at a single revolution, 
more uniform than can be made by hand. 

The most interesting machines in the establishment are 
those used for forging horseshoe nails, the operation of which 
is very simple and yet curious. The Norway nail rods are 
heated and fed into the machine, which cuts, the rod the 
reqnired length of a nail ; these pieces then travel around a 
circuhir anvil under a ponderous steam-hammer. By the time 
the circuit is completed, each nail receives thirty-two blows 
from the hammer and then drops into a basket completed for 
use, with the exception of pointing and polishing, which is 
done by other machines for that purpose. 

The Norway hammered horseshoe nails manufactured by 
this company are meeting with an unprecedented demand, and 
are fast supplanting all others on account of their similarity to 
hand-made nails. The articles manufactured by the company 
comprise hot-pressed nuts, bolts, washers, Breden's horseshoes, 
Norway hammered horseshoe nails, etc., and their trade 
extends over the territory bounded by the Mississippi River 
and Pacific coast. 


The manufacture of oils is an important industry in the 
West, being stimulated by the immense hog and cattle pro- 
duct, which seeks St. Louis as its most direct and natural 
market, where the packing and rendering interest is one of 
the special features of Western commerce. In the manufac- 
ture of oils we have several large institutions, but the largest 


and most representative of its class is the Western Oil Com- 
pany. This organization was established in 18G7, occupying 
small quarters on the corner of Second and Vine streets, in a 
building known in former years as King's Hotel. Here they 
continued until the following year, when the rapid increase of 
their business compelled them to move into a larger building, 
which they found on the corner of Third Street and Wash- 
ington Avenue. In 1870, the same causes compelled them to 
a second removal, their next location, being on the corner of 
Main and Washington Avenue. Here they remained until a 
third time their business had outgrown the capacity of their 
building, and in 1873, the company removed to its present 
quarters Nos. 812 and 814 North Main Street, where they have 
an immense factory for the manufacture of all kinds of animal 
oils, also dark and light colored engine oils, West Virginia 
oils, burning oils, wagon axle grease, lard and tallow oils, and 
all grades of lubricating oils. The company has branch 
houses for the sale of their large product in New Orleans and 
San Francisco, and the demand, coming as it does from every 
section of the great West, is so great that their factory facili- 
ties will soon have to be largely extended, orders for their 
oils, w^hich are now recognized as " standards," being already 
in excess of their supply. Their principal demand is from 
railroad companies and factories, for lubricating purposes, and 
their oils are regarded bv the trade as the finest and of the 
purest quality ever put upon the market. Their " Lone Star" 
burning oil is as clear as crystal and as safe as lard oil, gener- 
ating no gas and giving a light equal to nineteen and a half 
candle power. Their brands are found all over the United 
States, and are everywhere not only regarded as the best, but 
of so superior quality as to prove an effective advertisement 
of St. Louis industries. 

The officers of the company are : D. L. Skidmore, Presi- 
dent, and C. C. Harris, Secretary, and the office is at No. 305 
North Third Street, conveniently arranged and located for the 
business transactions of the company. 




In presenting a summarized history of the Collier White 
Lead and Oil Works, their capacity, importance and influence, 
it is eminently proper to notice, at least, the promi)tings of 
their founder and the natural adyantages — the fultillnient of 
the predictions made years ago — no%v offered by the opening 
of lead mines within our own territory, the largest in the 

The establishment of a factory for the manufacture of 
white lead in St. Louis, in the empirical period of 1837, at a 
time when our city was but a footprint upon the continent, and 
with no commercial path saye that of the great arterial high- 
way which then swept the feet of a callow town ; when the 
coal, lead, iron and zinc beds of our neighborhood had been 
undisturbed, with the giant force which they liaye since 
impelled still in profound slumber — with such crude and 
undefined possibilities, the establishment of such an institution 
was accompanied by great uncertainty of success. But when 
Henry T. Blow organized his company in 1850, he was guided 
by his prophetic foresight, which penetrated theyista of years, 
and saw St. Louis as a queen upon the throne, with sceptre in 
her hand, and the collected wealth of an empire at her feet; 
the jagged cupolas of her factories raising like a thousand 
giants, ui3lifting their brawny arms, grasping the trade of a 
continent, and looked upon her million people with an enthu- 
siasm akin to inspiration. Such was the beautiful panorama 
that floated as a yision before his gaze and prompted Mr. Blow 
to labor by " the light of the future." 

The manufacture of white lead was first begun in St. Louis 
by Dr. Reed, who operated on a yery small scale, but whose 
works were the inception of the Collier White Lead Company. 
Henry T. Blow and his brother-in-law, Joseph Charles, Inid 
been for some years manufacturing white lead in connection 
with their drug business, and in 1844 Mr. Blow disposed of 
his interest in the drug store and gaye his exclusiye attention 
to the running of his white lead works. His business increased, 
and, in 1850, in order to secure a proper enlargement of the 
factory, he organized a stock company, which was, and is still 


called, the Collier White Lead and Oil Company. Mr. Blow 
became its President, and continued in that position until the 
year 1861, when he entered public life, and was succeeded by 
Col. Thomas Eicheson, who has continued its chief executive 
officer ever since. 

From what was a comparatively small institution in 1861, 
the Collier Works have increased, until they are now, not 
only the largest in the West, but, perhaps, the largest in the 
United States, covering nearly two blocks of ground, em- 
ploying one hundred and fifty men, and turning out annually 
4,000 tons of white lead ground in oil, 200,000 pounds red 
lead, 150,000 gallons linseed oil, and 150,000 gallons castor 
oil. While the capital stock of the company is but $700,000 
their sales now aggregate $2,000,000, and are rapidly in- 

There is a reason for the almost unparalleled success of the 
Collier Works aside even of the wise policy and executive 
ability by which they have been controlled, which it is im- 
portant to express in this connection. St. Louis is in a doubly- 
blessed position — with more navigable water at her door than 
any other city on the globe, which cheapen and accelerate her 
transportation facilities ; planted in the basin of the continent, 
with her arms resting upon the inexhaustible beds of the 
richest and most valuable of commercial minerals in the world, 
and being the great distributing point for the materials which 
are employed in the rapid building up of the West, — surely 
nature and enterprise have united to make her configuration 
and advantages the grandest ever conceived by man. In the 
relation of these natural interests, which give to St. Louis 
such a preponderation over the other cities of the hemispheres, 
the manufacture of white lead and oil are a consequential 
feature of the West, in contradistinction to the demand in the 
East, This inequality of demand is found in the fact that the 
development of the East is already accomplished, or at least 
so far advanced that further improvement is slow, and its 
quickening impulses are only occasioned by the reflexion of 
Western interests. But here we are a building people, prolific 
with enterprise ; the great theatre of a Western commerce is 
under process of construction, labor and its auxiliaries are 



therefore active, and home consumption is enormous. The 
empty fields are not only being covered Avith waving cereals, 
and the forests bending under the strokes of advancing civiliza- 
tion, but buildings are being reared in countless number. The 
pioneer, no lessthanthe " down-easter," delights in thebeautv 
and comfort of his home ; and Avhile his ideas of mechanical 
ornamentation may not be so extravagant, j^et his use of white 
paint is certainly as great. These reasons sufficiently account 
for the fact that one-fourth of all the white lead used in the 
United States is made in St. Louis, and, with the continued 
prosperity of the West, this proportion in her favor will 

A description of the Collier White Lead and Oil Works, 
and the conversion of the mineral into carbonate, detailins: 
the various processes and the means em^Dloyed, would doubtless 
prove irksome to a large majority of our readers who are already 
familiar with the minutijB of the business as described in 
previous publications ; but there are two additions made to the 
establishment, a notice of which is essential because their 
introduction marks a new period in the history of white lead 
manufacture, and are therefore inseparable from the most 
summary compendium of the Collier Works. 

For many years the laborers in white lead factories were 
subjected to great danger consequent upon the inhalation of 
small particles of lead, which, in the grinding processes, were 
thrown off in a fine dust. No man, of however strong con- 
stitution and endurance, could withstand the terrible eft'ects of 
the poison, and exposure for two or three months was sufficient 
to kill the men. Their necessary work was, therefore, only 
accomplished by placing some protection over the mouth, 
and even this precaution only partially mitigated the danger 
and prolonged the inevitable result. To overcome this serious 
difficulty was a work which had oftentimes been debated but 
left without a remedy, until Mr. liicheson took upon himself 
the task of effectually accomplishing the desired resiilts. 
After some time of patient study he devised a remedy which 
is not only successful in protecting the workmen from every 
particle of dust, but invented a contrivance which creates a 
fitrono- upward draft by which means the dust is sucked up and 


carried to another part of the building, where it is deposited 
again in a receptable. From here it is reconveyed back into 
the mill and utilized, accomplishing a sa\^ng of one thousand 
pounds pure white lead every twenty-four hours. 

Another very important invention in use at the Collier 
Works is the rotary steam-drying table. By the old process 
it required from seven to eight days to dry the carbonate, 
which had to be run into larger iron basins and steamed. The 
rotary table is a simple piece of machinery, and its operation 
even more simple than its construction. The moist and drip- 
ping lead falls through a hopper on to a flat, circular iron 
table, which is kept revolving and heated by steam. There 
are four iron rollers also heated, which rotate with the table 
and press and spread the lead, so that when the table com- 
pletes it revolution it passes under a scraper, which pours the 
now thoroughly dried lead into a receptacle for further use. 
By this process, what before required one hundred and seventy- 
five hours, is done in just three and one-half minutes. 

The changes and improvements made in the Collier Works 
in 1861, have been so numerous that there is little similarity 
between the factory then and now. The works are kept run- 
ning night and day throughout the year, except a stoppage 
regularly made from Saturday night to Monday morning. 
The management of such an immense institution must, of 
necessity, be systematic ; but the regularity and fixedness 
observable in every department of the factory is really 
wonderful ; so perfect, indeed, that Mr. Richeson is enabled 
at any moment to tell whether everything has been working 
properly ; if any stoppage has been made in any department ; 
how much lead is being made, and if the product falls short, 
the reason why, and so of every feature ; for every step in the 
work is recorded in a book reserved for that purpose. Every- 
thing is order, and bespeaks a perfect management. 

The products of the Collier White Lead and Oil Works 
are found in almost every hamlet of America ; and their brand 
known as " prime white lead," has a reputation for excellence 
unequaled by any other made on the continent. It is shipped 
east and west, and, wherever used, is certain to meet with 
increased demand. The object of the company is to succeed 



only by honorable competition, by numufacturing an article of 
paints which will commend itself, and this policy has not only 
made them famous in the Mississippi Valley, but from coast to 
coast, and every year their facilities are increasino-. The 
Collier Works is an institution of which St. Louis feels justly 
proud, and one that has done much towards the progress of 
our great city and the development of the immense mineral 
regions round about our doors. 

VANE, CALVERT & CO.— Ready-Mixed Paints. 

The manufacture of ready-mixed paints is a comparatively 
new industry, but one which supplies such a large necessity 
and provides such an incalculable convenience, that it has 
grown in a very rapid ratio. It requires little experience to 
apply paint in the ordinarj' way in which it is used, but the 
services of an experienced tradesman are necessary for the 
proj)er mixing of the white lead and oil. It is to prepare the 
paint for immediate use that manufactories of this specialty 
have been established, the largest institution of the kind in 
St. Louis being that of Vane, Calvert & Co., whose office and 
sales-room are at Nos. 705 and 707 North Main Street. This 
firm was established in 1869, with plenty of cai)ital to carry 
the industry to a state of the greatest perfection. Their 
paints are made with the most scrupulous care, nothing but 
jDrime lead and oil being used, and the most skillful workmen 
employed. The consequence of this careful attention is found 
in the vast superiority of their product and its almost univer- 
sal use throughout the West. The great convenience which 
these paints provide is found in numerous nistances : to the 
farmer who has neither time nor the means to secure a painter 
to do some necessary work which he can do equally Avell at 
inconsiderable cost by ordering the ready-mixed paint in color 
and quantity ta suit ; to the townsman who has an inclination 
to economize by doing his own work instead of calling in the 
services of a stranger ; to every one who wishes to get a better 
paint at a less price than the lead and oil costs. 


The paints manufactured by Messrs. Vane, Calvert & Co., 
besides being much more durable, will cover one-fourth more 
surface than the paints mixed in the ordinary way ; tliey are 
specially adapted to wall painting as a substitute for paper, 
presenting a much handsomer appearance, and being eminently 
more durable, and when soiled can be washed without injury. 
The firm also manufactures a cheaper quality of paints, suitable 
for depot buildings, roofs, and for other like purposes, and 
are sold at a very low price. 

Messrs. Vane, Calvert & Co. have introduced an eco- 
nomic feature in tlie use of paints which is properly appre- 
ciated by the public, as their liberal patronage fully attests. 

L. M. RUMSEY & CO. — Manufacturers of Machinery. 

The firm of L. M. Rumsey & Co. is familiarly known in 
every section of the United States, and it has done more, 
perhaps, to advertise St. Louis than any other manufacturing 
institution we have. The firm is composed of L. M. and 
Moses Rumsey, brothers, who established themselves in the 
manufacture of machinery as late as 1865, founded, as is 
almost every great business, upon a small capital footing, 
and built up by the sagacity of the proprietors. The parent 
factory of this great house is located at Seneca Falls, New 
York, where all their fire engines and heavy machinery is 
made. Last year they built another large factory in North 
Indianapolis, where they manufacture scythe snaths, grain 
cradles, and other light agricultural implements, and at the 
St. Louis factory is manufactured lead pipe, sheet and bar 
lead, pump chains and chain-pump material, and a hundred 
other things too tedious to mention. Their branch house here 
covers an area equal to an entire block, the main building 
including Nos, 811, 813, 815, five stories in height, and their 
factory at No. 816 North Main, with an immense warehouse at 
No. 806 on Second Street, giving employment to sixty men. 
Their sales the first year w^ere $150,000, and for the year 
1877 they aggregated $1,000,000, and every year their facilities 
are beino; extended. 

\ij \l ,1 \Mh iiit 

l^asiT '^Etf linrti"! 

^♦Cn /r^ |||(||:i,, 


Mr. L. M. Rumsey is a practical mechanic, and has 
invented some of the most useful pieces of machinery in use, 
one of which is a machine for making pump chains. They 
are at once the simplest and most expeditious little curiosities 
to be seen. Without any attention from any one, these 
machines turn out six thousand feet of pump chain in every 
ten hours. They manufacture nothing on royalty, preferring 
to either invent their own machinery, or buy the patents from 
other inventors, and their business is conducted on such an 
admirable sj^stem that the cost on every article is reduced to 
the minimum, thus enabling them not only to keep out Eastern 
competition, but to supplant many Eastern factories in their 
own localities. 

The products of Rumsey & Co.'s factories find ready sale 
in New York, Philadelphia, and other Eastern cities ; tlirough- 
out the entire West as far as San Francisco, and alsc^ in the 
West Indies and South America. The Rumsey Brothers are 
energetic, enterprising, practical and truly representative 
men, entitled to a credit commensurate with their enormous 


Recognizing the position and advantages of St. Louis as a 
commercial center, when civil strife ended, the members of the 
above corporation commenced business as a firm, about twelve 
years ago, obtaining what at that time Avas considered a very 
central location in the city: No. 13 South Main Street, a fcAv 
doors south of Market Street and opposite the old Merchants' 
Exchange. Agricultural implements, small farming tools, 
known to the trade as "wood and steel goods," such as grain 
cradles, snaths, forks, hoes', rakes, etc., and the Whitewater 
wagons were then their principal items of trade ; but earl}^ 
demands from their customers required the addition from time 
to time of other items, and keeping steadily in view the prin- 
ciple of dealing only in the best and at as low a price as such 
quality could be afforded, their annual sales have increased 
steadily, making an aggregate for 1877 of nearly ten times that 


of the year 1866. Few sections of this country are not now 
tributary to the business of this company. Their customers 
in New York and Pennsylvania have been so numerous as to 
require the entire attention of one man to look after their in- 
terests in that section. Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, and 
the southern and western shores of the country, north to Man- 
itoba and all included territory, are being supplied to an extent 
that is constantly increasing. Exceptional shipments have 
been made to London and Germany, and considerable export 
traffic to Brazil has recently taken place. 

Nothing short of a catalogue of several hundred pages will 
adequately represent the items now furnished by the Semple 
& Birge Manufacturing Company. Three factories which 
"grow with their growth," are located respectively iu St. 
Louis, Seymour, Ind., and Whitewater, Wis., and furnish 
employment for about four hundred men. 

This company now furnishes almost everything necessary in 
the way of farming tools and machinery, cane and cotton ma- 
chinery, feed cutters, mills and boilers, reapers, threshers, corn 
shellers, wood-sawing machines, steam engines, mill and eleva- 
tor machinery, including bolting cloth, belting, pulleys, shafts 
ing, and the most approved machinery necessary to the pre- 
paring and handling of grain, flour, meal, etc., shovels, spades, 
and scoops, ice tools, various hardware items, etc., etc. 

The completion of the bridge and tunnel, and location of 
the new post-office in 1875, indicating Washington Avenue as 
the future location of the wholesale trade of this city, induced 
this firm to erect, at 910 and 912 Washington Avenue, the finest 
building in that locality, consisting of five stories and basement, 
and fronting on both Washington Avenue and St. Charles 
Street. Since that time an addition adjoining, Nos. 915 and 
917 St. Charles Street, has been erected, and this season 
(1878) the stone building extending on St. Charles Street 
from Nos. 919 to 927— the entire front of the block from St. 
Charles Street to Wasliington Avenue, including Nos. 500 to 
514 North Tenth Street, and on Washington Avenue from Nos. 
922 to 926 has been secured for temporary use. The estab- 
lishment now contains "acres of room," on which there is 


probably the largest and best stock of goods of the kind to be 
found anywhere in the United States or the Avorld. 

A telephone connects the central office with the Shovel 
Factory at Nos. 1029 and 1031 North Main Street, about a 
mile distant, by means of which the business is greatly facili- 
tated. The sound of trip-hammers and hum of machinery at 
that point can be distinctly heard. 

Another telephone in the same office connects with the St. 
Louis Telephone Exchange, and by this arrangement a man 
can, from his desk in this office, transact business verbally with 
any one or all of the other business concerns connected by 
telephone with the central office of the exchange. The man 
calls the central office, notifies the attendant whom he wants to 
speak to, and by the movement of a small lever, the telephone 
to the desired place is united with the speaker, and the business 
conversation is carried on without being heard at the other 
places. The Merchant's Exchange, the Mayor's office. Police 
Department, Fire Department, banks, railroad freight offices, 
steamboat offices, insurance offices, and the principal factories 
and business houses of the city are connected with the central 
office of the Telephone Exchange. 

Probably in the same line of business, as large a variety, 
as good goods, as extended trade and as much business enter- 
prise, can not be found elsewhere, as at Nos. 910 and 912 
Washington Avenue, and 911, 913, 915 and 917 St. Charles 
Street, this city ; and it speaks well for the future of this city 
that with the recent complaint of general depression in business, 
that such a business has been constantly increasing and pros- 
pering from the date of its first organization. 




The greatest invention of the nineteenth century is 
undoubtedly the sewing machine. But the original was a 
crude and cumbersome piece of mechanism, susceptible of 
vast improvements. The introduction of new inventions to 
replace the more unsatisfactory parts of the sewing max^hine 

has been constant, 

until the result is 

seen in the most 

wonderfully per- 

fect A\^ardvvell. 

There must be a stage in 

all things when further 

})rogress and improvement 

is impossible ; when the 

oreatest jjenius discovers 

his metes and bounds, 

and further ambition is 

stifled by an accomplished 


All sewing machines of 
to-day are marvelous 
pieces of mechanism, 
whose fruits are inestim- 
al)le blessings to woman- 
kind ; but there is always 
a preference among the 
many, and one superior 
to all others ; the question 
for solution, therefore, 
must necessarily be : 
"Which is the best?" The 
last machine invented has a great advantage, in that it is 
supposed to represent an improvement over all others ; and 
accepting this as a proposition demonstrated, the Wardwell 
should, as it certainly does, surpass all others. 

This machine is a product of St. Louis genius, having 
been conceived, invented and is manufactured bv St. Louis 


gentlemen. Its points of superiority over all others are in its 
general features, differing in nearly every respect from all 
other styles made. Primarily, the Ward well has neither 
shuttle nor bobbin, those twin evils of other machines ; it has 
less than one-third the number of parts ; it has tlie least fric- 
tion, and is consequently the lightest running ; it requires no 
adjusting, and is so simple that a child can understand it, 
and it can not get out of order. The needle is self-adjusting, 
and therefore can not be set wrong ; it is almost noiseless ; 
scAving directly from the spool, it requires no tedious winding 
on to the shuttle ; it is the only machine that admits of one 
person treading while another handles tlic stitching ; and 
lastly, it has a rotary table, which permits the sewing to run 
in any required direction at the pleasure of the operator. 
These are a few of the superior features of the Wardwell, but 
sufficient to show that in its construction immense progress 
has been made, and to demonstrate its perfection, making 
further improvement in sewing machine mechanism ai)]iarently 
impossible. That it will soon supersede every shuttle macliine 
now in the market scarcely admits of any reasonable doubt , 
as the demand is already in excess of the supply. In fact the 
Wardwell has revolutionized the sewing machine industry, 
and has made its inventor one of the great geniuses of 
the age. 

The Wardwell Manufacturing Company was organized in 
1874, with a subscribed capital of $1,000,000, and a Avorking 
capital of $200,000. The officers are : George W. ShaAv, 
President; James H. Forbes, Vice-President ; Joseph W. 
Baeppler, Secretary, and Hugh Menown, Treasurer ; and the 
office of the company is at No. 915 North Fourth Street. 
The manufacturing is done at the Colt Annory, at Hartford, 
Connecticut. The Wardwell Avas exhibited at the Centemiial 
before being put on sale, and was the only seAving machine 
awarded a diploma for pure merit, novelty, finish and ingenuity, 
and wherever exhibited its vast superiority is at once ackuoAvl- 


M. M. BUCK & CO. — Railway Supplies. 

St. Louis is now recognized as one of the few great rail- 
road centers of America, stretching out her brawny iron arms 
in every direction, and grasping the commerce of every State 
in the Union. Her development under the impetus given by 
the construction of new roads has been very rapid and so im- 
portant that the active agents in our railroad -factorship are 
entitled to recognition in this work, which purposes the per- 
petuation of our laudable enterprises and institutions. 

Amon<T^ the number selected as representatives of the rail- 
roadino" industry of St, Louis, there is no firm occupying a more 
conspicuous position than that of M. M. Buck & Co. This 
house was established by M. M. Buck in 1859, at No. 54 Vine 
Street. Mr. Buck was, at the time of his embarkation into 
the business, less than twenty years of age, and his total cash 
capital was two hundred dollars ; and besides this humble and 
disadvantageous beginning, there were only six railroads enter- 
ing St. Louis. But Mr. Buck had the ability to mould circum- 
stances into desirable ends and even utilize obstacles. After 
doinjr business at his original house for three vears, Mr. Buck 
removed to a building on Vine, between Main and Second 
streets, where he remained until 1869, when he again removed, 
selecting his present quarters, at No. 209 North Third Street. 
The building is fifty feet in width, by one hundred and fifty 
feet in length, and is six stories in height. Every foot of 
space is utilized, besides a large warehouse in the rear for 
storing the immense stock of spikes, Avire-rope, boiler tubes, 
etc., carried constantly by the house. The firm carries a stock 
of two hundred thousand dollars, comprising every conceivable 
article used in the construction and operation of railroads, such 
as steamboat, telegraph, machinists' and contractors' supplies, 
and also includes track material, shop, locomotive, foundry and 
depot supplies, and many of their goods, of which they are 
sole manufacturers under patents, are sold throughout the 
United States. They now have over one hundred railroads 
on their patron list, issue a regular monthly price-iist, and 
operate one ot the largest manufactories of railway supplies in 
the United States ; their annual sales are over a million dollars. 




CURTIS & CO.— Saws and Edge Tools. 

The cut below represents the important nuinufactory of 
Curtis & Co., whose saws are known and used in every part 
of America. This house deserves a first place among our 
leading manufacturers, because it has contributed large I v 
toward making St. Louis the great city that she is. Their 
extensive foctory is located on the corner of Ninth and Mon- 
roe streets, and the office and salesroom is at No. 811 North 

.\ 'Lv*:^1^r'n n n n 'I 3 3 

^^ ' f ^ ^1 n P ^ ^ i 


i-'i 1 

Second Street, where, in addition to the products of their 
own factory, the firm deals largely in all kinds of mill and 
lumbermen's supplies, and have a trade extending from the 
British possessions to the Gulf coast of Texas, and in fact 
branches into every State in the Union. A greater portion of 
their trade, however, comes from the large pine and lumber re- 
gions, where Curtis & Co.'s saAvs are in almost exclusive use. 
The house is under the management of Oscar Bradford, 



who is President of the Company, and a gentleman of the 
most courteous address and large business experience and 
adaptability. Dexter S. Crosby has for several years held the 
responsible position of Secretary of the firm, and is well 
known throughout the West. Curtis & Co.'s trade is con- 
stantly extending, and they are the largest manufacturers 
and dealers in their line of goods in the Mississippi Valley. 

J. K. CUMMINGS.— St. Louis Glass Works. 

The St. Louis Glass Works, located on the corner of 
Broadway and Monroe streets, are an industry in themselves 
which reflect credit upon the manufacturing interest of the 
city. The works occupy nearly one entire block, with fur- 
naces, packing-houses, annealing ovens, fire-clay rooms for 
making pots, store-rooms, offices, and include Nos. 2301 to 2315 
Broadway. Mr. J. K. Cummings, the proprietor, purchased 
the factory in 1860, and has increased the facilities and made 
of the works a truly great and remunerative institution. The 
goods manufactured include lamp chimneys, bottles, fruit jars, 
etc., and the trade supplied by Mr. Cummings extends over 
the entire West. 

BEARD & BRO— Safes. 

This immense safe manufactory is located at No. 918 North 
Second Street. The firm of Beard & Bro. make the most 
perfect safes for durability and proof against fire and thieves 
to be found in any market. The patents that have been 
awarded them reflect credit upon their advanced ideas. Their 
safes have an immense sale, and have been subjected to every 
test calculated to prove their worth, all of which they have 
withstood to the satisfaction of the public. Their screw-door 
burglar-proof safe received the highest award at the Centennial 
Exhibition, for security against burglars. It is powder and 
wedge proof. 



DEERE, MANSUR & CO. — Manufacturers and Jobbers 
OF Farm Machinery. 

This house, which is a branch of the great plow works of 
Deere & Co., Moliiic, Illinois, started at Kansas City about 
ten years ago, and six years later opened a house at St. Louis, 
to more thoroughly care for its large and growing Texas and 
Southern trade. 

With the year 1878 the plow works of Deere & Company 
entered upon the thirty-lirst year of its existence ; its founder 


The Pioneer in Western Plow Manufactures, and Founder of the Largest Steel Plow 

Factory in the World. 

havino- removed to Moline in the year 1847 from Grand 
Detour, 111., where he had ])cen making steel plows the previous 
ten years, and the name of John Deere is therefore associated 
in the minds of the earliest settlers of the Western States 
with the first steel plows ever made. 

The settlement of the Northwestern Territory — now con- 
stituting the Western States— at that early date had just com- 
menced ; and their marvelous growth in wealth and population 



is but a fair index to the growth of these works ; and though, 
its founder doubtless expected a large degree of success to 
result from well-directed energy and skill, yet he could not 
have anticipated that it was destined to become what it now is, 
the largest plow manufactory in the world — employing six hun- 
dred men, aided by machinery to perfect and cheapen the 
production, and render every part uniform. 

These works have a capacity for turning out five hundred 
finished steel plows, sulkies, gangs and cultivators every day, 
usinsf three thousand five hundred tons of steel and iron 
annually. The sale of such an immense number of plows is 
not only an indication of the wide extent of prairie country 


in which steel plows are exclusively used, but, with the lively 
competition which prevails in these times in every market, it 
is also a sure indication of the largest measure of merit. 

While manufacturers generally, and all departments of 
industrv in the East and the Old World are suffering the 
greatest depression and distress known for thirty years, the 
Western farmers can be congratulated upon more than an aver- 
age measure of prosperity. All products of the soil find a ready 
market at fair prices, while the many failures among merchants 
and manufacturers too surely indicate that other branches of 
industry are unremunerative. 

Farmers in this country are provided with implements of 


economic husbandry of higher merit than is known in any 
other Land, enabling them to compote in all the mark(>ts of 
the world with farm products of cheaper labor — a result pro- 
duced by the ingenuity of American mechanics unit^Ml with 
the enterprise and intelligent industry of American farmers. 

The latest inyention, and a wonderful success, is the "Gil- 
pin " Sulky Plow, one of the specialties of Deere, Mansur & 
Co.'s immense stock. A sale of three thousand in the first 
year after its introduction and the unbounded satisfaction 
they have given to every farmer using them — and this in view 
of the fact that many other makes of sulkies had been on the 
market three to six years previously — is ample proof of the 
authority of our claim to the best sulky plow in existence. 

The manufactures of this concern comprise all styles of 
steel plows for old and new ground, wood and iron beam ; 
also, walking and riding cultivators, harrows, etc., etc. 

Deere, Mansur & Co., at St. Louis and Kansas City, are 
general agents for the leading manufacturers of threshers, 
drills, rakes, farm wagons, spring wagons, corn planters, 
engines, etc., and do a large trade in all these classes of 

The Manager of the St. Louis house is Mr. A. Mansur, a 
a gentleman of large experience in the implement business 
and well known to the Western merchants. 




In the development of humanity, and in the elevating of the 
o-eneral masses of the human race from a state of ignorance and 
brutality to one of enlightened reason, progress and freedom, no 
factor has exerted a more powerful influence than the printers' 
type. Important as this little factor is, and must ever con- 
tinue to be, in the furtherance of great and noble purposes and 

uses, few persons, even among those who use them for their 
own livelihood, have ever witnessed or understood the process 
of its manufacture. 

A brief history of the establishment and operation of the 
St. Louis Type Foundry, one of the leading institutions of 
the kind in America, must prove both interesting and instruc- 
tive. This concern was established in 1840, and from a small 


beginning has grown to its present proportions, requiring two 
buildings on the north side of Pine Street and two upper lioors 
of a warehouse on Second Street. Here are manufactured the 
type, rules, cases, leads, cuts, hand presses and all the various 
kinds of materials and machinery used in a printing othce. 

The casting-room is on the tifth floor, where may be seen 
fourteen improved type machines running by steam, and cast- 
ing type Avith greater speed and perfection than in any similar 
establishment in the country. After casting, the jets remain- 
ing on the bottom of the type are broken oft" by a number 
of boys, after which it is sent to the room below ; in this de- 
partment it goes through various manipulations, such as rub- 
bing, kerning, setting, and finishing, which processes require 
the employment of a large number of men and girls. The 
type when completed is forwarded to the salesroom, from 
whence it goes to the various printing offices in the West and 

Adjoining the casting-room is the brass de[)artment, where 
the various designs of brass rules, leads, slugs, metal furni- 
ture, etc., are made. The fourth floor is devoted to electro- 
typing and stereotyping, which is an important branch of the 
business ; and in another apartment on the same floor the type 
cases, cabinets, galleys and other printers' furniture are manufac- 
tured. On the third floor is the machine shop, where the 
Washington hand-press is made and machinery repaired, and 
old presses are rebuilt. In the rear of the third floor of 
the main building is the machinery warehouse, where the press 
stock is displayed, including among the job presses the Gor- 
don, Universal, Nonpareil, Liberty, Peerless, etc. The second 
floor is used for the storage of one of the best selected stocks 
of paper, cards, card-boards, envelopes, tags, and every vari- 
ety of printers' stationery to be found in the West. On this 
floor may also be found the business offices of the company. 
The first floor is occupied as a general salesroom, is over one 
hundred feet in length, and filled with every variety of printers' 
tools and implements. The basement is reserved for second- 
hand machinery and the storage of news and job ink, of all 
variety of colors. The number of persons employed in the 
various departments of this institution is nearly one hundred. 


The trade of the St. Louis Type Foundry extends through 
sixteen States and all the Territories, and its product is con- 
sidered as fine in every respect as that of any foundry in the 
world. Mr. Bright, the Secretary, has been with the estab- 
lishment since 1845, and it is safe to say that there is not a 
newspaper man in the West who does not know and esteem 
him. Mr. Charles S. Kauffman has charge of the financial 
department, and has been identified wi^h the foundry since 
1861. The mechanical department is under the superinten- 
dency of Mr. James G. Pavyer. 

F. A. DURGIN. — Manufacturer of Solid Silverware. 

To the St. Louis visitor of aesthetic taste, whose pleasure 
is found in the admiration of the most elegant products of 
man's ingenuity, no place within the limits of the great 
metropolis will aiford so much interest as the extensive solid 
silverware manufactory of F. A. Durgin, located at No. 305 
North Seventh Street. The foundation of this elaborate in- 
stitution was laid by the present proprietor in 1858, in a small 
building on the corner of Market and Commercial streets. 
The necessity for subsequent changes caused three removals 
of the business, first, to the corner of Fourth and Spruce 
streets ; next to the corner of Fifth and Pine, up stairs ; and 
in 1868 to the present premises. The last removal was of the 
greatest importance, for the building was fitted up specially 
for a manufactory, and was of proper dimensions to admit of 
the most extensive manufacturing and retail business. Steam 
power was added, together Avith all the necessary machinery 
for converting silver bricks into the most elegant ornaments 
of table use and personal adornment. 

The processes through which the pure silver passes from 
the brick or coin into the numerous articles so skillfully 
designed and executed, is full of absorbing interest to every 
visitor, whether he be a novice or the most critical connoisseur 
of the fine arts. Upon entering the room the first object of 
special attention is the stamping machine, which shapes 


straight bars of silver into knives, forks, spoons, etc. In tlie 
rear of the factory are two crucibles, through which 1 he alloyed 
silver passes and comes out pure and beautiful. The hum of 
numerous appliances makes the place nuisical, and u])on 
reaching the second story the visitor tinds so many interesting 
features that his stay is necessarily prolonged far beyond the 
time he had allotted. The fashioning of thin plates of silver 
into pitchers, sugar bowls, castors, butter dishes, the beautiful 
repousse work, or hammered silver, and a thousand articles of 
like character, is a process which excites the most profound in- 
terest. An attempted description of all the means employed 
would be futile and unsatisfactory, for nothing can approximate 
the scene. All our readers, beyond a doubt, have often won- 
dered how silverware is polished ; true, they all know that the 
use of a special preparation and a vigorous rubbing with chamois 
skin will thoroughly cleanse silver, but yet no such means will 
impart to the ware that bright, satin finish which is seen upon 
the new articles exposed for sale. 

The process employed by the manufacturer is a very simple 
one. Upon one end of a rod, which is made to revolve with 
the greatest rapidity, like a turning lathe, is fastened the 
burnishing brush. This brush consists of a ball of small brass 
wires, about one inch in length, fastened loosely at one end to 
a center piece by the union of two rings. The small wires 
are therefore free to dangle, and when the machine is set in 
motion the centrifugal force throws the wires freely outward. 
Against these the article desired to be polished is held, and 
the beautiful gloss at once appears, and in a very few moments 
the pitcher, dish, or whatever it may be, is ready for sale. 

In addition to the immense manufacturing interests of 
Mr. Durgin, he gives special attention to engraving, keeping 
constantly employed two of the most skillful and expert work- 
men in the country, and doing the finest work in the city. 

The salesroom of this great establishment is one of the most 
elejrant and elaborate to be found either P^ast or AVest. In 
the arrangement of the cabinet show-cases, which are of solid 
walnut, richly embellished with the genius of the most expeii; 
Avood carver, Mr. Durgin has exhibited the most rcHncd 
and tasteful conception. These cases extend in an upright 


266 TOUR OF ST. LOU18. 

position along both sides of the room, with beautiful plate- 
glass sliding doors, and upon the shelving, in the handsome 
arrangement, is displayed the superb stock of the establish- 
ment, comprising the larger silver articles, and as beautiful a 
siglit as ever eye beheld. Near the center of the room, sub- 
serving the double purpose of show-case and counter, are the 
exquisite silver-mounted plate-glass cases, in which is exhib- 
ited such articles as silver spoons, knives of various kinds, 
napkin rings, combs, salt-cellars, and a hundred other unique 
and handsome, ornamental and useful provisions for sump- 
tuous dining and the interior decoration of palatial homes. 

Mr. Durgin is well supported in his commendable undertak- 
ing of providing for a want long felt by elevating the tastes of 
our people to the very highest- appreciation of fine art. His 
establishment now turns out the most elegant articles of solid 
silverware to be found in the United States, and many of his 
goods are even shipped on orders to Europe. He manufac- 
tures nothing except solid silverware, but in order to provide 
for all demands he keeps a large stock of plated ware, which 
he receives direct from the manufactories, by which means he 
is enabled to sell on first margins. 

Schooled in the business by a practical experience of thirty 
years, there is no one better prepared to meet the Avants of 
customers for silverware than Mr. Durgin. In this trade, as 
in every other, there are tricks which it is difficult for the pub- 
lic to understand, consequently it is always important to deal 
with a gentleman whose character is such that there is every 
assurance no deception will be practiced. In the twent}'^ 
years of Mr. Durgin' s business in St. Louis he has gathered 
nothing but the most honorable recognition from his patrons ; 
among those of his acquaintance his representations are facts 
and his suggestions of the highest value. He has built up a 
trade commensurate with the growth and importance of the 
Western empire. 

Mr. Durgin' s is one of the most complete factories in the 
country, and the superiority of his work has secured for him 
the patronage of the best and wealthiest citizens of the West ; 
in short his facilities are such that he can manufacture every 
conceivable article pertinent to the silver trade. 




Within the past few years a new branch of industry has 
been developed in St. Louis, which has taken sudden rank 
among the most advanced and vahiable manufacturing interests 
of America. In the early history of this country the articles 
of culinary use were ceramic pots ; clay was superseded by 
bronze and copper ; then iron came next, which in turn has 
been largely supplanted by tin ; the latest and most important 
improvement is a St. Louis invention, known as Stone-iron 
Ware. This new manufacture is one of prime i.ecessity, is 
very attractive, and because it is indestructible and unchange- 
able, is infinitely cheaper than those it is rapidly succeeding. 

This ware is 
made by fusing 
pure glass to 
iron vessels, 
which are first 
pressed into 
the sha])es and 
sizes desired. 
The glass is 
first ground 

and reduced to a pasty mass, into which the vessels are dipped, 
and so coated. They are then dried. The dark irregular 
streaks and spots are due to an infusion of the oxide of iron 
derived from the surface of the vessels. After being dried 
the coatmor is fused to the iron at a very hisfh heat. Thus 
made, Stone-iron Ware is absolutely free from ever}' ingredient 
of a harmful nature, and is as safe to use as porcelam or 

The Metal Stamping and Enameling Company was incor- 
porated in November of 1875, with an authorized cai)ital of 
one hundred thousand dollars. The original works were very 
small, compared with the present immense factory, which 
occupies Nos. 708, 710 and 712 North Second Street. Their 
product of Stone-iron Ware soon found its way to the favor of 
the public, and an enlargement of the facilities for manufac- 
turmo- was bes-un within a month after the works were startctl. 


The demand for the ware has grown at a most remarkable 
rate, the trade of the company having not only spread over 
the entire United States, but obtained a large footing in South 
America and Australia. Arrangements have been made to 
manufacture the ware in England, and soon wnll be in France 
and Germany, where patents on the new article have also 
been secured. 

The officers of the Metal Stamping and Enameling Com- 
pany are E. C.Quinby, President; J. C. Whiting, Secretary; 
and J. J. Sylvester, Treasurer. Mr. Quinby was for four- 
teen years prominently connected with the large metal im- 
porting house of R, Sellew & Co., where he obtained a 
thorough knowledge, admirably qualifying him to fill the 
important position which he now holds. Mr. Whiting was 
also thoroughly schooled in his present business. Mr. 
Sylvester is an old resident, and for several 3'ears has been 
a larsre dealer in anthracite coal, and also a successful steam- 
boat agent. The latter business he has abandoned, how- 
ever, in order to devote a portion of his time to his new 
^duties with the Stone-iron Ware Company. 

W. W. Ater held the position of Vice-President of the 
company from its incorporation until his death, which occurred 
in June of the present year. Being one of its principal stock- 
holders, he cherished the highest hopes for the future of the 
company, and upon his death bed declared his investment in 
the Metal Stamping and Enameling business the best and most 
promising one he had ever made. 

The importance of this new but large enterprise to St. 
Louis can not be over estimated, since it is one of three fac- 
tories of the kind in the world, and its products finding a 
ready sale on both continents, advertise most effectively our 
city as a great manufacturing center. 




The geographical position of St. Louis, which makes her 
now one of the 
leading grain 
markets of the 
country, and the 
facilities for 
which will ena- 
ble her in the 
near future to 
granary of the 
Mississippi Val- 
ley, are more 
particularly ad- 
verted to in an- 
otherpartof this 
work. The 
means provided 
in this city for 
shipping of grain 
in bulk, are al- 
ready vast in 
magnitude, and 
are well worthy 
of more minute 
description than 
can be readily 

Among the nu- 
merous and well 
sustained estab- 
lishments where 
grain is receiv- 
ed, stored, gra- 
ded and prepar- 
ed for shipment 


by boat or rail to distant points, no one ranks higher in 
all the essential requisites for the carrynig on of such business, 
than the Advance Elevator. This elevator, with its capacious 
warehouses, is located between the termini of the Chicago, 
Alton and St. Louis, and the Ohio and Mississippi railroads, 
and has direct connection with the other railways centering in 
East St. Louis, as well as with the bridge and ferry landings. 
By means of a hopper-bottom car, grain can be delivered from 
the Advance to barges as rapidly and in as satisfactory a 
manner as from the elevators located on the river bank. 

The warehouses — one adjoining the elevator and the other 
located on the river — have a storage capacity of 50,000 barrels 
of flour, or other bulk freight in proportion, and this vast room 
is usually fully occupied, which indicates the immense volume 
of business transacted through this elevator. Special attention 
is paid to forwarding flour, hay, and other freight which must 
pass through and break bulk- in East St. Louis. 

The distinctive feature of the "Advance" is its "steam 
shovels," no other elevator here using this appliance. By 
means of this most ingenious contrivance, cars can be unloaded 
in an almost incredibly short space of time. Shippers gener- 
ally, and especially those in Illinois, who consign to the St. 
Louis market, would do well to note the comparative prices 
paid for grain in the "Advance" and in the other elevators. 
The fact that the railroads which carry out a very large part of 
the grain, can be reached from this elevator without "switch- 
ing charges" or other cost to the shipper, except storage, makes 
grain stored in the "Advance" worth a premium. The strictest 
attention is paid to the question of weights. The scales 
are examined monthly, and sometimes oftener, by Fairbanks' 
agent. The weighman performs no other duties in the eleva- 
tor, and the greatest care is taken that every one receives just 
and accurate measure. The proprietor of the Advance Eleva- 
tor, Mr. R. S. McCormick, has his principal office in room 
No. 104 in the St. Louis Chamber of Commerce Buildins:. 




Of the numerous industries wliioh go to make up a great 
city like St. Louis none are of more impoiiance than its 
grain elevators ; for it is these agents that bring to our 
market the products of the great West for distribution over 
the continent. The largest elevator, perha[)s, west of New 
York, is the St. Louis Elevator, which is located on the west 
bank of the river, with switches leading to the tracks of all 
our railroads. It combines not only all the improvements of 
our best elevators, but also several extra faciHties designed and 
patented by its President, John Jackson, Esq. The capacity 
of the elevator is one million five hundred thousand bushels of 
grain, with facilities for loading forty thousand bushels into a 

baro-e per hour, and for loading and unloading four hundred 
cars in twelve hours ; the most expeditious handling of grain 
ever devised by any elevator in the world. 

The President of the elevator, John Jackson, Esq., is one 
of the comparatively few thoroughly enterprising men of this 
country — we say this country because his energy and means 
have been devoted, not only to the liberal improvement of St. 
Louis, but for national purposes also. He Avas one of the 
first men to assist Capt. Eads financially in the Iniilding of the 
jetties, and gave abundantly of his means towards the con- 
struction of the great bridge. He holds numerous i^ositions 
in large interests, and his capacity seems unlimited, as his 
energy is fairly boundless. The greater portion of his time. 



however, is devoted to the elevator, A/hich he has brought to 
a state of absolute perfection. 

Capt. D. P. Slattery, the Secretary and Superintendent, is 
a gentleman of the greatest worth and fidelity, having for the 
past eleven years been one of the ruling spirits in the manage- 
meut of the elevator, and in all his relations has proven him- 
self al)lc, industrious and thoroughly honest, and he is now 
regarded as an indispensable adjunct of the institution. Thus 
officered and so perfectly arranged the St. Louis Elevator 
plays a leading part in the commercial destiny of the Mississippi 


The great grain elevators of St. Louis constitute the nu- 
cleus around which gather our resources, and are the most 

potent factors in the advancement of our wealth and import- 
ance as a commercial entrepot. 

Year by year their influence becomes better appreciated, 
and, as the seasons pass, their capacity grows in sympathy with 
the increased cereal product of the great West. Here, upon 


the grand water highway to the sea, the grain elevators of St. 
Louis gather the crops of the new cinjnre and distribute thorn 
again into the granaries of the Eastern hemisphere, herakling 
abroad our wealth, grandeur and nnportance m the process by 
which the world is fed. 

Among the elevators in the Mississippi Valley there is none 
of greater consequence to St. Louis than the Central. This 
establishment comprises two distinct elevators, known as " A " 
and " B," one being located at the foot of Chouteau Avenue, 
the other near the Union Depot, and an immense warehouse 
at the corner of Fifth and Chouteau Avenue, the combined 
capacity of which is one million three hundred thousand 
bushels. The main elevator, letter "A," was built in 1873, 
and is one of the most perfect buildings of the kind in America. 
It has a capacity for eight hundred thousand bushels, and 
being located near the depot, with railroad tracks running 
through it, the advantage in handhng grain is apparent. In 
addition to these natural facilities the elevator is provided with 
grade and special bins and reversible spouts, a recent invention 
for loading cars on the track. 

Elevator " B " is equally well arranged for handling grain 
from and loading boats and barges, and has a capacity for 
three hundred thousand bushels. Both the elevators and 
warehouse are connected by telephone, so that the workings of 
each are directed from the main office, adjoining elevator "A." 

The officers of the Central. Elevator Company are N. G. 
Larimore, President ; Web, M. Samuels, Vice-President, and 
J. W. Larimore, Secretary and Treasurer, and the operating 
capital is two hundred thousand dollars. The central location 
of the elevators owned by the company, and the .superior 
facilities with which they are supplied, has not only largely 
benefited the proprietors, but St. Louis as well ; and with the 
completion of the jetties, the receipts of grain by St. Louis 
dealers, at the present rate of increase, will soon exceed that 
of any other city in America, a consummation long looked 
forward to with impatient zeal, but undeviatiug confidence. 




The brewery interest is now one of the leading industries 
of America, and although it belongs primarily to Europe, it 
has attained a point of excellence incomparal)ly greater in tliis 
than any other country. We read with delightful anticipation 
of the old burgomaster's pleasure over his nmg of newly 
brewed ]>eer, and imagine his jolly, rubicund countenance ges- 
ticulating the happ3^ stories which the exhilarating beverage 
inspires ; but compared with the Holland and Germany product 
the beer of America is nectarine and inspirational. The reason 
of this is found in the fact that in the beer-drinking districts 
of Europe the beverage is sold at such a uniformly low price 
that it is impossible to make any protit on a good article. In 
this country, on the contrary, there is a disposition to spend 
more, and a higher excellence is therefore universally de- 
manded. The consequence of our connoisseur taste is the 
adaptation of all the improved methods and most scrupulous 
care in the manufacture of what is fast becominsr the srreat 
drink of America and the world. 

Our great breweries are a feature in which a native pride 
must necessarily manifest itself, not only because of the enor- 
mous capital invested or the magnificent edifices which stand 
as enduring monuments of individual enterprise, but because 
in the proportion people adopt beer as a beverage, drunkenness, 
and the crimes consequent, diminish. The only possil)le 
way by which inebriety can be prevented is by supplanting the 
fiery and poisonous liquors with a drink that cheers and ex- 
hilarates without making men mad, impetuous or drunkards ; 
and since beer possesses these properties its discovery is sub- 
serving a most useful purpose, and it must at length prove a 
orreat assent in the reformation of mankind. 

Every large city now has its brewery, and new ones are be- 
ing constantly erected. In St, Louis we are fortunate in pos- 
sessinof one of the larg-est and finest breweries in the United 
States ; and in saying the United States we comi)rehend a 
greater portion of the world, for America is essentially the 
brewery for both hemispheres. Wm. J. Lemp's Western 
Brewery is known by reputation in every civilized section of 


the fiflobe, and his celebrated beer has 2;ained an international 
popuhirity of the most universal character. 

The foundation of this representative of one of our great 
industries was laid in 1840 by Adam Lemp, the father of Wm. 
J. Lemp, the pioneer brewer of St. Louis. His institution 
was very small and calculated only to supply the retail demand. 
It was located on Second Street, between Walnut and Elm, 
and had a capacity for one hundred barrels per year. Being 
an experienced brewer, having obtained his knowledge of the 
business before leaving the Fatherland, he made an excellent 
article considering the imperfect machinery in use at that time. 
His facilities were gradually increased, and a storehouse be- 
came necessary, which he shortly afterwards secured by the 
discovery of a natural cave under Wm. J. Lemp's present 
brewery, corner of Second Carondelet Avenue and Cherokee 
Street, a locality which Avas little else than a wilderness at the 
date of its first occupancy. The business progressed gradu- 
ally with no very important changes until August 25, 1862, 
when Mr. Lemp died, and the brewery descended to his son, 
Wm. J., who, though a young man, assumed the responsibility 
and entered upon his duties with an enterprising and liberal 
spirit which rapidly developed the business. He exhibited an 
energy that soon established a trade so large that the capacity 
of his brewery was unequal to the demand, and in 1864 he re- 
located the brewery where it now stands. Since that date 
every year has seen an extension of his trade and the erection 
of new buildings, the introduction of new improvements, and 
the extension of facilities, until now Wm. J. Lemp's Western 
Brewery is not only the largest and finest in St. Louis, but 
one of the most capacious in the world. The buildings are of 
the most substantial character, and under the brewery, extend- 
ing to a depta of fifty feet, are twenty-five immense cellars, 
with a storage capacity for fifty thousand barrels. The build- 
ings are compactly built and cover nearly two entire squares, 
in addition to which there are four ice-houses on the Levee, 
each of which has a capacity for five thousand tons, and built 
so as to receive the cargoes of Mr. Lemp's ice barges in the 
most expeditious manner. 

The brewery is kept running night and day, from one year to 


another, producing annually over one hundred thousand barrel? 
of beer, and yet the demand so far exceeds the capacity of the 
brewery to supply that further large additions arc necessary 
and will be made before the year expires. The business trans- 
acted by Wm. J. Lemp is nearly one million five hundred 
thousand dollars each year, and yet his system is such that he 
knows where every dollar of this vast sum is placed and every 
barrel of his beer is used. His office at the brewery has tele- 
graph connections with all parts of the world, and the ship- 
ments of his product are made in his own refrigerator cars, 
one hundred and twenty-five in number. 

During the last year Mr. Lemp has added a bottling de- 
partment to his brewery, with a capacity for putting up twelve 
thousand bottles daily, Avhich will soon be increased to one hun- 
dred thousand daily, as the demand for his bottled beer, coming 
from all parts of the world, is enlarging so rapidly that it is 
impossible now to fill the orders. Lemp's beer is now sold 
regularly in all the ports of South America, in Calcutta, Yoko- 
hama, Yeddo, Hawaii, Shanghai, Sidney and Melbourne, Aus- 
tralia, the West Indies, and the large cities of America, while 
large quantities are sent to London, Paris, Berlin and other 
European cities. No brewery in the world produces a finer 
and more delicious beer than Lemp's, and its superiority 
has been repeatedly acknowledged by aAvards at all the State 
fairs held in the Union and at the Centennial Exhibition. 

The unparalleled success of the Western Brewery is due en- 
tirely to the rare business intelligence of Mr. Lemp, who, as- 
suming the responsibility of a small concern Avhen young in 
years, has developed and expanded a trade distinctively his 
own, until now he is the largest brewer in the West, with a 
purpose, sure of attainment, of being the largest and most 
successful brewer in America ; already Lemp's brewery is 
the lariiest manufactory of any character under a single pro- 
prietor west of New York. 



The present age is indeed a busy and progressive one, 
with competition in all lines of business so energetic as to 
aptly illustrate the slightly modified adage, "Eternal perse- 
verance is the price of success." Especially true is the sayino- 
when applied to the West, where strict adherence to purpose 
and the exercise of brain and muscle are the sole reliances, as 
contradistinguished from the East, where lineage is made the 
chief corner-stone of success. The Western business man 
never lays down the heated iron to moralize upon accomplished 
facts, but strikes the blows and then allows the facts to speak 
for themselves. 

While the general public is crying and bewailing the 
strmgency of the times, the energetic portion of the comnmnity 
is busily engaged, the evidences of live investments and 
encroaching prosperity being noticeable on every side. But 
thus is the world divided ; the idle are complaining, while the 
industrious are rushed fairly day and night to supply the 
demand for the products of their labor. An increase of 
facilities is the true index of prosperity, and this proposition 
being self-evident, the success of the E. Anheuser Company's 
Brewing Association, measured by their recent large improve- 
ments, is so signal as to make that institution worthy of pub- 
lic recognition. 

From an humble beginning a few years ago, this now 
colossal institution has spread its commercial fingers and 
grasped a territory of trade whose limits are described only 
by the expanse of oceans and the confines of continents. 
From a small building it has expanded its works until they 
now occupy seven acres of ground, bounded by Pestalozzi, 
Arsenal, Eighth and Ninth streets, and include ten immense 
buildings of an imposing appearance, each of which is crowded 
to its full capacity. 

The business of the Anheuser Brewery has increased so 
rapidly tliat a force of men is almost constantly engaged 
erecting new additions, and yet the orders, coming in from 
all parts of the globe in continuous flow, are always in excess 
of the ability of the brewery to supply. Among the new 


structures completed on the first of January last are the 
refrigerating beer vault, a new bottling house, and the office, 
three Iniildings, which are substantial ornaments to the city. 
The beer vault is constructed after a new design, and is an 
illustration of the originality of the proprietors. It is built 
of solid masonry and brick, the walls being thirty inches in 
thickness. It is two stories in height, each story being twenty 
feet in the clear. The first floor is laid with heavy granite 
flag-stones, and contains the fermenting tubs, and two tiers 
of lager beer casks, one of sixty and the other of forty casks, 
each cask having a capacity for sixty barrels. The second 
floor is of iron, on which an immense quantity of ice is packed, 
from whicji draughts of air constantly descend through con- 
duits in the walls to the first floor, by Avhich the contents of 
the huge casks are kept at a uniformly very low temperature. 

The new bottlino; house is a buildinc; a]:»out two hundred 
feet long and thirtj^ broad, provided with apparatus for putting 
up one hundred thousand bottles of beer daily, being the 
largest capacity of any bottling establishment in the world. 
And yet enormous as this amount is, the demand far exceeds 
the supply, and another bottling-house the same size will be 
built this year. 

The ofiice is one of the finest and most tastefully appointed 
of any in the city, and bears the characteristics of the presi- 
dent's ofiice of a large bank. It is Gothic in the exterior, 
with small Doric sky-lights and modern wmdows, and antique 
decorations. The floor is of tessellated marble, and the 
furniture is of the most exquisite workmanship, and elegantly 
veneered. The private ofiice of Mr. Adolphus Busch, the 
Secretary and Manager of the Association, is simply sump- 
tuous, with its beautifully designed and immaculate marble 
mantel, Axminster carpets, ornamented French plate glass, 
luxurious chairs, elegant paintings, etc. In addition to its 
handsome appointment, the ofiice is provided with every pos- 
sii)le convenience, including a large iron vault for valuables, 
lavatories, toilet rooms, etc., with an arrangement for expe- 
diting business unsurpassed. 

The E. Anheuser Association was the first corporation in 
America to inaugurate the business of bottling beer for export, 


and in this special line their success has been so distiniruished 
as to excite the most dishonorable competition, viz: the 
attempted imitation of its trade-marks bj opposing brewin<T 
companies in other cities. The Anheuscr bottled beer is now 
found among every civilized nation, including the most fash- 
ionable cafes of the world. Wherever used it has won its 
way to favor and preference against the beer product of all 
other breweries, and has insinuated its cheering properties into 
the African of Cape Colony, the IMongolian of Hong Kong 
and Shanghai, the Hindoos of Calcutta, the INIalays of Singa- 
pore, the Japanese of Ycddo, the Sandwich Islanders of 
Hawaii, and even John Bull in his own historic club-houses 
has snuffed its delicious aroma, while the dignitaries have been 
unable to withstand its delectable flavor, which is particularly 
requisite in the drafting of diplomatic Anglo-Russian nego- 

The ramifications and magnitude of the business of this 
Association are almost inconceivably great. Refusing to 
restrict itself to the ordinary transportation facilities offered 
by railroads, the Association built and is now running one 
hundred and ten of its own refrigerating cars over the diflerent 
roads, and has constructed its own side tracks on the Iron 
Mountain Railroad to expedite its business. It employs ten 
expert clerks in the main office, and nearly three hundred men 
in the manufacture of the inspiriting beverage. The invest- 
ment of the Association approximates one million dollars, and 
its sales of beer about the same amount annually, the sales of 
bottled beer alone last year reaching the enormous sum of 
eight hundred thousand dollars. At the present ratio of 
increase, the indications point strongly towards Anheuser's 
beins: the largest brewery in the world in the next five years. 

In further proof of the cosmopolitan favoritism of the 
Anheuser beer, the fact is stated that they have open accounts 
with and make regular shipments to parties in jNIelbournc and 
Sidney, Australia, Valparaiso, Rio Grand del Sul, Rio Janerio, 
Bahia, and various cities in Peru, United States of Colombia 
and Brazil, in fact extending over the whole of South America, 
Mexico and the West Indies, and wherever the beer has been 
sold its superiority has been proven by the constant increase 


of orders. Its high favor with our owti people is demon- 
strated by the numerous awards it has received at the State 
fairs of the Union and the Centennial exhibition. 

In the notice of the Association, no particular mention has 
been made of its immense ice houses, coopering shops, malt 
houses, store-rooms, shipping departments, engine houses, 
coal bins, etc., etc., as our province is chiefly to show up St. 
Louisas she stands in a business relation to the outside v»^orld. 

Mr. Busch, who is the representative head of the Anheuser 
Brewing Company, is a comparatively young man and a 
gentleman of the most affjible disposition, but his ability as a 
business man ranks as high as that of an}' in St. Louis. He 
not only thoroughly understands the brewing business, but 
also combines a practical and original knowledge which, in its 
utility, places him in the advance of his competitors, and 
makes them his imitators. He has entire control of the 
brewery, directs its business, makes all the contracts, handles 
its funds and carries all its responsibilities on his own shoulders. 
The success of his naanagement is best told and illustrated in 
the former descriptive part of this article, which ranks him 
among: the best commercial men of the West. 


In the Avar waged by the great temperance crusaders 
against the use of alcoholic liquors, wine needs no defence. 
Nay, blessed syrup of the luscious grape, sweet nectar of the 
gods, the argument is in the beauty of thy bead and delightful 
influence of thy sovereignty. The mightiest and most sublime 
products of the pen were inspired by thy mellifluous grace and 
subtle invocation ; by thy aid man's power has become un- 
abridged, and cities have risen to empires under thy delecta- 
ble enthusiasm. Delicious auxiliary of all pleasure ; song 
creator, beauty's best adornment, thy defence is in the sweet 
perfection of thy invigorating efl*ects. 



Wine has, from the earliest record of antiquity, formed no 
small part of the Avorld's commerce, and its use was general 
among all the highest races of civilization. The poets, law- 
givers, orators, painters, novelists and historians are all de- 
scended from a wine-drinking people, while on the other hand 
the nomads of the South, the savages of the East, and untu- 
tored warriors of the North lived in barbarism, without civili- 
zation, without happiness, and without wine. 


The manufacture of this most deligfhtful of all drinks is of 
recent date in Missouri, the first distillation being about 18.00. 
As early as 1853 the Missouri Wine Company was manufac- 
turing what was then considered a good quality of wine, but 
as compared with Cook's Imperial of to-day was a very poor 
beverage. In 1859 the American Wine Compuny was 
established in this city, and it is to that corporation the State 
is indebted for the development of one of its now most im])ort- 
ant industries — the demonstration of the adaptability of the 
soil of the State for the production of the best vintage on the 

The American Wine Company is an organization of large 
capital, with facilities for manufacturing more than five hun- 
dred thousand bottles annually , and their product finds ready 
sales, a larger part l)eiug consumed by New York, where Cook's 
Imperial has the best reputation of any wines sold in that 
market. At the Paris Exhibition of 18G7 this company's 
champagne received honorable mention in competition with all 


the French wines, and a diploma was sent them for fine flavor. 
The American committee were so surprised at the excellence 
of Cook's wines that they confessed to a higher estimation of 
the possibilities and attainments of American wdnes. Ship- 
ments of Missouri wines are now frequently sent to Germany, 
where they are regarded with special favor by the best German 
judges, with a constantly increasing popularity. 

The office of the American "Wine Company is at No. 119 
Olive Street, but the cellars, where the immense product of 
the concern is stored, are on the corner of Cass and Garrison 
avenues. These cellars are three stories in depth, cover 
nearly one block of ground, and employ sixty men. The cap- 
ital in active use by the company is nearly two millions of 
dollars, the establishment being the largest of the kind in this 

To speak of the American Wine Company without men- 
tioning Isaac Cook, the President, would be like exalting wine 
that had lost its flavor. Mr. Cook was the organizer of the 
company, and has remained its active president ever since. 
Being a man thoroughly imbued with the importance of the 
interests he represents, and with a purpose to bring his wines 
to the very acme of popularity, he has relied upon the purity 
of the vintage, and ever refused to use the slightest deleterious 
ingredient. He makes his wines in the glass, by the same 
process used in the champagne districts of Europe, and its 
great purity has made it preferable to European wines, even 
in the wine districts of France, Germany, Spain, and other 
countries. Cook's Imperial has a reputation co-extensive with 
the nation, and wherever drunk it sows seeds of preference, 
which bear fruit in great popularity and exclusive use. 


WOOD & LEE.— Wholesale Liquors. 

In writing of a new firm little can be said except in the for- 
mation of a judgment, based upon the previous business relation 
of the partners, concerning the success of their undertaking, 
and having a knowledge of their worthiness, conunend them 
to the favor of the public. 

The partnership of Joel Wood and W. H. Lee was consum- 
mated under the firm name of AVood & Lee, on the first of 
May, the present year — 1878 — and established at No. 218 
Walnut Street. While the partnership is a new one, the part- 
ners are old in the business they have re-engaged in, viz : dis- 
tillers, rectifiers and wholesale liquor dealers. Both were 
former employees of Samuel McCartney & Co., and since the 
year 1874 members of the firm of Tyra Hill &, Co., to whom 
they are successors. 

It is important that the public should be informed of the 
fact that notwithstanding the comprehensive scope of the great 
whisky ring, which included nearly every distiller in St. Louis, 
the firm of Tyra Hill & Co. continued doing a legitimate 
business, and refused most positively to enter the unlawful 
combination, although it was impossible for a "straight" 
dealer to continue business without losing money. When 
their distillery was examined by the government officials the 
members of the firm were credited for their honesty, and the 
report of the inspection was most flattering to the firm. 

Messrs. Wood & Lee have a very large business which they 
retain from the old firm, and it is their determination to win 
the most honorable reputation that can be achieved. They 
have already the credit of turning out the purest liquors of any 
house in St. Louis, and their aim will be directed towards a 
position honorably in advance of all competition. 

Their new place of business has been fitted up with every 
appliance to facilitate transactions, and their ofiice is one of 
the neatest and most convenient in the city. 

The firm of Wood & Lee re-embark in business under the 
most favorable auspices, and, having already won a most envia- 
ble reputation for honorable dealing, success will undoubtedly 
attend them. 



DAVID NICHOLSON. — Importer of and Dealer in 
Teas, Wines, and Liquors. 

One of the earliest pioneers in the grocery trade of St. 
Louis is David Nicholson, who established his business here in 
1843, when our city had a population of only thirty-four thou- 
sand souls. Mr. Nicholson started out in life with modest pre- 
tensions and small capital, but l)y the application of strict and 
conscientious principles he has built up a grocery business of 
a cosmopolitan and national character. For nearly thirty 
years Mr. Nicholson has been acknowledged the largest im- 
porter of foreign merchandise and of his line of goods in St. 
Louis, and yet he draws regularly upon the productions of 
nearly every State in the Union. Aside of the fact that the 

stock carried by Mr. Nicholson is the most complete that can 
be found west of New York, his special pride centers in the 
character of the goods he handles. In this age of unscru- 
pulous counterfeiting and injurious preparations and adultera- 
tion the imposition practiced on the public, both in the quality 
and short weight of the articles sold, is almost past belief. 
In this connection it is but justice to state that Mr. Nicholson 
has never, under any circumstances, given countenance to 
such frauds in the trade, but at the risk of being called 
high-priced he has obstinately refused to handle any goods 

SALT. 287 

except the strictly genume, and, in consequence of the adop- 
tion of such a well-advised policy, he has a reputation that has 
secured for him the best trade, not only of St. Louis, l)ut that 
of an immense section of country tributary to our city. 

Mr. Nicholson's is acknowledged as headquarters l)y the 
trade for the finest brands of foreign champagnes, foreign 
fancy groceries, etc., and he is also the sole agent for the city 
for the E. Anheuser Brewing Association's Bottled Beer, and is 
rapidly developing an immense trade for this delicious bever- 
age, in addition to which he deals largely in the finest wines 
and liquors, both foreign and domestic. 

G. L. JOY & CO. — Foreign and Domestic Salt. 

The salt trade of St. Louis has grown rapidly during the 
last ten years, until now she has become one of the great salt 
distributing: cities of America. Not that she is in the midst 
of large salt mines or specially situated to handle the salt 
product, but because she is the focal center of the West and 
has citizens with the enterprise to grasp the necessities of the 
new empire. 

In 1865, G. L.Joy, now one of our wealthiest and most 
prominent citizens, came to St. Louis as a representative of 
the Ohio River Salt Company. He introduced their salt so 
successfully that in a short time it superseded all others, and 
gained a reputation co-extensive with the West. Mr. Joy 
continued his connection with the company until 1873, when 
he established an independent house, the office of which is at 
No. 122 Olive Street, and subsequently took in as a partner 
Mr. D. H. Chapman, under the firm name of G. L. Joy & Co., 
by which it is still known. 

The house thus organized has grown until it is now one of 
the largest dealing in this specialty in this country. Mr. Joy 
and John Jackson, Esq., labored together zealously for the 


construction of a salt elevator, which was at length built by 
the St. Louis Salt Warehouse Company, in which Mr. Joy is 
a large stockholder, and is an important adjunct to St. Louis 
commerce. The elevator is situated on the levee at the foot 
of Bremen Avenue, with branch tracks of the St. Louis, Kan- 
sas City & Northern Railijoad running through it, and has all 
the auxiliaries for loading and unloading barges, with a 
capacity for one hundred and sixty thousand barrels. It has 
five floors and two steam elevators, one for bulk and the other 
for barrel salt, and is jointly occupied by G. L. Joy & Co. 
and H. Rogers & Co., storage charges being paid by each ac- 
cording to the amount of salt handled. 

The firm of G. L. Joy & Co. deal in all barrel and bulk 
salt of the Ohio River Company, and handle Michigan and 
New York. Among the foreign salts the firm deals largely in, 
are the English, Turk's Island and Ground Alum brands, and 
they supply nearly all the packers in the South and Southwest. 
The house has also a warehouse at No. 218 Spruce Street, 
where a large supply is kept for the city trade, while from the 
elevator no shipments are made except in cargo lots. Their 
sales include annually three hundred thousand barrels of the 
Ohio River product, besides an immense amount of foreign 
and lake salt. 

Mr. Joy is a gentleman of liberal ideas and large means, 
and he has devoted his best endeavors to the interest of St. 
Louis, in which his labors have been so valuable as to entitle 
him to the distinguished consideration of every citizen inter- 
ested in the city's development. 

GAFF, FLEISCHMANN & CO.— Co^^ipressed Yeast. 

One of the great articles of the day, that has accomplished 
a revolution in the manufacture of the most staple of h,o use- 
hold necessaries — bread — is GaflT, Freischmann & Co.'s com- 
pressed yeast. It is a pleasure to herald a triumph in 
domestic art so unequivocal, so pronounced and general in its 


beneficent operation and influence. For ages one of the sore 
distresses of every people was that superinduced by unpahita- 
ble and unwholesome bread. By the methods no\vemi)loyed, 
and the use of this most celebrated of all compressed yeasts, 
the manufacture of bread has spread into other channels, and 
the staff of life changed from a soggy, nauseous, and indigest- 
ible article to the most delightful, healthy, nutritious and 
delicious delicacy. The points of precedence and superiority 
of this prime adjunct to our table pleasures may be briefly 
summed up as follows : 

The Gaff, Fleischmann & Co.'s com^Dressed yeast is as near 
perfection as can be attained. 

It is the product of nature, being manufactured from ex- 
tracts of the most carefully selected grains. 

Owing to its purity and remarkable qualities, the efficiency 
of the work it performs, and the rapidity with which, by its 
simplicity, it enables the operator to prepare the best bread, 
it at once becomes the favorite in every household. By its 
use better and more healthful bread can be made from third- 
grade flour in two hours than from first-grade flour bv the old 
method or other yeast, which requires from ten to fifteen 

This desirable result of economy in time, labor and care, 
is not effected by the use of any deleterious ingredient, so 
often found in other yeasts, but is owing entirely to its purity 
and the scientific principles of its manufacture. Lastly, this 
is the only yeast that is supplied fresh daily to grocers. 

The general agent for this superior yeast in St. Louis is 
Mr. C. C. Leathers, whose establishment at No. 809 Wash- 
ington Avenue is the center of a large and rapidly increasin«- 
trade. Mr. Leathers has every arrangement perfected for 
supplying the trade daily with fresh yeast. Orders from out- 
side are filled by express. The trade will find Mr. Leathers 
in every way qualified in enterprise, energy, liberality and 
business sagacity to advance the important interest under hia 




DOZIER, WEYL & CO.— Bread, Crackers and 
Jumbles . 

While St. Louis is the receiving and distributing center of 
the grain products of the West, she is also the great manu- 
facturing city, musical with the hum of her immense mills and 
steams bakeries, in the conversion of the rich cereals of the 
Rocky Mountain empire into the finest bread, most palatable 
crackers and delicious confections, with which to feed the 

The truly representative bakery of St. Louis, and, indeed, 
the Mississippi Valley, is that of Dozier, Weyl & Co., whose 

immense factory is located on the corner of Pine and Sixth 
streets, occupying one-quarter of the block. Their l)usiness 
was established as early as 1848, in the same building they now 
occupy, but several very important additions have been made in 
the necessary process of enlargement, taking in one large three- 
story building forty feet wide by one hundred and thirty feet in 
depth. Besides the addition of buildings, the firm has put in 
four large revolving reel-ovens and other important adjuncts, 
until the bakery employs a small army of expert bakers, and 
has a capacity for turning out fifteen hundred barrels of 
crackers daily. A very important adjunct to the immense 


cracker business of Dozier, Weyl & Co. is their extensive 
manufacture of bread, pies, cakes, jumbles, etc., on which 
their reputation is unequaled. In the month of INIay hist, 
the firm purchased at a very large cost, one of Holmes' 
Soft Cake and Jumble Machines, with the exclusive right lo 
the State of Missouri. With these machines they are enabled 
to manufacture the most delicious cakes and jumbles ever 
made ; such as cocoanut, honey, butter, sugar, chocolate, 
spice, prize jumbles, etc. ; chocolate cakes, honey cakes, 
gem cakes, banana fingers, cocoanut drops, cocoanut, French 
and almond macaroons, and a hundred other confections and 
rich condiments never before offered to the "Western trade. 
They retail at from ten cents per dozen to twenty cents per 
pound, and are incomparable for the use of families, picnics, 
and excursions. The introduction of this new machine is but 
another illustration of the enterprize and vigor which has 
characterized the firm since its organization, and evidences the 
determination of the proprietors to place themselves in the van 
of all competition in America. 

Dozier, Weyl & Co, have a retail department in connection 
with their factory, the trade of which is double that of any 
other retail bakery in the West, and the reputation of their 
product is such that thousands of families in the city rely upon 
the firm entirely for fine cakes, bread, etc. In the wholesale 
business their trade extends from St. Paul to the Gulf, and 
from Indiana to the Pacific coast. The proprietors, consisting 
of James Dozier and his two sons, L. D. and J. T. Dozier, 
and A. Weyl, are all eminently practical in their business, and 
have made a large success out of a small beginning. The 
sales of the house now aggregate five hundred thousand dollars 
annually, and at the present rate of increase will reach one 
million dollars annually before the next two years. 



Among the earliest of the living pioneers of St. Louis, 
who have made our commerce and great wealth, is Joseph 
Garneau, a name familiar throughout the North, South and 
West. His advent mto commercial life was made in 1832, in 
a most unpretentious and indeed humble beginning, first occu- 
pying the old house which still stands on the corner of the alley 
on Vine, between Second and Third streets. How many 
memories must cluster round the ancient, crumbling structure 
m which Mr. Garneau laid the foundation for his wealth and 
present trade. It was here that he baked the first cracker 
and loaf of bread for himself, but by supplying a want then 
fully realized, he prospered in business, and from year to year 
enlarged his facilities to meet his rapidly growing trade, 

Mr. Garneau made several moves, each time into more 
capacious quarters, until at length in 1847 he built an immense 
factory at the corner of Seventeenth and Morgan streets, 
providing it with every auxiliary for turning out crackers in 
sufficient quantities to supply the largest prospective demand, 
and making of it one of the great bakeries of the country. 
The factory, when run to its full capacity, employs one hun- 
dred and fifty men and consumes five hundred barrels of flour 
per day. Mr. Garneau manufactures crackers, English bis- 
cuits, jumbles, etc., such as the soda, oyster and sweet crack- 
ers, ginger snaps, etc., in which line he has no superior in the 
United States. The products of his factory find ready sales 
throughout the North, West and South, and large shipments are 
now being made to the West Indies. His trade extends as far 
north as Forts Walsh and MacLeod, south as far as San 
Antonio, and as lar west as New Mexico. 

Garneau 's crackers have a most enviable reputation 
throughout the country, and have done much toward adver- 
tising the importance of St. Louis as a manufacturing city. 
Mr. Garneau is not only one of the oldest citizens, but 
a pu})lic-spirited gentleman, whose pride is no less in the city 
of his adoption than in the business which he has conducted 
so successfully for the period of forty-two years. He has 


associated his sons, Joseph Garneau, Jr., and James W. Gar- 
neau, with him in the business, and with the example he has 
given them to follow, they have the brightest prospects for a 
successful future. 


There is no establishment in our city that has been the 
source of more enjoyment or has pandered to a more testhctic 
taste than the Vienna Model Bakery. It is peculiarly an 
institution of excellent taste and refinement, and one which 
supplied a want not understood but long felt. Its first intro- 
duction into this country was at the Centennial Exposition, 
where it was established at a cost of sixty thousand dollars, 
and proved a complete success. In fact, its success was so 
gratifying that the proprietors at once conceived the idea of 
making it a permanent institution in America, and to this end 
they built bakeries of the same character in New York, Phila- 
delphia, Chicago, San Francisco and St. Louis. 

The Vienna Bakery, as we now know it, was started at 
No. 22 South Fifth Street, May 5, 1877, and fitted up with 
an elaboration which made it no less a curiosity than a sub- 
stantial benefit and pleasant resort. The bread manufactured 
was so far superior to any ever before made in this country 
that a large trade was directly developed, which has augmented 
rapidly and constantly ever since. The Vienna Cafe coffee 
became no less celebrated than its bread, and aristocratic 
people gave it such an immense patronage as to encourage the 
proprietors to remove to more convenient and handsomer 
quarters. Accordingly, on the 1st of March a removal to No. 
217 North Fifth Street was effected, and the cafe put in a still 
more elaborate condition. Centrally located as it now is, with 
a most enviable reputation among our best citizens, its business 
has become enormous. All the daily papers are found on the 
tables of the smoking-room, where gentlemen can partake of 



the luxury of a partaga, a cup of coffee, and at the same time 
interest himself with the news of the world. The luncheon or 
dinino--room is most gorgeously furnished with bent-wood fur- 
niture, the floors handsomely carpeted, the walls hung with 
beautiful paintings, and the room is fairly filled with rare 
flowers, which exhale their sweet odors. Henry A. Fleisch- 
mann, the proprietor and manager, was one of the proprietors 
of the Centennial Model Bakery, and is a gentleman whom 
nature qualified for the business. He is polished in his manners 
and of the most graceful disposition, and to know him is to be- 
come his patron. He always has a kind word for everybody 
and the cultivation of his acquaintance is very desirable. St. 
Louis is proud of her Vienna Model Bakery, and manifests her 
appreciation by substantial recognition. 

SPKAGUE & BUTLER. — Restaurateurs. 

One of the greatest blessings, because it appeals to the 

most appreciative taste and con- 
sideration of human kind, is a 
dining place, at which the de- 
sire of a strong appetite or ween- 
ing indications of a fastidious 
stomach may be thoroughly 
satisfied. Among the numer- 
ous restaurants of a great city 
[ike St. Louis there is a very 
.small percentage of the number 
that furnishes a meal worthy of 
the name. These are no longer 
jj^i'l the days of porridge and stir- 
about, but the age is one of 
epicurean taste, when the palates 
of jrood livers must be tickled 
& with delicious preparations ; when 
the restaurateur must needs study 
to please and experiment in the 



combination of luscious adjuncts to attract custom and hold his 
patronage. This fact is no where better illustrated than in tlie 
elegant dining-rooms of Messrs. Sprague & Butler, gentlemen 
whose names are as familiar as the Chamber of Commerce, 
and whose restaurants are in the van of all competition. 

Sprague &, Butler established their business as early as 
1859, being now the oldest restaurant-keepers in St. Louis. 
They have two dining-rooms, one at Nos. 319 and 321 Olive 
Street, which is patronized by our wealthiest citizens, and 
another at No. 716 North Fifth Street, which, wliile less preten- 
tious in its table cVhote, is one of the largest dining-halls in 
the citv. Here elegantly furnished rooms may Ijc obtained at 
a moderate cost, either by the day, week or month, with 
every possible convenience at hand. During the oyster 
season their houses have an immense patronage for the succu- 
lent bivalves, which are served up in the finest styles, and at 
lower prices than at any other 
restaurant in the city. At the 
Olive Street place there is a 
beautiful parlor, in which noth- 
ing' but oysters are served, and 
it is here that the skill and 
ingenuity of cooks and the 
keen appreciation of the oys- 
ter-loving public is elaborately 

Messrs. Sprague & Butler 
are o-entlemen thorouirhlv con- 
versant with their business, 
and their eminent superiority 
as restaurateurs is best evi- 
denced by their success. They ^i 
own their Olive Street build- r.. 
ing, and have each accumu- 
lated what many would call a 

fortune, but yet nothing more than they deserve, for they 
are competent, enterprising, and energetic 




Every man's ability is best evidenced by his success ; and 
upon this just measure of business knowledge Geo. Milford, 
the great oyster dealer, becomes conspicuous. Hi^ history, 
commercially speaking, though important, is briefly recited. 
His earliest acquaintance with the oyster business was made 
as an employe in 1857, in a position which he held until 1863, 
when, having carefully husbanded his means, he embarked in 

the business for himself, 
doing a wholesale and re- 
tail trade in a small store, 
; the site of which is now 
occupied by the new 
Knapp building. He re- 
mained there nearly four- 
teen years, and until his 
business outgrew the ca- 
pacity of his old store 
and forced him into more 
capacious quarters. In 
April, 1877, he rented 
and removed to the Finn 
building, Nos. 116 and 
118 North Third Street, 
which he litted up ele- 
gantly and where he is 
still doing business. Hav- 
ing the necessary room, Mr. Milford added a restaurant, the 
dining-hall of which is palatial and provided with all the 
auxiliaries necessary for comfort, attractiveness, and the grati- 
fication of guests. His patronage is very large, including 
nearly all the prominent members of the Merchants' Exchange 
and many other wealthy citizens, all of whom are served 

Popular as he is as a caterer to regular guests, Mr. Mil- 
ford's great reputation is founded on the oyster business, of 
which he continues to make a specialty. For the past fifteen 
years he has stood at the head of oyster dealers in the West, 



his favorite brands being found in hundreds of cities, and 
everywhere regarded with the greatest favor. In this brancli 
of his extensive business his sales reacli one hundred thousand 
dolhirs annually, and every year the amount is increased. 
Mr. Milford occupies a high position in connnercial circles and 
bears a reputation for integrity, affability, and thorough com- 
prehension of his business, which stamps him "a popular 


Few people in the West have not heard of Tony Faust's 
resort, and fewer still of those who come to St. Louis that do 
not visit his establishment. This noted place is loc:ited on 

the corner of Fifth and Elm streets, inmiediatcly in the rear 
of the Southern Hotel ruins, made conspicuous by an innncnse 
and ornamental gas lamp, which, when lighted, reflects all 
the primary colors blended beautifully. The interior of the 
place, comprising three very large rooms, is gorgeously finished 


with walnut panels and plate-glass mirrors, which image the 
surroundings in multiplied elegance. It is here the visitor 
can retire to a private position, which overlooks the attractive 
features of the room and yet reserves a certain i)rivacy to 
himself, and enjoy the finest oysters ever introduced into this 
market; delicate brook trout, the most delicious wines, the 
excellent Anheuser beer, a fragrant cigar, or any of those 
palatable and delicious articles which make our appetites so 
vigorous and unruly. In another department of the building, 
up-stairs, there are parlors for ladies and gentlemen, with 
entrance on Elm Street, which are beautifully furnished, and 
where those of cultivated tastes can enjoy. the rarest edibles 
in the most perfect manner. Faust's oysters have long been 
considered the best in the market, and every year only serves 
to increase his popularity. Faust makes a specialty of jobbing 
oysters, in which line he is the largest dealer in the West, his 
oysters going into all the Western States. 


There are few places on the continent, or even in the grand- 
est cities of France or England, equal in their attractive feat- 
ures to Bessehl's Picture Gallery, No. 5 North Fifth Street, 
this city. To describe it faithfully would be like a commentary 
walk through the great picture bazaars of Europe, and would 
necessarily occupy a book in itself ; but a cursory glimpse at 
his valuable collection will be sufficient perhaps to comprehend 
the scope of a "Tour through St. Louis." Mr. Emil H. Bes- 
sehl started business here a great many 3^ears ago, first occu- 
pying the first floor of the building now used by the Times Print- 
ing Company. When these quarters became too circumscribed 
for his patronage, he leased his present building and arranged 
it to accord with public taste, and has made of it a resort, the 
fame of which has many times crossed the ocean. Since Bes- 
sehl is supposed to be actuated by no other purpose than to 
gratify curiosity and elevate i^sthetic taste and culture, we will 

bessehl's. 299 

avail ourselves of the universally free admission to liis gallery 
and leisurely examine the thousand pictures which hang grace- 
fully upon the walls. Here to the right of the entrance is an 
elegant frame, clustered w^ith the faces of all the proniiiiciit 
actors, actresses and lecturers in the world. These portraits 
are very fine, and present in almost living panorama, tiie 
lieroes whom the public worship. Moving along the right side 
the sight is riveted and tickled by the paintings of our local 
statesmen, each well adapted to his vocation and true to his 
instincts. Here goes Sexton astride of a fire engine with full 
steam on, beating Ten Broeck's time, looking out for future 
rewards and punishments. That triangular gentleman Hydes 
not his candle under a bushel, but has policy in his vision and 
bitter things in his quill. The hot-house plant so conspicuous 
flourishes well in Bain's lappel, and adds much to his native 
grace. This is Overstolz that sits like Canute by the sea, 
looking "peace, be still." And here is Bessehl himself, with 
florid face and burgomaster belt, the Falstaflian character of 
the panoramic drama; his face wreathed with that benign, 
sovereign, plastic exuberance and devotion so sweetly ex- 
pressive of that classic phrase " zwei lager ;" and so on through 
the category of our prominent "socialists," each, pcrha})s, 
caricatured, and yet truthful to a pervading and actuating 

Now we approach another division of the bazaar, picturing 
life in bas relief; the major, having an eye out for invitations, 
carelessly holds his cane and well-worn hat in one hand while 
with the other he gesticulates most gracefully ; his bland smile 
and inclination of head speak eloquently of his aspirations and 
longings — he evidently desires to go into liquid-atioii. This 
one is the counterpart of a ministerial genius whom we have 
all seen, directing his footsteps towards a hopeful contribution 
box. Here is the suave man, the politician, the gormandizcM-, 
the wine-loving citizen, the unfortunate tramp, etc. The next 
division includes caricatures on the popular ballads and when 
this list is concluded we suddenly observe ourselves in rctlcctcd 
immensity, and realize what our appearance would be il" wo 
were only ftit. At the rear of the room on the left are large 
steel engravings of the heroes of prose, poetry and song. 


Suspended from the ceiling are large pieces of canvas deco- 
rated Avith extravagant caricatures of public men in the most 
ludicrous roles. Besides these pictorial attractions there are 
mechanical curiosities productive of the greatest amusement. 

Having hastily passed through the avenues of pictured life 
as seen on the first floor of Bessehl's bazaar, we pass up stairs 
to casually inspect the collection on the second floor. On the 
south side of the upper floor is a long cabinet filled with stereop- 
ticon views of noted places in all parts of the world. The 
cabinet is so arranged that by stepping upon a small platform 
which works a wire lever, a full flood of gas-light is turned on 
the picture, making the view a lovely one. There are twenty- 
four of these stereopticon views, and they in themselves con- 
stitute a peep-show well worth seeing ; but these are indeed 
the least attractive sights in the o-allerv. Arrano;ed about the 
room are several subjects of natural history, including deer, 
bear, wolves, panthers, catamounts, natives of North America, 
and in a handsome show-case are many species of wild game 
peculiar to this climate. The room is little else than a succes- 
sion of show-cases, filled with entrancing curiosities. In one 
is a rare collection of minerals and beautiful stones tastefully 
displayed, showing rough and polished surfaces. 

But the finest and most attractive feature of the establish- 
ment is Mr. Bessehl's great caravansary and aggregation of 
bull frogs. There are, perhaps, two hundred green denizens 
of the marsh in this collection, and each of them displays the 
highest skill of the taxidermist's profession. In our childhood 
we have read with grave delight of the frog who would a woo- 
ing go — those pleasant images of the brain, bright fancies of a 
prolific conception, but awaken to matured life to see our 
beautiful stories verified. This, at least, is the feeling inspired 
by looking upon the life-like attitudes of the slick, shining 
forms of these frogs. One of these scenes represents a paily of 
pic-nickers ; three frogs are rowing a boat, three others are 
angling, one of which has just caught a fine bass, which he is 
in the act of landing ; another has retired to a shady spot and 
is distilling nectar through the mouth of a suspicious little 
flask; while some distance from the others, in a nook fanned 
by the gentlest zeph^yTS, and everything in nature seems to 

FRUITS. .'?0l 

have been gotten up specially for the occasion, is flio hactrian 
swain wooing his fair companion. On herface there is a smile, 
broad but expressive, that lights up the forest and by its rays 
the lover pictures his happy fate. 

In another case there is a party of roughs who are out on a 
lark and too full of gin and peppermint to keep their legs. 
The jugs are all emjjty and froggish revel is supreme. On 
another side is a gay party of hunters ; although they carry no 
game, they handle their guns like crack shots, and presume to 
make a good bag before returning. In short, there are frogs 
in every conceivable attitude, and each position is as natural 
and expressive as though they were human. 

These details are necessarily cursory and can not represent 
the attractions of the place even approximately to their true 
interest. The curiosities on the second tloor are a recent ac- 
cession, and with the fame gained by his collections represented 
on the first floor, Bessehl's will now be recognized as one of 
the most attractive resorts of the kind in the world. Visitors 
to St. Louis can not afford to examine our many pleasant, in- 
spiring features and institutions, and leave without paying a 
visit to Bessehl's Pictorial Bazaar, to which there is no admis- 
sion fee charged, and the sights are more pleasing and instruc- 
tive than those of any traveling museum of curiosities in ex- 


One of the most popular and reliable houses in the city 
dealing in fruits and nuts is that of Shepherd & Ginocchio, 
whose place of business is at No. 209 Market Street. This 
firm is not only strong financially, but the character of tluir 
trade is of the greatest importance to this section. Thoy handle 
foreio-n, California and all domestic fruits and nuts, carrying at 
all times an immense stock, and by dint of perseverance and 
enterprise they have extended their trade to almost every State 
in the West. 



In the great Mississippi Valley, which for six or eight 
months of the year lifts up its broad bosom beneath an almost 
tropical sun, nothing is more essential to man's comfort than 
some means of counteracting the intense heat of summer. For 
this purpose nature stands him in good stead with ready re- 
sources. Just as the coal-mines and forests furnish abundant 
fuel for the long nights of winter, so the rivers and lakes yield 
an inexhaustible supply of the purest ice, which enables man 
to combat with the most torrid temperatures. 

Among the corporations which aim to fill the ever increas- 
ing demand for this supreme luxury, one of the largest in St. 
Louis is the Mississippi Ice Company, organized in 1872 by the 
consolidation of a St. Louis firm with a Quincy company. The 
entire business has lately passed into the hands of the St. Louis 
parties, who furnish their patrons with a superior article and 
endeavor to handle only the finest kind of lake and river ice. 

Their ice is usually cut by themselves or their agents in 
Quincy Bay, on the Mississippi River, and at De Pue, on the 
Upper Illinois, where the company own enough land and 
water property to supply a very extensive trade. In the spring 
and summer their ice is brought down the river by their own 
steamboat and barges, or, if the stage of water is insufficient, 
transported on cars to their ice-houses at the foot of Cass 
Avenue in St. Louis. They have ample room for storing a 
large stock of ice, and are able and willing to ship to any point 
connected by rail or river with St. Louis. Their business is 
exclusively wholesale, dealing with brewers and retailers of 
every kind. The excellence of their ice, the promptitude with 
which they fill all orders, and their large stock on hand, have 
secured for them a reputation which is rapidly gaining ground 
all over the "West and South. 

E. C. Little, President and Treasurer, is one of our most 
worthy and active citizens. I. E. Little fills the place of Sec- 
retary, and A. E. Uffman, Superintendent. 

The office of the company is located in the Granite Build- 
ing, room No. 210. The company, as well as its officials, is 
worthy of all the confidence and patronage they seek for. 



To write the histoiy of the great book and stationery liousc 
of Gray & Baker is to detail the progress made in the })uhlic 
schools of the West during the past thirty years. This period 
is a short one, it is true, but to travel backwards over these 
few years and review the successive stages of advancement ; 
the introduction of school machinerv, text-books, class <rrades 
and methods of instruction, we pause many times in such a 
retrospective glance and exclaim : "Yes, it has, indeed, been 
a long time since we sat in the improvised seats of the unpre- 
tentious school-house and found ourselves sophomores before 
we had laid aside Webster's spelling book, else so many re- 
markable changes could not have been effected." Thirty years 
is almost the age of a generation, but in the epoch in whit-h we 
live it is the revolution in the cycle of corai^lete transforma- 

As early as 1851 Mr. E. P. Gray established himself in the 
book and stationery business, in a building on the corner of 
Fourth and Chestnut streets. His original store was a small 
one, in keeping with the pioneer character of the business. 
He conducted the trade alone until 1857, when J. ]\I. Crawford 
became associated with him as a partner, and the name of the 
firm became Gray & Crawford. The business was soon afterwards 
removed to No. 54 North Fourth Street, where a much larger 
stock was added, which was fully warranted by the rapid in- 
crease of their trade. They had a monopoly of the sales in 
periodicals in the city, and upon their counters were found 
nearly every Eastern publication of any importance. 

In 1862 Mr. Gray purchased a controlling interest in the 
Woodward book store, located on the corner of Fourth and 
Locust streets, in the building now occupied by the jewelry 
house of Mermod, Jaccard & Co., the only house at that time 
in the block. The store run under the name of E. P. Gray 
until 1865, when the construction of the row was begun, which 
caused Mr. Gray to remove to No. 503 North Fourth Street. 
Here he remained until the ])l()ck of buildings on Fourth, !)(>- 
tween Locust and St. Charles streets, was c(mii)l(>ted, which 
occurred in 1871, when he removed to the present location, 


No, 407 North Fourth Street. In 1873 Wm. D. Baker and 
Henry Griffin were admitted as partners, and the firm name 
was changed to Gray, Baker & Co. The new firm made such 
rapid progress that they gave up the trade in periodicals and 
devoted themselves to miscellaneous books and stationery, 
doiiio- the largest business of the kind in the West. In May 
last the firm was changed into a joint stock company, and the 
title again changed, to the Gray & Baker Book and Stationery 
Company, by which it is still known. 

In many respects this house is the largest book and sta- 
tionery establishment west of New York. The building is one 
of the finest on Fourth Street, being four stories in height, 
beautifully lighted, and provided with all the facilities for con- 
ducting an immense trade, and for displaying their enormous 
stock to the best advantage. 

The firm has correspondents in Europe ready to purchase 
the best and latest publications of any merit, and they are on 
the most intimate terms with all the Eastern publishing houses, 
so that they are kept fully advised of everything of conse- 
quence appertaining to the book trade. The company are the 
general Southwestern agents for the Encyclopedia Brittanica, 
the most comprehensive and reliable w^ork published, and their 
stock of medical, scientific and miscellaneous books can not be 
excelled. There is scarcely a day passes but that the firm re- 
ceives one or more orders from the country towns for supply- 
hig libraries, either public, private or circulating libraries, to 
the filling of which they devote special attention. Their con- 
nection with Eastern publishers enables them to sell on first 
profits, giving Western buyers who deal with them the advan- 
tage of the middle dealers' profits. 

In the stationery line the Gray & Baker Book and Sta- 
tionery Company stand unrivaled by any would-be competi- 
tors. The company are the sole agents in St. Louis for the sale 
of the celebrated Huron and Ionic paper, universally acknowl- 
edged to be the finest writing paper ever manufactured by any 

All the latest novels and also the best scientific works are 
kept constantly in stock, and the first floor, or salesroom, is 
a panoramic picture of literature seldom seen, and for beauty 


and attractiveness never surpassed. The store is one hundred 
and fifty feet deep, and on both sides, from the ih)()r to the 
ceiling, arranged on a thousand shelves, is one of the gruiuU-st 
displays of elegantly bound books, so great in number as to 
deserve the term "innumerable," and in the variety of colored 
backs the scene is ot unlike a variegated conservatory of 
brightest flowers. 

The decline in the price of books during the past few years 
is not only surprising, but those who have not informed 
themselves on the remarkable change can scarcely conceive 
how such a depreciation could have taken place. By an exam- 
ination of the superb stock of the Gray & Baker Book and 
Stationery Company, it will be seen that they offer for sale to 
the retail trade such bargains as the following, which illustrate 
the marked reductions referred to : A complete set of Dick- 
ens' work, fourteen volumes, bound in cloth, and illuminated 
backs, eleven dollars. The same books would have sold iive 
years ago for twice that sum ; Macaulay's History of England, 
five volumes, beautifully bound, an elegant li])rary edition, 
only four dollars, one-half less than the same books oould have 
been purchased three years ago ; and so on for the best editions 
of the most popular works. But a yet greater reduction is 
noticeable in the price for books of fiction and poetry. In this 
department of literature a book that would have been sold for 
two dollars in 1872 is now offered at the remarkable sum of 
fifty cents. This great change is not attributable to any other 
cause than the reduction made in every necessary of life and 
the introduction of new facilities for publishing books cheaper 
and more expeditiously. The American people are not only 
as great readers as ever, but their appetite for good books is 
increasing, yet everj^thing is in the process of cheapening, and 
literature of every kind must act in sympathy with all otlu-r 
articles designed for our comfort, pleasure and instruction. 
The Gray & Baker Book and Stationery Company were the 
first to put down the prices of books, and in this effort to 
subserve the true interests of the public they deserve the high- 
est commendation and substantial recognition from every reader 
in the West. 

The second and third floors are devoted to the wholesale 



departments, which are always well stocked with an extensive 
variety of goods appertaining to the business. 

On the second floor is found the reserve stock of stationery, 
pens, paper weights, inkstands, penknives, paper cutters, al- 
bums, scrap books, checker boards, parlor games, and a thou- 
sand other articles belonging to the trade. 

The third floor is reserved exclusively for school books, of 
which the firm makes a specialty, doing the largest business in 
this line of any house in the West. Their facilities for 
handling school books and the auxiliaries are unsurpassed, and 
their business has extended until it includes the whole of the 
West and Southwest, and their annual sales amount to near 
half a million. 

Within the past few years the Gray & Baker Book and 
Stationery Company have been issuing catalogues to their 
l^atrons, in which Avill be found every book of any note, sta- 
tionery articles, school books, etc., with price attached. This 
is a great feature and of the utmost utility. By it the reader 
is kept posted on the latest accessions to the literature of the 
day, the labors of popular authors, the introduction of new 
literature and the subjects treated. In this age, when the 
number of new books published reach perhaps one hundred 
daily, including scientific works and novels, it is of course im- 
possible for any reader, however constant, to keep up with 
the book-makers, but by the use of such a catalogue as issued 
by the Gray & Baker Book and Stationery Company, it is an 
easy matter to keep thoroughly posted, and enables any one to 
readily obtain the more valuable and important of the new 

By the employment of the most admirable system that can 
be devised and the proper utilization of every means at their 
command, supplemented by a thoroughly enterprising disposi- 
tion and a natural adaptability to the business, the firm has not 
only prospered but has gained a position in the commercial 
grandeur of the Mississippi Valley truly enviable. Mr. E. P. 
Gray is one of the oldest book and stationery dealers in the 
country, having devoted nearly thirty years of his life to the 
business, and the success with which he has met abundantly 


illustrates his ability and sound Judgment in the management 
of his interests. 

Hemy Griffin, Treasurer of the company, Is a young man, 
but he has been brought up in the business, and understands 
all its details thoroughly ; he enjoys a large ac<iuaintance, and 
is well calculated to attain the most complete success ni the 
line of trade he has selected. 

In every respect the Gray & Baker Book and Stationery 
Company is a business organization of vast importance to St . 
Louis and the West, and one which properly claims nnidi of 
the pride which our city institutions deserve for enterprise, 
progressiveness and success. 

WILLIE H. GRAY.— Books and Stationery. 

The Americans are essentially a great reading people, and 
every year the popularity of periodical literature is increasing. 
In fact, the jDerusal of the great newspapers becomes a habit 
no less tenacious than that acquired by the use of stimulants. 
The one, however, is most wholesome, and in proportion to 
the number who adopt it will unhappiness, and the attendant 
evils of ignorance and prejudice, be dissipated. Our news- 
stands are essentially depots of intelligence, and are as conse- 
quential factors in the construction of the commerce and 
elevation of the population of the city as schools and churches, 
yet for some reason such an importance is rarely attached to 

In St. Louis there is no want of opportunities for securing 
all the literature of the day : but while there arc numerous 
small concerns there is only one principal depot where c\ciy 
periodical of America and also all the leading newspapers of 
Europe can always be ol)tained fresh from the public:itinM 
office. This central depot, as it were, is that of Willie II. 
Gray, at Nos. 306 and 308 Olive Street. 

Mr. Gray established the business, which he has ever since 


conducted most successfully, in 1861, locating on the north- 
west corner of Third and Olive streets. The war gave an im- 
mense impetus to the news trade, and Mr. Gray found himself 
at once in the midst of a large business, with the demands for 
papers so great tliat it was impossible to keep a sufficient 
sujiply at all tunes. Notwithstanding the fact that he was 
making money rapidly, in 18G2 Mr. Gray responded to the 
call of his country, and. leaving his store in the hands of a 
trusted employee, he enlisted in the Union army and served 
faithfully for three years, when he returned to again resume 
his peaceful vocation. In 18G5, during his term of service, 
the store was. removed from its original location to No. 308 
Olive Street, where the business was conducted without change 
until 1869, when the trade had so increased that the premises 
were enlarged to include No. 306, and the business has run 
uninterruptedly in the same building ever since. 

Upon entering the store, the visitor is fairly bewildered by 
the sight of such an immense i)ile of books, papers, stationery, 
etc., which present so many attracticms that it is difficult to 
make a selection unless the visitor is determined upon what he 
wants before entering the place. Here will be found not 
only all the papers of any consequence of either hemisphere, 
but also all the magazines, choice novels, elegantly bound 
works of fiction, cheap novels, gold pens, pocket-knives, 
games, etc., and the finest stock of stationery, perhaps, in the 
city. Mr. Gray does by far the largest business in periodicals 
of any dealer in the West, and supplies a large number of 
country news-dealers. 

In 1875, after the location of the new Custom-house and 
Post-office was jnade, Mr. Gray concluded that the retail 
business of the city must necessarily gravitate towards and 
cluster around that great structure. In order, therefore, to 
be in advance of the moving trade he leased a store-room at 
No. 701) Olive Street, which he stocked wnth articles, etc., per- 
tinent to his business, and has been running the branch house 
profitably ever since. It is Mr. Gray's intention, provided his 
predictions are verified, which certainly promise fulfillment, 
to concentrate his business ultimately in his store near the 


Mr. Gray has always rcmainod alone in lousiness, but lias 
devoted his time and best ability to such i)uri)()sc that his 
prosperity is marked, and he is now in the most comfortable 
circumstances and enjoys the highest regards of every citizen. 
Willie Gray's book and news store is as familiarly known in 
the city as though the place were a large public resort. On 
any morning the store is the next place of attraction after the 
post-office, and is a feature of St. Louis that has grown into 
prime importance aud most enviable notoriety. 

GIESECia:, MEYSENBURG & CO.— Boots and Shoes. 

Among the largest manufacturers of hand-made boots and 
shoes and most popularly known to the trade is the house of 
Oiesecke, Meysenburg & Co., now located at Nos. 210 and 212 
Washington Avenue. The business was estal)lishod in St. 
Louis about ten years ago on the corner of ]\Iain and Vine 
streets, where they remained a few years, until their business 
had increased beyond the capacity of the building. They then 
removed to the corner of Main and Locust streets, from 
whence they were again forced to remove on account of a lack 
of facilities, their second removal being to their present loca- 
tion. Their present building is fifty feet wide l)y one hundred 
and fifty feet in depth, and is four stories in height ; it is well 
lighted and provided with all the accessories for manufacturing 
the best hand-made goods at the lowest possil)le cost. Thov 
employ three hundred hands, and job all their own prothict in 
Missouri, Illinois, Kansas, Iowa and Colorado. The boots and 
shoes turned out by the factory of Giesecke, Meysenburg & Co. 
are all hand-made, and pronounced by all dealers of a superior 
quality and finish. One of the best evidences of Ihoir excel- 
lent work is found in the rapid increase of tiicii- business in 
the face of the almost general depression whicii prevails in \hc 
trade. The members of the firm are comparatively young 
men, but are thoroughly acquainted with their business, and 
gentlemen of polish and urbanity, and enterprise, characteris- 
tics which have popularized them with the trade of the West. 



J. L. ISAACS. — Home Decorations. 

The accompai^ying cut is a faithful 
illustration of the beautiful structuic 
erected by J. L. Isaacs on the south side 
of Olive, between Twelfth and Thirteenth 
streets, in the 3^ear 1876. This buildin<r, 
occupying Nos. 1210 and 1212, is one of 
the most ornate and attractive features in 
that part of the city. But not akuie in 
the handsome design, strength and imposing appearance of the 
building is the true interest centered for the history of its owner, 
his labors in St. Louis and the attainment, through what many 
would declare insurmountable obstacles, to a posit iou he now 
occupies, stamps him as oue of the worthy self-made men of 
the AVest. The building is four story, Warrensburg stone 
front, richly ornamented in a style of architecture that is 
entirely original. Over the entrance is a colossal stone figure 
of "Excelsior," the motto and trade-mark of Mr. Isaacs. 
The stately canopy which overshadows the statue is a feature 
which, while it adds greatly to the elegant appcaraucc of the 
buildino^, illustrates the decorative character of the lousiness 
for which the structure was erected. Entering the spacious 
store, which covers in depth the entire half blork, we find the 
fixtures and furniture are of solid walnut, inlaid with other 
fine woods, so richly embellished that any description would 
be inadequate, a personal inspection being the only means by 
which a proper conception of its elegance can be obtained. 
In its every appointment the building is the finest west of 
New York devoted to the business for which it is used, :uk1 in 
its interior decoration is perhaps the most clal)()r:ite in tlie 
world. The floor of the curtain-room is laid with beautiful 
decorative wood carpet, and in addition to the ordinary 
diamond shelving for wall paper in the main store, there are 
magnificent cabinets, supplied Avith immense screens, which 
open from the walls and display the fine qualities of Dr. Di-cs- 
ser's art designs and French art decorations, of Aviiith Mr. 
Isaacs is sole agent, in the most advantageous mainu-r. These 
art desio-ns are a special feature of Mr. Isaac's business, and 

312 TOUR OF ST. l^OUIS. 

they are undoubtedly the handsomest wall decorations ever 
introduced in this country. 

One of the marked specialties of Mr. Isaacs* business is 
oil-painted wall paper, an imitation of frescoing, and one of 
the most useful and ornamental inventions of the century. 
This paper is prepared in such a manner that it is impervious 
to water, and can be washed with soap and scrubbed indefinitely 
without the slightest injury to either the paper or color. It 
is much handsomer than oil painting, more durable, and 
incomparably cheaper. 

In the general stock carried by this house will be found 
the most extensive variety of wall papers, from the cheapest 
grades to the most elaborate and costly decorations. There is 
also an upholstery department, supplied with every style and 
quality of curtaius, includiug lace and lambrequius ; also, 
window shades, mosquito canopies, w^ire screens for doors 
and windows, and everything properly belonging to the 

Every nook in the store-room is utilized most advanta^ 
geously, even the panels and divisions having small doors, 
\vhich open into the casement spaces, subserving many useful 
purposes. The high ceilings aflbrd a splendid opportunity 
for the display of regal lambrequins, lace curtains and fine 
goods of this character, and the beautiful tessellated floor 
forms an admirable background for the exhibition of the 
general stock. Mr. Isaacs' private office is a model of beauty 
and convenience, being sumptuously finished and having 
ever3^thing arranged in the most convenient manner. 

The first floor of No, 1212 is devoted principally to the 
display of tessellated wood floors, an article extensively used 
throughout Europe, and now being rapidly introduced into all. 
the larger cities of America. On the same floor are also found 
many elegant specimens of wood-carv^ings, the designing and 
execution of which is accomplished under Mr. Isaacs' directions. 

Mr. Isaacs w^as the original introducer of patent w^eather 
strips, and is the largest importer of wall papers and dealer 
in wood carpets, wire screens, portal)le wainscots, marquetry 
floors, window shades, and everything pertaining to his trade 


west of New York, and is the only dealer iu St. Louis doing 
business in his own building. 

He is sole agent here for Mark's improved adjustable chair, 
the greatest invention for invalids as well also as the easiest 
chair for the parlor, library, smoking-room, etc., ever con- 
ceived. It embraces every combination for case and com- 
fort, being readily converted from a chair into a variety of 
easy positions ; to a lounge, bed, child's cril), or snrgcon's 
operating table. It can be folded up so as to occupy a space 
only two feet square by eight inches deep, and weighs only 
fortj'^-five pounds. It is, in short, a combination of a dozen 
articles of furniture, and more perfect in each than the sepa- 
rate pieces. 

"What we have said here of ]\Ir. Isaacs and his works, are 
but the merest summary of his accomplishments ; a visit to 
his colossal establishment is the only means by which a proper 
conception of its magnitude and importance can be ol)tained. 
It is one of th# great institutions of the "West, and I\Ir. lasacs 
well deserves the trade in his line of the Mississippi "Valley. 

BKOWN & HILDER— Sporting Goods. 

Notwithstanding the fiict that St. Louis is situated upon 
the borders of the finest game country in the United States, 
and is the receiving center for all the game killed in the "West, 
for years she was without a representative establishment for 
sporting materials. It is true that ammunition and fire-arms 
were kept for sale, but there was no house that was enterpris- 
ino- enouirh to push abreast of the times by keeping all the 
novelties of the profession, or selling goods at prices reason- 
able in comparison with Eastern houses. The need was long 
and painfully felt, and many inducements offered which re- 
mained unaccepted until in the early part of 1877, when II. 8. 
Brown, formerly of Brown & Hofman, and Maj. F. F. Iliider, 
manairer of the St. Louis branch of E. Keminglon ^Q Sons, 
associated themselves under the firm name of Brown c^ Ilildcr, 


and entered the trade, making a specialty of shot-guns, rifles, 
pistols, ammunition, fishing tackle and sporting goods of every 
description. They located at No. 604 North Fourth Street, 
and in the short time they have been engaged in the business 
have built up a trade incomparably greater than that of any 
house west of New York. 

The firm has become headquarters for all Western sports- 
men, because they have revolutionized prices and keep an 
assortment which comprises everything pertinent to the busi- 
ness. They are the sole agents for E. Remington & Sons' 
shot-guns and pistols ; W. W. Greener's, Birmingham, Eng- 
land, breech-loaders ; G. W. Simmons & Son's, Boston, sports- 
men's clothing, and are importers of all makes of guns and 
pistols. Brown & Hilder's business has increased at an un- 
precedented ratio, and their extensions are constant. In addi- 
tion to their importations they are manufacturers of water- 
proof hunting suits, camp equipage. Case & Bedell's excel- 
sior game belts, fishing tackle, nets, seines and fishermen's 
goods. The range of articles in which they deal includes car- 
tridges and ammunition of all kinds, Eaton's rust preventor, 
shells and wads, extractors and recappers, loading implements 
and gun tools, dog, turkey and duck calls, decoy birds, archery 
goods, etc., and in fact everything from a pop-gun to a cannon, 
and the prices at which their goods are sokl have popularized 
them with all sportsmen ; and while they are content with a 
limited margin on sales, they keep every conceivable article 
that a sportsman may require for either this or any other coun- 
try. One of the results of the enterprise thus manifested by 
the firm is most wholesome, for it has cultivated a taste for 
sporting never before exhibited in St. Louis, and has brought 
an immense trade to our city, which, while tributary, had been 
forced before to o|;o elsewhere. 

Among the list of prizes awarded at the bench show of 
dogs and sportsmen's goods, held in St. Louis in March last, 
the following were received by Brown & Hilder : 

Class B — First prize — Best double-barrel shot-gun, at $150. 
W. W. Greener, maker. 

Class 5 — Very highly commended — Best $100 shot-gun. 
E. Remington & Sons, makers. 


Class 7 — First prize — Best target rifle. E, Remington & 
Sons, makers. 

Class 8 — Very highly commended — Sporting rifle. E. 
Remington & Sons, makers. 

Class 9 — First prize — Best shooting snit. G. W. Snnnions 
& Son, Boston, makers. 

Class 10 — Very highly commended — Best suit, valued at 
$13. G. W. Simmons & Son, Boston, makers. 

Class 10 — Very highly commended — Best suit, valued ;it 
$16.25. Brown & Hilder, makers. 

Class 13 — First prize — Best hunting boots. Thomson & 
Son, makers. New York. 

Class 14 — First prize — Best display fishing tackle. 

Class 15 — First prize — Best fishing rods. Conroy, Bissett 
& Malleson, New York, makers. 

"Class 18 — Sweepstakes — Best display fire-arms and sports- 
men's goods. 

Also, the following special : Very highly commended for 
Spratt's patent meat fibrine dog cakes. Brown & Ililder, 

This was by far the largest number of prizes won by any 
single firm, and is an evidence of the enterprise and merit of 
the proprietors, as well, also, a notable indication of the per- 
sonal popularity of Messrs. Brown & Hilder. 

O. J. LEWIS & CO.— Auctioneers. 

Auctioneering is an old profession, but one in which few 
persons succeed. The talents required in the business are of 
the hio-hest order, combining quickness ofpercei)tion, thorough 
knowledge of men's dispositions, acuteness of judgment, and 
withal, a magnetic and open character. These attributes, all 
of which are inherent, must be subordinated and })olislied l)y 
contact with society and a large experience. But while tin- 
business is precarious with a majority of auctioneers, those 
who are successful secure a full measure of public confidence 


and credit. Every city now has its representative auction 
house, because they are essential to pubHc convenience, the 
telephone of communication, as it were, between buyers and 
sellers, acquainting each with information which advances his 
interests and facilitates his investments. In St. Louis there 
are several large auction houses, but the chief one among the 
"many, representative of the West, is the immense house of O. 
J. Lewis & Co., No. 417 North Fifth Street. The present 
firm is the successor of Murdock & Dickson, who established 
business in 1836 at No. 204 and 206 North Main Street, at 
that time the center of the jobbing trade of the city, where 
they did a very large business. In the year 1873 Mr. O. J. 
Lewis purchased the entire interest in the concern, when the 
name of the firm was changed to its present title. 

Mr. Lewis foresaw the future location of the then shifting 
trade, and moving with the advance, re-established his business 
m the immense building he now occupies. It is not enough of 
the firm of O. J. Lewis & Co. to say that it is the oldest and 
largest auction house in St. Louis, for these qualifications do 
not accurately measure the extent of their operations, which 
are not surpassed, perhaps, by any auction house in the West. 
The building the firm now occupies is six stories in height by 
one hundred and fifty feet deep, with entrances on Fifth and 
also St. Charles streets, and running back to a broad and 
well-paved alley, thus enabling them to make all their ship- 
ments and receive their goods in the rear. 

The first or basement floor is used for boxing purposes 
alone, and is crowded with goods which are being packed pre- 
paratory for shipment. The rattle of hammers and rolling of 
boxes indicate a pressure of business which quick and constant 
work can alone provide for. 

The second or ground floor is the salesroom and oflSce. 
Three rows of counters extend the entire length of the build- 
ing, subserving a most useful purpose in the attractive display 
of goods as they arc put on sale. There is an abundance of room, 
plenty of light, and everything provided for the convenience 
of purchasers. The third and fourth floors are used for the 
storage of dry goods, notions and clothing, and the fifth and 
sixth floors are crowded with boxed boots and-shoes. These 


departments are always complotcly stocked, for as fast as the 
goods are sold new consignments arrive, thus making an cud- 
less routine of packing and unpacking, selling and buying, 
shipping and receiving. The handling of such an immense 
amount of goods requires a large force of men, and the constant 
use of two large freight elevators run by steam, a\ ilh which Iho 
building is provided. The aggregate area of the house is 
tAventy-seven thousand square feet, equal to nearly three- 
fourths of an acre, and yet there is not a single fot)t of idle 
space. The business of the house during the i)ast 3car 
was, in round figures, one million dollars, and this year, 
judging from present stdes, this amount will be increased by 
one-half at least. The rapiJ increase and extent of such an 
enormous business, and one, too, in which so very few suc- 
ceed, can be accounted for only upon the assumption that tiie 
proprietors possess the qualifications specially adapted to the 
auction trade ; that they have the complete confidence of the 
public ; and lastly, are in every respect deserving of such 
signal success. 

Mr. Lewis is a gentleman in whom the attribute of order 
and perfect system is supreme ; he gives the business his per- 
sonal supervision ; sees that everything is in proper shape, and 
that every customer receives his dues. The reputation of O. 
J. Lewis & Co. is co-extensive wnth the West, and their consign- 
ments are consequently double that of any other auction house 
in the city, and those wdio become their patrons once never 
have occasion to go elsewhere, unless the articles desired can 
not be had of the firm. 

Thus we observe that adaptability, adherence to purpose, 
faithfulness and honesty are the elements of success, while to 
these strong principles O. J. Lewis & Co. have added pluck 
and enterprise, which have placed them too far in the van of 
competition to feel its influence. 



GKAY, BOWMAN & CO.— IVIachinery Merchants. 

In Masonic Temple Building, No. 703 to 709 Market and 
No. 4 South Seventh Street. This firm may be mentioned as 
somewhat remarkable for the rapidity with which they have 
extended their business, and the clever foresight exhibited by 
them in taking hold of a public want that was, as a rule, very 
illy attended to. 

The machine-using public now forms a highly important 
element in our society, and represents one of the most pro- 

gressive classes of business men. The progress that each in- 
dividual makes compels almost a constant change in his ma- 
chinery, and when new machines of greater power are pur- 
chased it becomes a question as to what shall be done with the 
original one of less capacity. 

Heretofore these supplanted machines have been set aside 
to be rusted out and broken up, but the subject of this sketch 
has hit upon the happy plan of relieving the manufacturer by 
taking his machine as part payment on the new one. Thus, 
by having control of a most excellent line of new machinery, 


embracing all classes of stoaiii ciiijincs, iron working tools, 
wood cutting machines and milling nuuhinory, llu'V are ena- 
bled to otter a consumer what he wants, and at the same time 
relieve him of what he does not Mant. 

The second-hand machmery thus brought into their posses- 
sion is taken to their shops, carefully overhauled, and again 
put upon the market at wonderfully low prices, which enables 
persons who need a machine for a particular piece of work, or 
those who desire to begin business on a small capital, to have 
their wants supplied by a first-class house who warrant all their 
representations The firm has also taken the initiatory step 
in the Western country in fitting and furnishing steam yachts, 
and are prepared to furnish any part of the machinery, or 
complete yachts. Small boats will shortly become an able 
accessory to rapid business transactions on the multitude of 
lakes and rivers of the West, besides the steam yacht affords 
an endless source of pleasure. 

They have also taken the lead in introducing spiral locked 
seam and spiral riveted galvanized wrought-iron pipes of all 
weights and sizes. These pipes are meeting with unusual 
favor, and their lines of usefulness are rapidly extending. 
They are especially meeting with great favor for down spouts 
to houses, or leader pipes for pumps, suction and exhaust steam 
pipes ; also, for water conductor pipes. The lightness, strength 
and durability of this tubing renders it very popular among 
practical men. 

The minor machines, tools and fittings handled by this 
house are too many to make mention of here. 

Besides their machinery business, Messrs. Gray, Bowman 
& Co. are builders of gas and water works. Mr. Carroll E. 
Gray, the senior of the firm, attends chiefly to these contracts. 
The works in the following places were built by him, viz: 
Alliance, O., gas; Brigham Hall, Canadaigua, N. Y., gas; 
Kankakee, 111., gas ; AVashington, Ind., gas ; Lawrence, Kan., 
gas ; Sherman, Tex., gas ; Willard Asylum, Ovid, N. Y., gas ; 
Pueblo, Col., water; Joplin, Mo., gas; Carthage, Mo., gas; 
Denison, Tex., gas; the works at the two latter places being 
under construction at this writing. Throe of the above works 
are now leased and operated by the builders. Mr. Albert B. 


Bowman, the junior member, a 3'oung man of large experience 
in the Southern and Western States, and a man of brisk busi- 
ness habits, is at the financial helm. Mr. Claude Freeman, a 
mechanical engineer of acknowledged ability, is the manager 
in charge of the machinery houses and warerooms. The corps 
of assistants is well selected and constitutes a trained crew. 

Altogether, the house is thorough-going, up with the times 
and reliable. 

L. P. EWALD & CO. — Iron, Steel and Heavy Hardware. 

St. Louis is supreme in her iron interests, being bound to 
the highest destiny by bands of steel of her own forging. 
Our great foundries and iron jobbing houses give to her a 
solid supremacy, which is ever in the ascendency. Among 
the old and substantial firms that have built up an immense 
trade and reputation in the handling of heavy hardware is that 
of L. P. Ewald & Co., Nos. 1024 and 1026 North Main Street. 
This house was originally established by Messrs. Squire & 
Reed in the year 1848, their location being on the levee just 
below Olive Street. There have been several changes in the 
house since then in the succession of son to father and the 
retirement of the old members, until 1873, Avhen L. P. Ewald 
became sole proprietor, and has been conducting the business 
very successfully ever since. The company part of the firm 
is only nominal, and retained because of the success under 
the title. 

The articles handled by L. P. Ewald & Co. include iron, 
steel — making a specialty of Tennessee and Kentucky char- 
coal iron, of which they are sole agents — wagon and carriage 
wood-work, and heavv hardware in 2:eneral. The stock car- 
ried regularly is from seven to eight hundred tons of iron, 
and their annual business amounts to a quarter of a million 
dollars. Their trade extends over the entire West, and every 
year is branching into new fields, thereby increasing the de- 
mand upon the house. 


The celebrated charcoal iron of Tennessee and Kentucky 
is in great favor throughout the country, and its use is becom- 
ing more general every day, supplanting other qualities be- 
cause of its superior toughness and durability, being ciual in 
all respects to the best Norway iron, while it is nuich cheaper. 
Its introduction into this market has been ell'ectively accom- 
plished by Mr. Ewald, who is extending its sale to the far 
West, and wherever sold the demand has largely increased. 

Mr. Ewald occupies a high position among the solid com- 
mercial men of St. Louis, his business being conducted upon 
the strictest i^rinciples of honesty and the protection of tho 
interests of all who deal with him. 

A. M. LESLIE & CO. — Dental and Surgical Apparatus. 

The improvements made during the past few years in den- 
tal and surgical material and apparatus almost surpass com- 
prehension. The indications are that the genius of the profes- 
sion has been constantly employed in devising new methods 
and novel instruments for saving life, mitigating sufiering and 
re-establishing the natural physical conformations marred by 
accident and disease. 

In St. Louis we have abundant opportunity to see tho 
necessity for skillful appliances of this character, and it is hero 
that the evidence of progressive science is abundantly supplied. 
Among the institutions of this great city, that of A. M. Leslie 
& Co., No. 319 North Fifth Street, is one of special interest, 
because it is a representative American house, in which the 
attainments of the dental and surgical profession are illus- 
trated. This establishment was first opened by A. M. Leslie, 
Sr., in 185G, in a small building on the corner of Third and 
Market streets, a location from Avhence has sprung sevei-al of 
the largest business houses in the West. From a small begin- 
ning he built up a large trade, continuing alone until 1805, 
when, upon the admission of Dr. Charles Knower, E. G. and 




A. M. Leslie, Jr.. the firm name was changed to A. M. Leslie 

The rapid increase of business forced the firm into a more 
central location and capacious building, and in 1868 they 
removed to their present quarters, under Mercantile Library 
Hall. Every year has witnessed a large extension of their 
trade, to meet which properly their facilities have been pro- 
portionately increased, until now they are doubtless the 
largest dealers in their line west of Philadelphia, doing a 
jobbing trade which extends from Maine to Texas, and from 
North Carolina to the Pacific coast, and a retail business 
truly immense. The firm makes a specialty of orthopaedic 
apparatus, trusses, batteries, etc., carrying at all times a large 
assortment of these goods. 

In dental material and instruments, A. M. Leslie & Co. 
acknov/lcdge few competitors, carrying such a colossal stock 
that they are enabled to fill orders for every conceivable thing 
belonging to the profession at prices as low as any house in 
the United States. They manufacture many of their own 
goods and buy all they handle in such quantities as to get the 
benefit of the laro-est trade discounts. 

The firm also makes 
a sjiecialty of surgical 
instruments, and in their 
stock may be found all 
the latest inventions in 
the science of suj'gery, 
and a quantity sufiicient 
to provide every physi- 
cian in the West with a 
complete case. In fact, 
both in dental and sur- 
gical appliances there are few houses on the continent that 
are equal to A. M. Leslie & Co. in the amount of capital 
invested and the choice selection of stock displayed. 

One of the popular features of this firm is "Leslie's Im- 
proved Saddle-Bags," for physicians, which has found a sale 
equal to the aggregate sale of any other five bags now on the 
market* They were patented by Mr. Leslie in 1871, and 



i-epresent in combination every rc(]niroment and convenience 
a physician can desire, being composed of two metal l)oxes, 
covered with a contin- 
uons piece of leather . 
which forms the hinge, 
and admits of the re- 
moval of any vial with- 
out displacing the oth- 
ers, as seen in the 
accompanying engrav- 
ing. The bags are 
made so firmly as to 
resist without injury 
any reasonable con- 
cussion : no wood or 
pasteboard is used in 
their construction ; 
they are put together 
by rivets, and will out- 
last three pairs of sewed bags ; they are more compact, con- 
venient, durable, and cheaper than any others ever made, 
and have a reputation for general excellence unequaled. 


Dentistry has in the last few years attained a position which 
the most visionary prophet could not have imagined possil)le 
twenty years ago. In former times the loss of teeth was an 
affliction not only irreparable, but with society's votaries the 
next thing to loss of character. Now, however, nature is 
supplanted by a more perfect adornment of the facial features, 
and to lose a tooth is only to get a handsomer one. Unfortu- 
nately the dentist's profession has its ills, or rather becomes 
the superinducing cause of a more real affliction than the loss 
of teeth, for in every trade and profession there are empirics, 


who make their patrons suffer, and in proportion destroy a 
hope of permanent relief from the attendant difficulties of bare 
mouths or aching teeth. It is therefore of the first importance 
in the repair of those indispensable auxiliaries of our living to 
secure the services of a strictly first-class dentist, whose work 
is always certain to give perfect satisfaction. The following 
brief history of one of the most reliable dental establishments 
in St. Louis is therefore worthy of perpetuation in " A Tour 
of St. Louis." 

In 1868, K. T. Sanders, D. D. S., came to St. Louis with a 
large experience acquired in the East, and in 1871 founded the 
New York Dental Rooms, locating at No. 820 AVashington Ave- 
nue, where he has ever since remained. The price of dental 
work had been, l)cfore his coming, most extravagant, and one 
of his first steps was to place the entire profession on a more 
reasonable basis. Success attended him from the beginning, for 
low prices attracted custom, and those who applied to him were 
so Avell satisfied with his work that they sent others, and his 
business has been permanentlv and rnpidly increasing ever 
since. So popular indeed had he become that in lhe3'ear 1873 
another establishment located near the New York Dental 
Rooms, and hung out an attractive sign — " The New York 
Dental Association " — with the evident intention of securing 
a portion at least of Dr. Sanders' business by a deception 
readily apparent. Application was made to the coui'ts, and 
after the question was heard, the "The New York Dental 
Association" was perpetually enjoined from using such a 

Dr. Sanders has been the most successful dentist that ever 
followed the profession in St. Louis. He has made over eight 
thousand sets of teeth since the date of his establishment, and 
has accumulated a fortune. His uniform price for the best 
set of teeth is eight dollars — so low that it has revolutionized 
the profession in favor of the public. Such, in brief, is the 
history of the " New York Dental Rooms," an institution 
compared with which all others m St. Louis are almost insig- 


DR. GEO. F. ADAMS.— Turkish Baths. 

The Turkish Bath has become one of the great sanitary and 
picasnrc-imparting institutions of this country. True, it is an 
Oriental importation, but under the gleam of the crescent the 
Turkish Bath is only a crude, si)iritlcss ablution, devoid of 
those cxhilaratiug auxiliaries which characterize the bath as 
administered in America. The credit for the introduction of 
this most pleasurable and curative agent in St. Louis, is due 
to Dr. Geo. F. Adams, who superintended the construction of 
the first establishment, and shortly afterwards, in ISGO, l)uilt 
a bath of his own, at No. 1603 Washington Avenue, which was 
opened to the public on the eighth of October of that year. 
Dr. Adams had, for years previously, conducted two largo 
Turkish Bath institutions in Boston, and his experience gave 
him a great advantage, which was illustrated by the largo 
patronage he received. The bath, under Dr. Adams' experi- 
enced and able management, prospered rapidly, and in 1872 he 
began the construction of a much larger and more complete 
institution at No. 311 North Seventh Street, wliich was com- 
pleted and opened for patrons on June 20, 1873. Various im- 
provements have since been made, until it now stands confessed 
one of the finest, best arranged, best ventilated and most com- 
fortable Turkish Bath houses in either America or Europe. It 
is patronized by the best citizens, ladies and gentlemen, and has 
cured more disease in the same time than nearly all the city 
physicians. In fact, for malaria, bad colds, neuralgia, rheuma- 
tism, cancer, and diseases superinduced by torpid liver, there is 
no remedy so efficacious as this bath. Its virtues arc being 
fast disclosed, and every year witnesses a large increase of pat- 
ronage, which must continue in proportion to the rapidity with 
which the mists of prejudice arc dispelled by the rays of truth. 

Dr. Adams is a gentleman well versed in materia medico, 
was a practitioner for thirty years, and for three years surgeon 
in the United States army. He is convinced by innumeral)lc 
evidences that the Turkish Bath is more effective than physic ; 
and, owning one of the most perfect establishments for the 
satisfactory administration of the bath, he is entitled to the pat- 
ronao-e of not only all St. Louisans, but also of all her visitors. 


GIBERT BROS. — Keep's Partly-Made Shirts. 

An article of real merit, if properly placed before the pub- 
lic, is quickly recognized and its success assured. One of the 
most noteworthy illustrations of this fact is seen in the Ande- 
spread popularity of Keep's Patent Partly-Made Dress Shirts. 
Although but a few years established they now rank among 
the standard productions of the many industries of our coun- 
try. The beginning of this important enterprise "was caused 
by one of those incidents of every-day life which frequently 
lead to grand results. A friend of Mr. O. H. Keep, the great 
New York shirt-maker, came to him one day and said : "Keep, 
my wife is a good hand with the needle, and has tried repeat- 
edly to make my shirts, but she can not cut them out properly, 
so that those she makes are always a misfit. Can you not cut 
out some shirts for me and sew the difficult parts together, so 
that she can finish them without making any mistakes?" Mr, 
Keep replied that he could, and thereupon took the gentle- 
man's measure, after w^hich he cut out several shirts and had 
the more particular parts sewed together by his skillful opera- 
tives. The partly-made shirts were then sent to the friend's 
wife, who completed them in the most satisfactory and perfect 
manner. Thus w^as solved the intricate problem of making 
perfect-fitting shirts at home, and that, too, by ladies unskilled 
in needlework. These circumstances w^ere the inception of Mr. 
Keep's partly-made shirts. He at once applied for and re- 
ceived letters patent from the United States and Great Britain, 
and began the manufacture of his new invention. Keep's 
partly-made dress shirts, lift a vexatious burden from all house- 
wives who have heretofore felt that for economy's sake the 
shirts must be made at home. No matter how beautifully 
they hemstitch the collars and wristbands, they have always 
been aware that shirts of their own fashionino; are Avorn under 
protest, for the simj^le reason that only trained experts, work- 
ing by rule, ever make a band just the right length or a bosom 
to fit without wrinkle or fold. These partly-made shirts, Avith 
the bosom set in and the neck-band adjusted — leaving only the 
simplest portions of the garment to l)e finished, and costing six 
dollars for six shirts, less than the same quality of material 


could be piirchasct! at retail — render it possible for shirts, 
warranted to fit the most particular to be forthcoming, with 
but little labor. 

The material used is the best Wamsutta muslin and Irish 
linen, bosoms three-ply, all linen. To facilitate and extend 
his business Mr. Keep opened branch establishments in all the 
large cities, among the most im})ortant of which is the one in 
St. Louis, under the proprietorship of the Gibert Bros., at 
No. 621 Olive Street. This firm began the manufacture and 
sale of Keep's partly-made shirts on the 1st of January, 1876, 
and by vigor and enterprise, supported by the superiority of 
the articles they handle, have built up a business commensurate 
with their deserts. The rapid increase of the demand for 
their shirts necessitated the erection of a large addition by the 
Gibert Bros, to their original house, in which a large number 
of sewing machines, operated by skillful shirt-makers, are con- 
stantly humming, turning out the partly-made and completing 
shirts under Mr. Keep's patent. Their trade continues to in- 
crease at a ratio which demonstrates the fact that this new 
article is superseding all other shirts in the market, and is fast 
makino- its wav to the standard favor of every comniunitv. 

In this short article it is impossible to enumerate in detail 
all the advantages which these goods offer, and for the conven- 
ience of those residing at a distance, the Messrs. Gibert Bros, 
will mail free to any address full descriptive circulars, with sam- 
ples of styles and material, and complete directions for self- 
measurement . The Messrs . Gibert Bros . are thoroughly enter- 
prising, giving their personal attention to all orders, and their 
reputation is such that in St. Louis they enjoy the highest 
respect and confidence of the community. 



The business of insurance has become a great factor in the 
evolution of the world's commerce, and its uses have ever been 
increasing since its mutual utility was discovered. It is a 
distinct business, in the prosecution of which a most delicate 
relationship must be observed by the agent, whose duty is to 
zealously guard the interests of the insured equally with those 
of the company he represents. Acting in this double capacity, 
each alike important to his good standing and reputation, a 
successful agent must necessarily be the possessor of a high 
order of business talent. Not only the ability to properly con- 
struct a policy, binding and equitable, but also the judgment 
to' estimate values and determine the liability of accident. A 
reliable agency can, therefore, only be ascertained by inquiry 
as to the duration and extent of its business, the standing of 
the companies represented, and the satisfaction manifested by 
the assured. Applying these positive tests, the firm of Carroll 
& Powell becomes at once a representative underwriting 
agency of St. Louis. They have had long years of the most 
active experience in fire, marine, hull and cargo insurance, 
and the adjustment of innumerable losses growing out of such 

Not only are their customers completely satisfied, as 
evidenced by the permanent patronage from many of the largest 
establishments in the city, but the companies they represent 
have implicit confidence both in their ability and integrity, and 
thus a reciprocal interest is established, which is of mutual im- 
portance. The firm in question has also acquired agood name 
with customers by their unusually prompt and capable atten- 
tion to losses, which is the more noticeable because rot com- 
mon. The same care is observed in obtaining immediate set- 
tlement for all losses that occur as when insurance premiums 
are being received, thus sharing the value and benefit of honest 
and honorable insurance. 

The companies they represent in St. Louis include the 
Insurance Company of the State of Pennsylvania, with assets 
$621,794.42; La Caisse Gcnerale des Assurances, of Paris, 
France, assets, $5,210,000 ; Watertown, of Watertown, N. Y., 


assets, $741,208.00; Kenton, of Covington, Ky., assets, 
$248,007.04; Boatman's, of Pittsburgh, assets, $270,728.55; 
and the Pennsylvania, of Pittsburgh, assets, $180,808.23. 
The fire department of their city business is under the man- 
agement of W. D. Van Blarcom, whose long experience and 
acknowledged ability as an underwriter is another assurance of 
satisfaction to all their dealers. 


The Life Association of America was organized for business 
in the month of June, 1868, the late Capt. John J. Roe being 
its first President. Many of the principal l)usiness men of St. 
Louis have been at different times connected with its manao-o- 



Besides large sums paid to policy-holders in the way of 
dividends and for purchase of policies, the Association has paid 
for death losses since its organization more than four millions 
of dollars. 

The officers of the Association for the present year are : 
Henry W. Hough, President; Joseph "W. Branch, Vice-Presi- 
dent; Geo. H. Loker, Second Vice-President; E. "»V. Bryant, 
Actuary ; Felix Coste, Treasurer; and John S. Pierce, Secre- 

The building on the corner of Market and Seventh streets 
(formerly Masonic Hall), belongs to the Association ; a portion 
of the building is occupied as its home office. 

The Association has been for some years compelled to spend 
larsresumsin defendins; itself from unwarrantal)le suits brought 
ao-ainst it. It has almost univ^ersally come out first best ; and 
we hope the time is not far distant when the Association will 
a«-ain enter the field for new business, able to contend success- 
fully with all competitors. 

STOCK yai:ds, 33 J 


Of the numerous institutions built in St. Louis duriuir tlie 
past quarter of a century calculated to advance her commercial 
interests, there are none of such vast importance as the 
National Stock Yards. Our natural location and terminal 
facilities, great as they were, for many years failed to secure 
the cattle trade, which, though naturally our own, passed our 
doors and found a market in Chicago. The vast herds of li\ e 
stock raised on the great ranges of Kansas, Indian Territorv, 
Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado, went by our market as 
though St. Louis were a small way-station, to be stoi)ped at 
only M^hen the train was flagged. The building of the Na- 
tional Stock Yards has changed this, however, and made our 
city one of the great stock markets of the Avorld. 

It is difficult to properly describe so large an institution as 
the National Stock Yards, so that the reader, wholly unac- 
quainted with its admirable facilities, can even approxi- 
mate its advantages. The yards cover one hundred acres, 
and are divided by numerous avenues, four of which, by 
crossing at right angles in the center, separate the yards into 
four equal parts. These are again subdivided into pens of 
various sizes to accommodate large and small lots of cattle. 
The pens are paved with limestone, which forms a solid sur- 
face, and the avenues are floored nicely with heavy plank, so 
that however wet the weather, neither the live stock nor opera- 
tives are subjected to the annoyance of mud and water. Every 
pen is provided with commodious sheds, hayracks, feed ])oxes, 
water, etc., and are well drained ; the animals are therefore 
kept in prime condition and show off to the best advantage. 
About two-thirds of the capacity of the yards is devoted to 
cattle pens, while the north side is used only for shipping and 
receiving, by means of model chutes, and the west division is 
for hogs and sheep. The arrangement throughout is most ad- 
mirable, but the facilities for handling hogs and sheep are sur- 
prisingly perfect. These animals are housed in special sheds 
made for them, and are as carefully protected as though they 
were bondholders. The floors are kept as clean almost as a 
well-conditioned household, beinir washed daily by means of 


water drawn from the reservoirs. The hog-house is one 
thousand one hundred and twenty-two feet in length by one 
hundred feet in width, and divided into one hundred and 
twelve yards. Adjoining it is a crib which has a capacity for 
ten thousand bushels of corn, from which the animals in the 
pens can be fed without the least difficulty. The sheep-house 
is five hundred and seventy- two feet in length and one hundred 
feet wide, and has a large exercise lot in front. Both these 
houses have several doors on the west side, through which the 
animals are driven on to a platform two thousand feet long and 
loaded and unloaded expeditiously, as the cars come immedi- 
ately alongside the sheds, with the flooring of the cars on a 
level with the surface of the platform. The capacity of the 
yards for loading or unloading is seventy cars at one time, or, 
counting time for switching, two hundred and eighty cars per 

The paving of the yards is chiefly of magnesian limestone, 
and is as complete as the pavement of our city. One of the 
great features of the yards is its sewerage system, which com- 
prises ten miles of finely constructed sewers and a drainage of 
the most perfect character. 

The capacity of the yards is sufiicient for the easy accom- 
modation of 12,000 cattle, 25,000 hogs, 7,600 sheep, 250 
horses, and 500 mules. The cost of the yards, was $1 ,700,000. 

In addition to the general conveniences and superior con- 
struction of the yards, there is a fine exchange building, in 
which transactions are facilitated. This building is a large 
brick structure, one hundred and sixty-four feet long by forty- 
four feet broad, and is three stories in height, with a well- 
finished basement. There are fourteen rooms in the building, 
which are occupied by live stock commission merchants, while 
the main part of the first floor is used by the company for 
general purposes, and recently the bank of H. L. Newman & 
Co. has been added, the transactions of which are now im- 

To the end that live stock men seeking this market might 
find every convenience and facility offered by any other mar- 
ket on the continent, a magnificent hotel, called in honor of 
the first President of the yards, " Allerton House," was built 


the same time as the yinxls, and is locatotl near the southeast 
corner of the cattle i)ens. The buikliuii- and furni^hinn; cost 
one hundred and fifty thousand dolhirs, and nothing is omitted 
to make it in every respect first class. It is two hundred and 
fifty feet in breadth and one hundred and thirty-nine feet wide, 
four stories in height, with finished basement, and lias one 
hundred elegant rooms. There is telegraph communication 
with the Exchange building and hotel, and, in fact, everything 
desirable for comfortable living and the expeditious and satis- 
factory handling of live stock. 

The President, Kelson Morris, of Chicago, is one of the 
largest packers and cattle dealers in America, and a gentleman 
whose success is the best evidence of his administrative ability. 
Isaac II. Knox, who occupies the triple position of Vice-Presi- 
dent, Secretary and Treasurer, is an able official, specially 
qualified to discharge the duties of his responsible trusts. lie 
was one of the original founders of the yards, and has the 
most extended acquaintance among stock dealers throughout 
the country. His personal supervision is seen throughout the 
yards, and the constant vigilance he maintains over the details 
of the business clearly evidence his pride and ambition to see 
the National Yards not only the largest in capacity, but also 
the greatest in reputation and transactions on the two hemis- 
pheres. Charles Jones, the Superintendent, is thoroughly 
posted in the cattle trade, and with a most general acquaint- 
ance and a naturally administrative disposition, his ser- 
vices are of the most valuable character to the company he 

Such is the history of an institution in which St. Louis 
takes special pride. Although the yards arc really in Illinois, 
they are by no means alien to our city, but are one of the nol)le 
brotherhood of our valuable commercial factors, whose expan- 
sive character is a mirror in which we see reflected the grow- 
ing boundary of our great municipality. 


REILLEY & WOLFORT.— Horses and Mules. 

St. Louis is no less a great horse and mule market than she 
is the receiving centre of the cattle trade of the South and 
West ; in fact, in her rivalry with Chicago, St. Louis is a much 
better market for horses and mules than her enterprising lake- 
side neighbor. 

In the year 1858, Reilley & Schulherr established a horse 
and mule market at No. 1540 Broadway, where they purchased, 
fed and sold stock on their own account, and soon created an 
excellent business, which demanded an extension of their 
building. The additions included Nos. 1538, 1540, 1542 and 
1544, which gave a stabling capacity for five hundred head of 
stock. In 1864, Mr. Wolfort purchased an interest in the 
business, and shortly thereafter, in 1866, they built another 
laro-e stable on the corner of Broadway and Cass Avenue, and 
subsequently added to it until it now includes Nos. 1500, 
1502, 1504, 1506 and 1508. 

In 1875, Mr. Schulherr disposed of his interest in the 
stables, since which time the name of the firm has been Reilley 
& Wolfort, who are the sole proprietors. Their business has 
grown so rapidly, that they have been compelled to lease 
auxiliary stables elsewhere, one on the corner of Broadway 
and Warren Street, and a large stabling place opposite their 
first building, giving them a capacity for one thousand horses 
and mules, which they can care for without crowding. 

Reilley & Wolfort now do the largest business in their line 
of any firm in the West, their sales last year aggregating one 
million five hundred thousand dollars, and are steadily increas- 
ing. Their stables are headquarters for the Government horse 
and mule purchasing agents, and they have for several years sold 
annually to the Government from three to four thousand head 
of stock. Their reputation for honesty is unquestioned, and 
since they have made it a cardinal rule from the beginning to 
trade upon a just basis only their patronage includes the best 
stock traders in the country. They have every facility to meet 
the wants of their customers, and, at this date, are establishing 
telephonic connection between their stables, to facilitate and 
harmonize their immense interests. 

HIDES. 335 

B. H. NEWELL.— Hides. 

Enterprise and undaunted courage are elements that win in 
any of the activities of life. Mr. Newell began some fourteen 
years ago, in this city, as a hide l^roker, aiming to represent 
the interest of buyers who wi.shod to avail themselves of the 
benefits of this market without the labor of personal visits 
when stocks were required. He has worked up a handsome 
trade for this market. Tanners and other buyers make him 
their medium for extensive purchases, and his operations, large 
as they have been in the past, are constantly increasing. He 
guards with scrupulous care the interest of those whom he rep- 
resents, and a very reasonable commission is charged, so that 
dealers operating through him obtain the benefits of the very 
best figures possible. Hides and sheep pelts are his special- 
ties. Mr. Newell has been successful and enjoys the confidence 
of the business community. His ofiSce and ware-house is 
at No. 724 North Main Street. 


The crrowth of the hide trade in St. Louis is worthy of note. 
The opening of so many railroads has tended to make this 
citv a center for the accumulation of stocks, at the same time 
a most favorable market for the tanneries of the East and 

Mr. James Blackman has been long regarded as one of our 
most enterprising citizens ; a gentleman whose integrity has 
popularized him in all business circles. His immense ware- 
house, situated at No. 610 North Levee, extending through to 
No. 618 Commercial Street, is a scene of activity and life in 
his operations in hides, sheep pelts, furs, wool, tallow, and 
everything incident to such a business. 



The completion of the St. Louis Sliot Tower, in the year 
1847, marked an era in the history of our city and the entire 
"West, and is referred to as the inaugurating enterprise of 
commercial St. Louis. The history of its construction and 

the processes of change through which the Shot Tower has 
passed in its development to the very important position it 
now occupies among the great institutions of the Western 
empire, is both interesting and instructive. 

In January, 1844, Ferdinand Kennett began the erection 


of a shot tower on Elm, between jSIiiin and Second streets. 
The Avork was pushed rapidly, and in the following October 
the to>ver had reached an elevation of one hundred and 
seventy feet ; the intention was to make it one hundred and 
ninety-five feet in height. Considerable fear was excited on 
account of its treacherous appearance, and a committee of 
architects was appointed to examine the tower and report 
upon its safety. The committee concluded their examination 
at noon on a bright October day, and reported the structure 
solid and perfectly safe. In just two hours afterwards the 
tower fell with a terrific crash, destrovino; several buildiuirs, 
but though there were many narrow escapes, no one was 

The material of the demolished tower was collected in 
shape, and upon the selection of a new site on Lewis, between 
Bates and Smith streets, near the river, it was hauled to the 
place, and early in the following year, 1845, the work of 
excavating for a new tower was begun. Before proceeding 
far the workmen struck a solid stone of immense size, upon 
which was erected the tower, and in January, 1847, the 
graceful structure had reached a heioht of one hundred and 
seventy-six feet, and the works were completed. 

In 1849 the Shot Tower passed into the hands of Kennett, 
Simonds & Co., and so continued under that title until 1858, 
when the business was incorporated under the title of the St. 
Louis Shot Tower Company, and so continues. The capital 
stock of the company is $200,000, and the annual consumption 
of lead in the manufacture of buck shot, bar lead, and all the 
numerous sizes of shot, is from 5,000,000 to 6,000,000 pounds, 
valued at from $400,000 to $450,000. 

The officers of this grand corporation are : G. W. Chad- 
bourne, President ; Theodore Foster, Secretary, and O. G. 
Rule, Superintendent. 

Mr. Chadbourne entered the manufactory as a clerk in 
1847, but by an inborn capability, sound judgment and ster- 
ling business character, he has risen to the chief position, m 
addition to which he has become one of the leading commer- 
cial men of the Mississippi Valley. 

Mr. Foster is one of our well-known citizens of high 


social and business standing, and a gentleman popular among 
Western dealers. 

Mr. Rule entered the employ of the Shot Tower Company 
as early as January, 1847, and passed through all the official 
gradations until 1849, when he was made Superintendent, a 
position he has ably and satisfactorily filled ever since. 

The products of the St. Louis Shot Tower find a sale in 
every part of the country, and by the employment of skillful 
hands and the latest and most valuable patents, the company 
has established an immense business and gained a reputation 
for the excellence of their shot almost unparalleled. 

A. C. DUNLEVY. — Galvanized Iron Cornices. 

The ornamentation of public and private buildings has, 
from the foundation of Rome, been a study intimately allied 
with the fine arts, and, indeed, much of the architectural adorn- 
ment of buildings in the mediaeval age was done by sculptors 
and the finest artists in wood carving and frescoing. The ad- 
vancement of succeeding ages has continued uninterrupted, 
however, until now every building may be elaborately orna- 
mented on the exterior at an insignificant cost compared with 
the outlay made by ancient builders. A consummation of the 
most extravagant wish for a beautiful home at small expense 
is found in the uses of galvanized iron for cornices, window- 
caps, sky-lights, etc. 

The leading manufacturer of sheet metal and galvanized 
iron in the West is A. C. Dunlevy, whose manufactory is at 
Nos. 515 North Levee and 520 Commercial Street. 

The use of galvanized iron for building cornices is fast be- 
coming general, and if the entire public were acquainted with 
its cheapness, durability and beauty, no other cornice w^ould 
ever be used. It is fiir superior to wood, stone, or cast-iron. 
It resists all climatic changes and atmospherical influences, and 
on account of the lightness of the material there is no pressure 
on the walls of the building, and it is easily fitted into place. 


These points of superiority are based upon prime considera- 
tions which demonstrate the wisdom of usinir jralvanizcd iron 
not only for cornices, but also for dormer windows, roofing, 
railings, balustrades, pinnacles, conservatories, and in short, 
every place where iron or stone is used ornamentally. 

Mr. Dunlevy's establishment is one of the largest of the 
kind in America. His facilities for manufacturing metal goods 
of the character named are unsurpassed. Amon"- the lar^e 
public buildings he has roofed and provided with the galvanized 
iron cornice may be mentioned the Chamber of Commerce, 
Lindell Hotel, Singer Building, State House at Springfield, 
Illinois, and hundreds of others equally large, in various parts 
of the West. 

Mr. Dunlevy is the manufacturer of iron ventilating fire- 
proof sky-lights, made of galvanized iron, with heavy plate- 
glass, without the use of cement or putty. In short, his line 
of manufacture includes everything in galvanized iron, also 
in tin, zinc, sheet-iron, copper, etc., and his work is of such a 
superior character that he can not justly recognize any com- 


St. Louis being the center of the great wheat belt of North 
America, and the distributing point for the vast i^roduct of 
the entire West, is no less a flour manufacturing city, with 
the finest mills on the continent. The representative mill of 
not only St. Louis, but indeed America, is the one erected by 
the Yacger Milling Company in 1870, at Twenty-first Street 
and Clark Avenue. The capacity of these mills is twenty run 
of stone and one thousand two hundred barrels of flour daily, 
and their principal brands, the " Purity," " Double Anchor " 
and "Four Ace," are known throughout the United Slates 
and South America as the finest flour made in this country. 
They grind winter wheat exclusively, of which they use six 



thousand bushels daily, and the demand for their flour is so 
large that the mills are kept running night and day, and no 
accumulation of stock appears possible. The mill was built 
with a capacity for forty run of stone, but only one half that 
number have been put in use, though the proprietors are now 
arrano-ino- to add the other twenty stone, which, when done, 
will make the Yaeger Mills the largest in America. 

The Yae<rer Mills is the Phoenix which arose from the 
ashes of the Anchor Mills, that were totally destroyed on the 
nio-ht of May 27, 1876. Henry C. Yaeger and John Crangle, 
the principal proprietors of the old and popular Anchor 


Millg, with an indomitable energy characteristic of the men, 
set at work almost before the smoke ceased ascending from 
the ruins of their accumulations, planning the construction of 
a new and larger mill. The Yaeger Mills are the con- 
summation of those plans, and a monument worthy of their 
industry, credit and ability as millers and citizens. The 
remorseless dragon of misfortune which followed them 
through two conflagrations, has now, it is earnestly hoped by 
every St. Louisan, spent its force, and that the prosperity 
they and their associates deserve will bring the full fruition of 
their hopes. 


BECKTOLD & CO. — Geneual Book Manufacturers. 

This establishment, at No. 215 Pine Street, is the leading 
"book manufacturing house in the West, and has unexcelled 
facilities for executing promptly, and in the latest styles, all 
kinds of binding. The rooms are fitted up ^vith a complete 
series of new and elegant machinery of the most modern and 
improved kind, at a very heavy expense. All work is done 
under their own supervision, hence they can not fail to give 
satisfaction. This firm has obtained a very high reputation for 
the excellent manner in which all work is done at their estal)- 
lishment. They pay special attention to publication work in 
bindings of every description, viz. : They bind editions in 
cloth, sheep, calf, or morocco, as parties may desire ; and 
w^here parties at a distance prefer to do their own binding, 
they can supply them with cloth or leather covers. In this 
branch they carry a large assortment of designs, ornaments, 
and letterings, and their stock of materials in all lines is 
second to no other house in the country. They also pay 
special attention to jobbing and repairing in every branch in 
their line. 

They are prepared to do all kinds of edge gilding either 
by job or edition. They often stamp cases only. In this de- 
partment they aim to fill a want long felt by the trade, and by 
giving it their personal attention their patrons receive the best 
work, at a rate they could not possibly do as cheap if executed 
by themselves — in this they expect to merit their patronage. 
All their machinery is driven by steam-power, and is the latest 
and best, especially adapted for turning out the finest work. 
Having plenty of room, and facilities for handling any amount 
of work which may be offered, they invite all who arc inter- 
ested to inspect their establishment and satisfy themselves. 

The thorough and entire reliability to be placed on all work 
done, and the high character of this firm for ability and hon- 
orable dealing assure to this establishment a long continuance 
of its well-merited prosperity. 


E. F. ADAMS — Photographer. 

Among the great discoveries of the nineteenth century was 
that of Daguerre, whose ingenious mind gave us the photo- 
oraph. Like all the most important inventions, his was at 
iirst crude, but pregnant with great possibilities, which have 
since been realized, and now photography is one of the inval- 
uable adjuncts to our high civilization. There are still empirics 
in the trade, however, whose imperfect samples stand in bold 
contrast with the work of our successful operators, only to 
admonish the public of the importance of patronizing those 
whose long service and reputation are a sure guaranty of 

The representative photographer of St. Louis, who has 
attained to the highest excellence in his beautiful art, is un- 
doubtedly R. F. Adams, whose gallery is at Ko. 215 North 
Fourth Street. Mr. Adams established his first gallery in St. 
Louis as early as 1862, locating in the second floor of the 
building situated on the southeast corner of Fourth and 
Chestnut streets. He remained there, receiving a large pat- 
ronage, until 1865, when he removed to his present quarters, 
where he has conducted the business uninterruptedly and suc- 
cessfully ever since. 

Mr. Adams has proven himself not only thorough in the 
mechanical operations of the trade, but has been progressive 
in the development of the art. His specialties are in ferreo- 
typing, plain and colored photograjjhs, and copying and en- 
larging for the trade. His gallery presents in its arrange- 
ment and instruments the completeness of a truly representa- 
tive, first-class establishment, and the beautiful specimens of 
his superior art attest the degree of proficiency he has acquired 
in the long years he has so patiently and perseveringly devoted 
to the business. 

Mr. Adams' gallery is not only popular with our best citi- 
zens, but the character of his work is such that it has acquired 
a celebrity throughout a large section of country having com- 
mercial relations with St. Louis, and he has an extensive 
patronage from a district lying within a radius of one hundred 
miles of our city. 



The cattractive features of the great State of Texas, its 
fertility of soil, salubrious climate, beautiful prairies, and 
illimitable resources, seemed to have been hidden under the 
cloud of an imperfect civilization until within the past few 
years. The people of that empire had raised a lone star 
in emblem of its isolation ; and the stories of untrammeled 
barbarism, disregard of law and jeopardy of life, placed a 
ban upon her settlement, and left her millions of beautiful 
acres barren and desolate. How changed the scene now ! One 
of the most important steps taken to place Texas in the front 
rank of States, was the organization, under the laws of 
Missouri, of the Texas Land and Immigration (Company, 
which directly thereafter received the indorsement of the State 
of Texas, by a special act of the Legislature. The officers 
and directors of this most reputable and solid corporation 
include some of the best men in the State, as follows : Ex- 
Governor B. Gratz Brown, Sam. M. Dodd, A. F. Shapleigh, A. 
A. Mellier, Rodney D. Wells, W. C. Orr, Mayor Honry^Over- 
stolz, James E. Shorb, James Clark, Lee R. Shrj'ock, of this 
city; James H. Price, Jefferson City; Andrew J. Dorn, 
Treasurer, of Texas ; W. W. Long, Grand Master of the 
Texas State Grange ; and F. H. Woodworth, Secretary, of 
St. Louis. 

These names stand at the very summit m commercial 
circles and are a guarantee that the company is worthy the 
most implicit confidence of the public. Through their efforts 
the tide of immigration to the West has been turned, in a large 
measure, to Texas ; and thousands of heretofore untilled lands 
are now yielding their abundant harvests to the new, but in- 
dustrious settler. 

The company own and control over three million acres of 
fine lands in the State, which, having been bought cheap, thoy 
ofi*er to immigrants at low prices and on the most liberal terms. 
They have a co-operative agent in every county in the State, 
so that those contemplating settling in the great empire of the 
Southwest, can, upon application to Mr. Woodworth, receive 
the fullest information in regard to climate, fertility of the 


soil, price of lands, best time for occupation, etc., without 

It is importiint to immigrants in buying lands, that they deal 
with a reliable party or corporation. This fact was made 
patent by recent disclosures in the traffic of forged land 
warrants. The Texas Land and Immigration Company is 
thoroughly relia])le, and has greater facilities for pleasing 
buyers than any other parties can possibly offer, hence it is to 
the interest of bu^^ers to deal directly with this company. 


One of the most interesting institutions of St. Louis, was 
organized in 1873 by T. E. Lonergan, late a chief operative in 
the United States Secret Service, and well known for the un- 
varied success with which he bagged koniackers and first-class 
thieves, and G. H. Thiel, formerly of the legal departments 
of the Kansas Pacific and Wabash railroads, whose services in 
investigating frauds upon railroad and other corporations had 
given him an enviable reputation in the Northwest and West. 
Like all other things, the establishment at first met with tardy 
appreciation in St. Louis, but in time its work was felt on all 
the roads leading out of this city, while the course of many 
important criminal cases had been materially shaped by its 
persistent tracking up of missing links in testimony ; until the 
enterprise became an assured success to its founders, as 
well as an additional source of security to railroad corporations 
and the general commercial community. Such an institution, 
when once it has fairly earned a reputation for careful, thorough 
work among its operatives, and for integrity and skill on the 
part of its managers, has, unfortunately for the country, no 
trouble in keeping its whole force constantly employed ; a fact 
well illustrated by the circumstance that at present the inves- 
tigations of Lonergan & Thiel' s Secret Service are not con- 
fined to St. Louis or the State of Missouri, but extend into 
nearly all the States and Territories. Some of its lal)ors, in- 
deed, have become matters of national knowledge and social 


history, as witness the suppression of the strike of locomotive 
engineers and firemen on tlie Boston & iMaine Eaih-oad, a feat 
performed by Mr. Lonergan and a corps of special operatives ; 
the discovery of important evidence in the famous Long Point 
tragedy on the Vandalia Railroad ; the quelling of the la))or 
troubles on the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad in 187G, and the 
Von Arnheim sensation of 1874, which furnished news for 
every newspaper throughout the land. Some of the cases 
worked up by this concern have become matters of literature 
even, as, for instance, the famous and thrilling story of O'Con- 
ner alias Duval, who, fleeing from justice in a Western city, 
found an asylum only in the waters of St. John's River, 
Florida. In another direction, numerous changes on railroads 
have followed the testing operations of this agency, of which 
the wholesale change of conductors on the Missouri Pacific in 
July, 1876, is, perhaps, the best example. Special investiga- 
tions have at different times been made for insurance corpora- 
tions ; for corporations engaged in all the branches of trade ; 
for banks and for express companies. In the last-named 
species of duty, the Western department, under Mr. Thiel, 
has a brilliant record, culminating in the case of the Mt. Ver- 
non (111.) Bank vs. the Adams Exj^ress Company. This was 
a suit to recover the value of a money package containing sev- 
eral thousands of dollars, sent from the Mt. Vernon Bank to 
its depository in St. Louis, which package, on arrival, was 
found to contain only Ijrown paper. In the trial of the cause 
the best legal talent of Illinois took part, but the evidence ob- 
tained through the operatives of this service was so direct, so 
conclusive, and so well stood the attack of severe cross-exam- 
ination by counsel, and the counter-evidence of rival opera- 
tives, that under the court's instruction, the jury found a 
unanimous verdict for the defendant. In a case that occurred 
in our Criminal Court, so direct and so overpowering and ir- 
refragable was the testimony of the representatives of this 
establishment, that no counsel could be induced to try the 
case on its merits, and after some seven continuances, includ- 
injr one forfeiture of bond, the defendant obtained a 
cessation of legal proceedings only by virtue of default in 
jDleading on the part of the State's officers. To sum up, tiie 


Lonergan & Thiel Secret Service possesses the following in- 
valuable characteristics : two heads of statf — one at New York 
and one at St. Louis — that by reason of long, varied and ardu- 
ous experience, possess abundantly all the peculiar experience 
required for their delicate work ; a record for successful duty 
and personal integrity surpassed by no similar institution in 
the world ; a large corps of well-trained, skillful, reliable 
operatives ; all the necessary business facilities, in the shape of 
large capital, abundant financial resources, and the finest set 
of offices for this or any other business in the West. Such a 
combination of primary requisites, iu proper hands, can not 
fail to continue for its possessors the prestige of the past years, 
and parties desiring any difficult or delicate investigation con- 
ducted with secrecy and dispatch can not do better than con- 
sult Lonergan & Thiel, whose Western headquarters are on 
the southwest corner of Seventh aud Olive streets, St. Louis, 
in charge of Mr. G. H. Thiel, and Eastern center at 82 and 84 
Nassau Street, New York, under personal watch of the veteran 


This company, with its home office at Hartford, Conn., is a 
general Accident Insurance Company, granting policies of in- 
surance against death, or wholly disabling injury by accident, to 
men of all trades and occupations, at rates within the reach of all. 

A general accident policy provides a fixed sum, from $1,000 
to $10,000, in case of a fatal accident, or a w^eekly indemnity 
for loss of time, from $5.00 to $50.00 per week in case of total 
disability by accident, not exceeding twenty-six weeks for any 
one injury. For a merchant, banker or professional man, a 
policy insuring $5,000 in case of fatal accident, or $25.00 a week 
for wholly disabling injury, costs but $25.00 per year. Cost of 
policies are governed by the risks attending the occupation en- 
gaged in. The ability of this company to make good its losses 
is attested by their assets of undoubted character, w^hich reach 
over $4,000,000. H. W. Power is State Agent, corner Sixth 
and Locust streets. 



The importance of a pure fuel in the manufacture of iron 
is so evident a fact that we need not discuss it. The iron in- 
dustries are among the most important of all the manufactur- 
ing interests of St. Louis, and hence the value of a pure and 
reliable fuel for the furnaces and foundries of the city. The 
failures resulting from attempts to use the sulj)hurous and 
impure coal taken from mines in the vicinity of the city, cre- 
ated an opinion amounting to a conviction in the minds of 
many that the Western States afforded no good coal for mak- 
ing coke. This opinion became so firmly fixed that even de- 
monstration has not entirely removed it. 

Some men, who afterwards become celebrated as benefac- 
tors of their kind, pass along the even tenor of their ways for 
years before their beneficence and work are properly under- 
stood and appreciated. So it has been in the case of Mr. 
Andrew C. Bryden, the explorer and proprietor, who first de- 
veloped the celebrated mines of the Carbondale Coal and Coke 
Company, at Cartersville, Williamson County, Illinois. 

It required no little nerve to undertake the work which 
has been so successfully carried forward by Mr. Bryden and 
his associates. But the success achieved has demonstrated 
the fact that within a convenient distance from St. Louis 
there is a splendid deposit of as good fuel, coking and gas 
coal as exists under the hills of Western Pennsylvania. The 
field embraces something like two thousand acres of land, 
and this is all owned and subject to the control of the Carbon- 
dale Coal and Coke Company. 

As to the quality of the coal for common furnace and 
steam-making purposes, there is abundant demonstrations 
that it is not excelled by any bituminous coals mined in this 
country, if any where. 

That it is an excellent coking coal is no longer a theory, 
but an established fact, which can not be overthrown. Analy- 
ses show this coal to be remarkably free from the presence of 
sulphur and other injurious substances. The use of coke 
made from this coal in the Grand Tower furnaces proved it 
equal to any that could be obtained in this country. 


The coal from these mines has been analyzed by Profess- 
ors Potter and Riggs of Washington University, to test its gas- 
producing capability These gentlemen say: "It is evi- 
dent that the Bryden coal is superior to any other coal from 
Illinois or Missouri for the manufacture of illuminating gas, in 
regard to the amount of gas and sulphur in the gas, and also 
'quality and quantity of coke produced." Professor Ware, in 
his report, says : "It has no contemporary, nor is there any 
exposure of coal in the Middle Valley of the Mississippi that 
compares with it." 

But it is the great purity and excellent coking qualities of 
the coal which places the Bryden coal, from the mines of the 
Carbondale Coal and Coke Company, before any other coal 
from the region adjacent to St. Louis. It is estimated that 
the property of the company contains the enormous amount 
of 17,500,000 tons of this excellent fuel. 

Extensive coke works have already been erected at the 
mines, and have for sometime been yielding a large amount of 
coke, which finds a market in this city, in Arkansas, in Texas, 
Kansas, and Indiana. The quality of the coal, and accessibil- 
ity of these mines and Avorks together, will ere long compel 
all other cokes to be withdrawn from this market. The direc- 
tory of the company are Messrs. Samuel M. Dodd, Edwin 
Harrison, Sylvester H. Lafiin, John B. Maude, James G. 
Brown, and Andrew C. Bryden, President. The coal field — 
which is the highest of all the coal measures of the West — was 
explored by Mr. Andrew C. Bryden, who has given the closest 
and most thoughtful attention to the work of developing one 
of the most valuable mining properties in the West. The 
prosperity of the company has been steady and satisfactory. 
The demand for the products of their mines and coke ovens 
continues to increase with eveiy day. It speaks well for 
the president of the company, well for his practical mind 
and business ability, when a corporation with only a limited 
working capital invested has grown in a few years to be one 
of the most important, and financially one of the soundest, 
corporations in the West. It is safe to predict that in a time 
not distant in the future, this company will exert a controling 
influence on the markets of the West. 




Located on the southeast corner of Fourth and Pine streets, 
is one of the oldest printing establishments in the city. 
Its earliest beginnings run l)ack to the time when McKee & 
Fishbaek made their job office an appendix to the Missouri 
Democrat. Since then it has occasionally changed owner- 
ship. In December, 1877, it was incorporated under its 
present title, and the facilities increased to their present ex- 
tensive proportions. 

The company employ some sixty men, who are known to 
be experts in their busi- 
ness. Indeed, none other 
than first-class hands are 
retained in their employ. 
The business of the com- 
pany is to turn out the 
best of workmanship in 
every branch of printing. 
Its immense facilities en- 
able it to meet the wants 
of its patrons in commer- 
cial, legal, or railroad 
printing, in every case 
where rapidity in execu- 
tion is essential, and in 
this feature it is not excelled by any establishment in the 
West. College and business catalogues, with every variety of 
the incidental printing required in conducting any successful 
business, receive special attention, and in theatrical and 
mammoth shov,^ printing it has no rival in St. Louis. Book 
binding in all its branches promptly and satisfactorily exe- 
cuted. In short, the company is prepared to execute 
orders, to any extent, for anything in the line of newspaper, 
book and job printing. The patrons of this establishment are 
not entirely within the limits of St. Louis, or its immediate 
vicinity, but extend through all the States and Territories of 
the great Southwest. 

Orders by mail comprise a large 


portion of their business, and are executed with taste and 

Bradford Allen, Secretary and Treasurer, is the son of 
Hon. Thomas Allen, and is a young business man of energy 
and perseverance, and skillfully manages the finances, with 
scrupulous care for the interest of all concerned. 

Frank Swick, Superintendent, conducts the practical 
workings of the company. Thirty years of practical experience 
in every branch of the business, eminently fits him for his 
position. He is known here to our business men as an adept 
in printing. His taste, judgment and agreeable manners ren- 
der him a pleasant official, whose influence for the company 
cannot but tend to the promotion of its business. 

A. P. Barnes, the efficient foreman, is well fitted by his 
large experience as a practical printer for the important posi- 
tion he holds. 

J. STOKES. — Elegant Millinery. 

This establishment, located at No. 405 North Fourth 
Street, has made a handsome record for steady and healthy 
growth. Mr. Stokes has not been behind any of his competi- 
tors for the freshness of styles in this line. His stock is ample 
for the supply of a large jobbing trade he has gradually worked 
up from small beginnings, to say nothing of the infinite variety 
he constantly keeps to meet the wants of a very select retail 

The activity of his business, his thorough knowledge of 
what is wanted, and his determination to keep his stock con- 
stantly replenished, has given the establishment a large place 
in public esteem. Bridal outfits are a specialty and may be 
procured here as elaborately as in New York or Paris. 


A reference to Hot Springs, Arkansas, in this work mio-ht, 
at the first conclusion, appear inappropriate and out of place, 
but upon second thought its relevancy will be plainly indiokted. 
By rail Hot Springs is about four hundred miles from St. 
Louis, but the fact that this great invalid resort can only be 
reached from the North, comfortably and expeditiously, by 
way of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, eminently a 
St. Louis railroad, the Springs at once become a well defined 
adjunct to our city. In addition to this rail connection, the 
inhabitants rely exclusively upon St. Louis for everything they 
«at and wear, and in the matter of distillations, everythino- 
they drink, making the dependency so complete that Hot 
Springs may well be denominated a sympathetic suburb of our 
city, or a St. Louis child by adoption. So many of our citi- 
zens are found at the Springs during all seasons of the year, 
that every St. Louisan upon striking the place feels that he has 
only left the brick and granite of the city for the country resi- 
dences of his neighbors and acquaintances. 

Hot Springs city is peculiar in more respects than one ; it 
is situated in the most rugged glen of the Ozark range, way 
down the gorge, hemmed in by bold promontories and jagged 
ledges of tufa rock upon which, strange to say, grow a luxu- 
riant forest. But it nestles in the narrow valley like a bird in 
incubation, and dozes under the soothing lullaby of the purling 
brooklet which laves its principal street, and in the lazy sum- 
mer time is as sleepy and inactive as the old village of Bruges. 
The route hence to the Springs is one affording the keenest 
enjoyment, as the trip over the Iron Mountain Kail way carries 
the passenger through some of the wildest scenery on the con- 
tinent, crossing the Arkansas, White, Black and Ouachita rivers, 




and plunging into depths where the vegetation in the summer 
time is so rank and dense as to ahnost shut out the noon-day 
light and make the scene one of awsome grandeur. But the 

scene varies 
into pleasing 
tions, as the 
road leaps 
from valley to 
hill-top, from 
side to the 
vale which 
spreads out in 
p an Oram a, 
and then 
fades into 
sombre shad- 
ows as the 
forest depths 

HOT SPRINGS CKEEK— Running Throusjli the Town. ^ ao^ain 

penetrated. On the following morning out from St. Louis the 
train reaches Malvern, a little village which forms a junction 
with Diamond Joe's Narrow Gauge Railroad, twenty-two miles 
in length, being the distance from Malvern to Hot Springs. 
This road is well equipped and runs through a section of coun- 
try well adapted for raising seed-ticks and chigres, but nothing 
else. There are only two oi-three stopping places on the nar- 
row gauge, but why there are any is a conundrum worthy of 
scientific solution. The primeval condition of the few hillside 
inhabitants, and the backwoods character of the entire sur- 
roundings, only serve to intensify the interest excited by the 
trip, and the passenger seems to experience what he only an- 
ticipates in reading Mark Twain's "Roughing It." 

Upon arriving at the Springs the visitor finds that he has 
at last struck an oasis, for he is immediately besieged by hotel 
drummers, hackmen, and physicians' professional solicitors. 
But the wise man, unless he has other divers and sundry 



reasons therefor, will take the street oar which he finds in wait- 
ing and get up into the city at the modest cost of five cents, 
thereby aceonii)lithing a saving of forty-five cents— quite an 
important item to many whr) visit the Springs under pressing 
circumstances. The acme of civilization, however, is not 
reached until the cemetery is passed — the graveyard is one of 
the first objects to greet the visitor's eyes after leaving tlie 
railroad depot for the accommodations of the city ; then "there 
looms up a 
settlement of 
small frame 
houses, the 
more sub- 
stantial buil- 
dings being 
located in the 
northern pi'/rt 
of the valley, 
the best part 
of the city 
being shown 
in the engrav- 
ing, looking 

The jour- 
ney complet- 
ed, the visitor is confronted by a variety of curiosities which 
claim his attention, and if he is hearty, strong and vigorous, 
the first days' travel over the deposit mountain on the east 
side of town will give him results which strongly appeal to the 
magical waters for relief. 

The first object which attracts attention particularly, 
is a group of gentlemen and ladies under an ornnmcntal 
I)agoda, at the south end of the Arlington Hotel, drinking 
by turn from a long-handled dipper. This is Arsenic Sjiring, 
the waters of which come boiling up from the foot of the 
mountain at a temperature of one hundred and fifty degrees. 
Hot as it is, the water is drank without creating any nausea, 





neither does it burn the mouth. AVhy the term arsenic is 
applied to the spring is not patent, for the water does not 
contain a sinole trace of that mineral. 

up the hill- 
side, over the 
raofo'cd cdircs 

CO o 

stones, the 
visitor, when 
half way up, 
hnds his curi- 
osity, sym- 
pathy, senti- 
m cut a nd 
general char- 
quickened by 
contact with 
The reader is 

here in need of light, for those who are unacquainted with 
Hot Springs have not the remotest conception of what the 
word"Ral" means. The following explanation is therefore 
not only pertinent, but important, and indeed necessary. For 
several j^ears it was the custom of those who visited the 
Springs for the purpose of obtaining relief from nameless 
chronic diseases to designate their ill as neuralgia. On one 
occasion, while a gentleman was bathing in the "Hole," ho 
was asked by a neighbor the nature of his disease. The reply 
was as usual, neuralgia, to which the interlocutor responded 
in a tone significant of supreme disgust: "That's what 
tJiey've all got, but mine has run into 'Old Eal.' " From 
that day the spring has been known as "Old Ral," or gen- 
erally "Ral Hole." It is covered by a little rickety shed, 
about ten feet square ; the spring is eight inches deep and 
nearly fifteen feet in circumference. At all times of the day 
this spot is thronged by the afflicted, some of whom have the 

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most distressing appearance, with nlecrations on the face and 
limbs, which ahnost sicken a well person. But they are all 
recovering, and the evidences of marvelous cures cumulate so 
rapidly that the visitor is forced to say : "Verily, the good 
an2;el hath troubled the waters that the hcalino; miracles may 

The water, nearly all of which is of the same temperature 
and quantitative analj^sis, is bubl)ling up from numerous places 
on the hillsides, but at every spot there is some arrangement 
for drawing it off and conveying it to places desired, generally 
into the several" bathing establishments of the city. 

Two hun- 
dred yards 
south of "Ral 
Hole" is an- 
other spring 
covered in 
the same 
manner and 
having the 
same charac- 
teristics, it 
being known 
among visi- 
tors as "Mud 
Hole," an- 
other misno- 
mer, for the 
spring is 
.clear and the 

water is possessed of virtues equally potent as "Ral Hole." 
This place from before daylight in the morning until noon is 
reserved for women, hundreds of whom may be found at the 
Sprinn-s during nearly all seasons of the year, bathing daily, 
to rid themselves of loathsome diseases. These two springs 
are patronized almost exclusively by the poor, who reach the 
place by the use of many expedients. Some Avalk from their 
homes, hundreds of miles distant ; others come in little carts, 
while yet others steal rides on the railroad and beg the necessary 





victuals on 
the way. Up- 
on their arri- 
val they man- 
age in some 
way to keep 
the breath in 
their bodies 
while they 
undergo a 
months treat- 
ment of bath- 
The top of the 
hill, or moun- 
tain as it is 
called, is of- 
tentimes capped with the bivouac of diseased and inn^)ecuni- 
ous strangers who spend the time of their stay as pleasantly 
as tent life can bo made. 

The weal- 
thy patients 
who visit Hot 
Springs take 
their baths 
either in the 
hotels or at 
the popular 
bathing es- 
known as the 
Big Iron Bath 
House, a tiu- 
ly magnifi- 
cent institu- 
tion, with the 
most com- 
prehensive 2'IIE BIG IKON SFlilNG.— Site of Big Iron Bath-House. 



arrangement for giving baths in the most comfortable and 
effective manner. It is built over the Big Iron Spring, the 
largest and most powerful in the valley. 

In Hot Springs and vicinity there arc fifty-seven springs, 
or, more proi)crly speaking, that number of places where the 
•water issues from the surface, as the identity of the several 
springs give good grounds for the belief that they all have their 
origin in one great basin of mineral water which is divided by 
the interposition of stones or the petrified deposits. The tem- 
perature ranges from ninety to one hundred and fifty-three 
degrees, the cause 
of which is attrib- 
uted to the dis- 
tance and depth 
the water flows be- 
fore reaching the 
s u r f a c e . T h e 
amount of water 
discharged daily is 
estimated at five 
hundred thousand 
gallons, quite 
enough for the 
w'ants of all the 
invalids in Amer- 

One of the cu- 
riosities which at- 
tracts many visi- 
tors and creates no little wonder, is the celebrated hot and 
cold springs. The waters of these two basins are separated 
by a partition of earth only two feet broad, and yet the tem- 
perature of one is one hundred and h'fty while that of the 
other is only thirty degrees. One will boil an egg in a few 
minutes while from the other nice cool drinking water is ol)- 

These marvellous springs are not confined to Hot Springs, 
but to a district of country twelve miles square. Hot Si)ring3 
being the eastern limit and the Mountain Valley Spring the 





limit on the 
north. The 
Springs three 
miles from 
Hot Sprmgs^ 
have become 
quite noted, 
and as they 
are readily 
many per- 
sons visit 
tlicm during 
the s p ring 
and fall sea- 

The Sul- 
phur Springs, eight miles from the city, are also fast gaining 
popularity. They are reached by a well-made road, and all 
the accommodations for the comfort of visitors are provided. 
A hotel has 
been recently 
built at the 
Springs, and 
to run a 'bus 
line between 
Hot Springs 
and that 

The cura- 
tive virtues of 
the great 
thermal wa- 
ters of the 
Hot Springs 
valley cannot suli'huk spiungs. 



be exaggerated. There can be neither questioning nor clonl)t 
concerning their etficacy in eradicating a majority of the dis- 
eases peculiar to this country. Tlie climate is most salubrious, 
and the surroundings, from their primeval appearance, exert 
a most wholesome and invigorating effect upon patients. The 
diseases for the cure of Avhich the Springs are specially recom- 
mended are rheumatism, catarrh, scrofula, the Avorst cases of 
syphilis, gout, paralysis, female troubles, including sterility, 
gravel, ulceration, asthma, neuralgia, and all cutaneous dis- 
eases. Ill f\ict, nearly every ill except that arising from dis- 
eased lungs. In addition to curing these ailments, tlie Springs 
are marvelously efficacious in purging the system of alcohol 
and opium, and destroying the most craving appetite for these 
curses. Bathing in the springs will also restore the bloom of 
youth to the cheeks of the aged, and thousands of ladies visit 
the place only to regain their maiden freshness. 

Hot Springs is famous for its hotel accommodations, and 
while there 
are no public 
e n t e 1" t a i n - 
ments in the 
city there are 
almost night- 
ly at the Ar- 
lington and 
Grand Cen- 
tral. Xot- 
the fact that 
Hot Springs, 
and, indeed, 
Garland Co., 
is in the midst 


rugged and stony country, yet there is a large trade in cotton 
and groceries, and sales are made by Hot Springs merchants 
to country dealers as far away as Indian Territory. 


M. C. O' Bryan is the largest merchant in the phice, and his 
country business is enormous. He carries a general country 
store stock, which nicludes everything, and also deals largely 
in cotton. Mike, as he is familiarly called, is popular among 
all classes in that section, and in addition to a good stock of 
popularity, he is rich. 

Thirty miles distant from Hot Springs is Crystal Moun- 
tain, where are found the most beautiful and perfect crj'stali- 
zations on the continent. Thousands of these beautiful speci- 
mens arc constantly exposed for sale in Hot Springs, also 
agates, porphyries, and Hot Springs diamonds. J. M. Blake, 
a skillful jeweler and lapidarian, has devoted much of his at- 
tention to cutting these exquisite gems, in which he h:is de- 
veloped a coilsiderable trade. He works the stones into hand- 
some jewelry, which are not only valuable souvenirs for 
visitors, but are very unique and beautiful ornaments. 

The litigation Avith the Government over the grounds on 
which Hot Springs is located, has been productive of great 
evil to the city, preventing the construction of substantial 
buildings, and leaving those who are doing business in the 
place in an unsettled and treacherous condition. The inhabi- 
tants, however, are hospitable and enterprising, and with a 
settlement of their land troubles will soon build up Hot 
Springs and make of her the largest city in the Southwest, in 
keeping with the virtue of her thermal waters, which are the 
most efficacious found on either hemisphere. 



\Yhile Hot Springs is only a town in point of population, 
it possesses many metropolitan characteristics, and, indeed, 
distinguished attributes, chief among which is the grand, 
sumptuous Arlington Hotel, the largest and finest home 
de resort in the State of Arkansas. But this qualification of 
its excellence is only comparative, and a proper idea r)f its 
comforts and elegance can only be obtained by a description 
or personal inspection. 

The Arlington was completed and opened for the reception 
of guests on the first of April, 1875, by Messrs. S. H. Stitt 
& Co., at a cost of eighty thousand dollars. The building- 
is three stories in height, with a frontage of one hundred 
and ninety feet. It has two wings, one of which is one 
hundred and eighty and the other one hundred feet in 
length, with a grand court between ; the entire area occupied 
is twenty-six thousand six hundred square feet. There are 
wide, graceful porches extending along the first and second 
front floors, on which guests can enjoy the cool breezes which 
sweep down the valleys and play soothing lullabys with the 
rich foliage of the large trees which canopy the hotel. The 
wings run back to the brink of the precipitous hill in the rear, 
rendering escape from the three floors of the house, in case of 
fire, as easy as from a basement. The hallways are all broad, 
and the ventilation made with special regard to comfort, 
allowing a free draft of air through every room. The liouse 
is supplied with an electric annunciator, which communicates 
with all the rooms, and has gas of its own manufacture 
throughout the house. The east wing of the hotel is built 
over a large spring, which supplies the bathing department t)f 
the house with the most potent of the curative waters which 
make Hot Springs the famous resort that it is, and every 
needful auxiliary is provided for giving the douche, tub and 
vapor baths in the most comfortable and effective maimer. 
The table d'hote can not be excelled, and the house under t \\v able 
management of Messrs. Stitt & Co. is fast becoming, Mith the 
sprinijs, the aristocratic resort of America. The accommoda- 
tion for invalids is of the most complete character, there l)eing 



added to the luxurious comforts of Iho house a cheerful and 
cxhilaratins: tone M'hich makes the suflerer fori^ct his ills in 
the enjoyment of the beauty and (^uiet grace of his surround- 


The visitor to 
Hot Springs, af- 
ter passing thro' 
so much of a 
country thinly 
settled, and see- 

'^'l/r ^'^^ ^^^^ v\n\o, pro- 
visions of a pio- 
neer existence, in 
stopping at the 
Grand Central 
feels like the 
jaded traveler of a desert, who suddenly comes -upon an oasis 
rich with enjoyable auxiliaries of a perfect" civilization. The 
name of the house strikes him as being singularly appropriate, 
for it is grand in its exterior ornamentation and central in its 
location to the health-imparting waters of the springs. The 
hotel is fifty feet in width, two stories in height,- and two 
hmidred and sixty feet in length. 

True to the Southern instincts of positive comfort, the 
house has porches on each floor, which extend along the end 
and side of the building, and afford a cool and beautiful re- 
treat from the sunnner sun, and a grand promenade for its 
numerous guests. 

The Grand Central has fifty-tAvo elegant rooms, A\ith ac- 
commodations for one hundred guests, and is supplied with 
twelve commodious bath-tubs, built immediately aliove a 
spring, the water of which, impregnated with iron and magne- 
sia, are among the most healthful and curative in the valley. 
The house was built in 1874, and combines every modern im- 
provement found in the iinest caravansaries of the East, in- 
cluding electric bells, gas, bath-room, barber shop, reading- 



room, bar, etc. ; being so complete that the invalid need never 
2:0 out of the house for either recreation or any of the com- 
forts requisite or peculiar to American taste. 

Mr. D. Ballentinc, the proprietor, is a gentleman of such 
a truly hospitable disposition as to esi^ecially adapt him to the 
hotel business, and his popularity with his guests has become 
proverbial in the valley. John R. Buchanan, the chief clerk, 
is well known and of such agreeable manners as to win for him 
a miost deserved, kindly recognition from all who visit the 

The dining-room of the Grand Central is one of the best- 
appointed in the State, being large and airy, Avhile the tables 
are provisioned Avith the most elegant products of epicurean 
excellence, and ever}^ attention, comporting with prime com- 
fort and pleasurable considerations, is paid to guests. The 
house is in every respect strictly first-class, and its patronage 
includes the best and wealthiest peonle of America. 

wavp:rly hotel. 

Situated in the 
upper end of the 
Hot Springs Val- 
ley, at an elevation 
above the sluggish 
malarial poisons, 
which prevail in 
the lower portion 
of the town, is the 
Waverly Hotel, one 
of the most com- 
fortable and truly 
home -like houses 
in the State. The Waverly was built by G. A. Menninger, 
Esq., in 1872, and leased to L. D. Cain directly after the 
fire, which destro^^ed a large portion of the town in March 
of the present year. Mr. Cain is a representative hotel gen- 
tleman, and has made the Waverly one of the first hotels in 
the valley, having furnished it sumptuously and conducted it 


in such manner as to popularize both the house and himself 
with the public. 

The Waverl}^ as will be seen by the accompanying illus- 
tration, is a beautiful building, nestled under the protecting 
shades of line trees ; having broad verandahs, which are made 
cool by the never-ceasing winds which play about the house. 
There is a large yard on the south for croquet playing, in the 
center of which is a handsome fountain sporting the curative 
waters in tireless flow. The hotel has accommodations for 
sixty people ; is supplied with all the modern improvements, 
and the street cars pass its doors to and from the depot. A 
magniiicent bath-house, the largest in the valley, with twenty 
tubs, has just been completed, in connection with the house, 
and everjiihing needful for the proper attention to invalids is 
provided. The rates are very low, being $3 per day for tran- 
sient, and from $12.50 to $17.50 per week for regular guests, 
while the accommodations offered are not exceeded by any 
hotel in Hot Springs. 


Nearly nineteen hundred years ago, Bethcsda's Pool and 
*♦ Siloam's Brook, which flowed fast by the oracle of God," 
upon whose banks lingered the foot-prints of angels, and 
above which theoraculous aurealus shone to guide the diseased 
to the magical waters for purification and cure, were exciting 
the oriental world and spreading the fame of a new gospel 

But even unto this day the savory virtues of those histori- 
cal Avaters are as potent as when Jesus came hy the famous 
pool and healed those who had been waiting so long for the 
troubling of the stream. Yet the cures they performed exist 
now only in Biblical tradition, which grows stronger as the 
date of miracles becomes more remote. To tell a stranger 
that the Hot Springs of Arkansas are daily accomplishing 
cures as remarkable as those performed by bathing in Bethesda 
nineteen centuries ago, is to write the relator down a Mun- 
chausen, in Avhom the spirit of truth never found a foothold, 
and to chronicle the facts is at the risk of profaning history. 


Such is the difference between facts as they exist and tradi- 
tions built upon the fabric of a pk'asiii<j: imagery. 

If the evidences were not as numerous as the trees of tlie 
forests and as impregnable as the roots which bind the strong- 
est oak, it would be useless to speak the truth concerning the 
marvelous cures wrought by the hot springs, and to detail the 
inestimable blessings of the water when applied to invalids as 
a bath in the one great establishment of the valley, the Big 
Iron Bath-house. This most meritorious institution is one 
of the recent acquisitions to the Springs, and one, the impor- 
tance of which can not be overestimated, not to Hot Springs, 
but to the world, in every clime where disease, like an insidious 
enemy, insinuates its impairing and destructive influence to 
wreck and destroy life. 

All the waters of the celebrated Hot Springs possess val- 
uable curative properties, but, like any medicine, requires 
proper administration. An exposure soon assimilates and 
destroys the medicinal virtues of the water, and while it is 
important to use it fresh, just as it gushes from out the rock- 
ribbed mountain, steaming in its escape from nature's labora- 
tory, and eager for immediate application, it is also important 
to know how to administer the bath. Many persons, in years 
gone by, have visited the Springs without beneiicial results, 
and have thereafter believed the stories concerning the reme- 
dial agency of the water as only skillfully devised fables ; but 
in every instance of this character the result has been duo 
entirely to the manner in which the baths were taken. The 
lack of proper facilities Avas a serious drawback to the Springs, 
hut happily for America, the lack no longer exists, since the 
erection of the Big Iron Bath-house fully supplies every need 
for invalids. The structure is built immediately over the Big 
Iron Spring, the finest stream in the valley, possessing min- 
eral qualities far superior to that of any other of the numer- 
ous springs. Its equipment comports with the character of 
the water, the building being of iron and finished in the most 
elaborate and expensive manner. It is provided with forty 
tubs, including sizes ranging in capacity from the small indi- 
vidual to the largest burgomaster that ever brewed ale. 
These tubs are supplied with the water that comes boiling up 


from beneath them, and are fitted into single apartments with 
all the needful auxiliaries for the most comfortable bath. 
Each tub has its concomitant of an electric bell for calling 
servants, mirrors, Brussels carpets, etc., and the building is 
divided into compartments, one for gentlemen and the other 
exclusively for ladies, so that there is never any interruption, 
and each class can bathe during any hour of the day. In all 
the other bathing establishments of Hot Springs, iu addition 
to the cost of the bath, the servants have to be feed, which 
entails an extra cost very like a ride through a "Backsheesh" 
settlement. But at the Big Iron Bath-house the price of a 
bath ticket includes every item of expense and every attention 
that can possibly be given, and the servants here are much 
better experienced than those who manipulate the patrons of 
the other bathing houses. 

As to the exact chemical analysis of the water used by the 
representative institution of the Springs, little can be said, 
except that it is largely impregnated with iron and magnesia, 
as is seen by the deposit it leaves ; that it comes out of the 
Tufa rock mountain, at a uniform temperature of one hundred 
and fifty-seven degrees Fahrenheit, and that it positively cures 
every character of disease, save possibly those aflfecting the 
lungs. The proprietors of the Big Iron Bath-house are D. 
B. Elliott, formerly of Paris, Illinois, Maj. Wm. H. Nelson, 
of Des Moines, a retired army officer, and Capt. George M. 
French, of Little Rock, all of whom are thorough gentlemen, 
of the most fascinating address, and their enterprise deserves 
the popular and aristocratic patronage it receives. 


St. Louis has been boastful of her beauties and charms 
that make her in reality an attractive residence city. With 
characteristic modesty she has pushed herself into importance 
by a quiet industry, felt far and near, as evinced by the uni- 
versal applause she has won as a city of solid wealth and 
healthy enlargement. Since the war, new impulses have 
manifested themselves. The mao;nificent steel bridire snanninir 


the Mississippi, as a great highway, has been perfected, to the 
admiration of the world. The tunnel linked to it gives j)assage 
to volumes of increased traffic, facilitating the commerce of 
the continent as it speeds in every direction. The Union 
Depot, that promotes easy travel and makes the burden of 
going from home and returning a comfort, compared with 
the inconveniences of other days, when clumsy ferries Avere 
in vogue, has been finished. The new Lindell has been 
erected, with numerous other handsome solid structures on 
Washington Avenue, making that avenue beautiful and 
attractive, besides becoming the great commercial center of the 
city. The enterprise of Main Street and Second Street mer- 
chants made a revolution Avhen the great houses of Samuel C. 
Davis & Co., Dodd, Brown & Co., A. A. Mellier, J. II. Wear, 
• Boogher & Co., Semj^le, Birge & Co., and others, resolved to 
make a strike for up-town localities, that not only gave them 
immediate advancement, but adorned that part of the city 
which the old Lindell only began to benefit when it was 
destroyed. The coming of the new Lindell, with the strength 
of a giant youth, has more than exceeded the mission of its 
predecessor. The new Custom-house and Post-office, on 
Olive, Locust, Eighth and Ninth streets, is fast approaching 
completion. The new Merchants' Exchange, on Third, Tine 

J!4 1369] 



and Chestnut, a model of architectural beauty, is a notable 
accession to the beauties of this great city. 

All these improvements have been perfected within the 
past few 3'ears. A tour to the sul)urbs brings to immediate 
notice Tower Grove Park, Forest Park, and O'Fallon Park, 
skirting the city's western limits. Every year develops these 


charming health-spots that lend attractions to a great city. 
When the Boulevards, shaded by beautiful trees and bordered 
by rare plants and flowers, shall intersect all these gardens, 
and give us miles of well-paved drives encircling the whole 
city, St. Louis will justly claim her share of praise among 
the magnificent cities of the Union. Already signs of beauty 



and elegance show themselves, especially in the direction of 
the West End. Residences around Lafayette Park an^. homes 
built of stone found near the city. Plats of green in front, 
relieved by flower-beds, with neat picket fences and with 
ornamental trees along the sidewalks, make them charming 
abodes of comfort. Lafayette Avenue, leading to Comi)ton 
Hill and Grand Avenue, has many beauty-spots, including 
the homes of Mrs. John J. Roe, George L. Joy, Esq., and 
other beautiful spots. Pine, Olive and Chestnut streets, 
beyond Twentieth Street, and indeed all that tract known as 
*' Stoddard Addition," is being rapidly tilled up with elegant 


and tasty residences. This may be counted as one of the 
fashionable parts of the city, not forgetting the beauties of 
Lucas Place, from Fourteenth to Seventeenth streets. While 
the elite and wealthy seek this end of the city, there are 
iidvanta«-es here for those in moderate circumstances. Many 
c;ood rows of buildings have been erected and are for rent on 
moderate terms. The vicissitudes of business life and the 
risks that have attended the employment of cai)ital, have 
driven unemployed capital to a great extent into this class of 
investments. Hence, dwellings of moderate cost have been 



erected in large numbers of late. Cheapness of materials ; 
the number of unemployed mechanics ; the vast improvement 
and impulse given of late to domestic architecture, affords a 
happy combination of elegance, convenience and economy. 
Looking directly north, we have at Jackson Place, on North 
Market, Eleventh and Twelfth streets, a charming little circular 
park, covering a square, to the north of which are some tasty 
homes, including that of J. P. Colby, Esq. 

Farther north is Hyde Park ; beyond that Park Place. 
Both of these localities abound in well-built homes, built for 
rent, ranging from twenty to seventy-five dollars per month, 
with a great number of homes the property of the occupants. 


This delightful home of Hon. E. O. Stanard is located on 
the north side of Lindell Avenue, just west of Grand Avenue, 
is one of the newest residences erected in that part of the city. 
It stands upon a commanding elevation, and is free from the 
smoke and noise of the city. It is built of Warrcnsburg stone, 
with French plate windows and mansard roof, and is hand- 
somely finished inside with hard Avoods that give it a rich 
mterior ; the steps are built of marble. Its elegant propor- 
tions and the exquisite taste displayed in its whole appearance 



make it an attractive and pleasing structure. It is elcixantlv 
furnished and has every modern improvement to make it a 
home worthy of its occupants. Gov. Stanard and his worthy 
wife are lovers of art, and have not failed to gather judiciously 
many gems that adorn very tastefully their pleasant al)ode. 
This beautiful home is pleasantly located on Yandeventcr 
Place and Grand Avenue. It stands high enough to overlook 
the city from the eastern front. Its beautiful lawn always 


looks fresh, and is a grateful sight to all who pass. It is a 
handsome structure, built of Joliet stone, convenient, tasty, and 
has all the ai)pear:uK'e of a magnificent })alntial home. Mr. 
Peck is recognized as one of our most enterprising and worthy 

A drive farther west, beyond the Fair Grounds, opens to 


view some of the most elegant places, adorned with everything 
to make human abodes lovely and attractive ; Cote Brilliante, 
along Kings' Hrghway, Papin Avenue, Magnolia Avenue, 
passes the grounds and villas of Miles Sells, the Scudder 
Brothers, Samuel Cupples, Hon. George H. Rea ; and that of 
Marcus A. Wolff, on Papin Avenue, is noteworty for its 
cosy, home-like air, with ample flower-gardens, and one of 
the most extensive and well cultured private conservatories in 
this section. The skillful hands, taste, and experience of 
Mrs. Wolff have brought to perfection what is more than an 
ordinary attraction to a home. 

Pursuing our ride beyond this region, going due west 
toward Mt. Olive and Creve Coeur Lake, the natural beauties 
of the country break in on your view. Rich, undulating land, 
Avavino; with rich grain ; then a ravine, with its o-urirlinsr stream 

O o ' ' coo 

and overhanging boughs ; then a clump of forest trees ; then 
the gentle sloping hillside, with here and there a fishing lake, 
and dotted all along Mith tidy, home-like villas, that make 
the scene one of continued beauty. 

As in all large cities, the soot and smoke, the din and dust, 
are to be avoided if possible. Homes should be as remote as 
possible from all that continuously reminds us of the slave-toil 
part of life. Where trees and birds and fresh air can be gained, 
there the family and the toiler's life should reap all the good 
attainable. St. Louis is not wanting in facilities for reaching 
the most remote points of her outskirts. Street-car lines in 
every direction bring these distant homes accessible to any 
point. Five cents is the fare allowed to be charged by any 
company. Going north, the Broadway line penetrates to 
Baden, beyond the Bellefontaine Cemetery; then the Benton- 
Bellefontaine line traverses Eleventh Street, and, like the 
Fourteenth Street and Sixteenth Street lines, carries to the 
Fair Grounds. Going west, the Market Street, Olive Street, 
Cass Avenue, and Franklin Avenue lines, carry as far west as 
Grand Avenue, and from this point the Narrow Gauge line 
penetrates for miles west beyond Forest Park toward Mt. Olive. 
To the southward, the Broadway line stretches towards Caron- 
delet ; the Gravois line, on Pine Street, goes beyond the Union 
Depot to Tower Grove Park ; and the Lindell, or Blue 



line, on AVasIiington Avenue, goes beyond Schnaider's Garden 
to Grand Avenue and Chouteau Avenue. 

Beyond all this on the Missouri Paeilic are the suburban 
villages of Webster Groves, Kirkwood, Glencoc and other 
gems that skirt the river ;Meramec. About a half to three- 
quarters of an hour's ride in the aceomniodation train brings 
us to the homes of many of our best citizens, Avho own their 
villas and have here the best of society, with every domestic 
want at hand, markets, stores, schools and churches, Avith nu- 
merous trains and their own conveyances to make the city ac- 


cessible, according to their fancj-. Manj^ of our merchants find 
agreeable localities for homes on the Iron ]Mountain road about 
the vicinity of Carondelet ; others take the St. Louis, Kansas 
City and Northern, going to Jennings, Ferguson, Brotherton 
and St. Charles, while many mount the cars at the Main Street 
Depot and skip to Alton and many other pleasing spots in 

St. Louis can not be excelled as a residence city, consider- 
ing the accessibility to suburban regions, its cheapness of rents, 
the absence of all speculative prices upon its real estate, the 



thorouo-hness of its sewerage arcl other well-ordered sanitary 
measures enforced, the ample supi^ly of wdiolcsome water, the 
healthfulness of its geographical position, the moderate rate of 
taxation, and withal, its good government. 

We might multiply these illustrations of homes, for St. 
Louis abounds, particularly in the western part of the city, in 
these homes that indicate wealth, elegance and good taste. 


Complaint is made frequently of the lime, dust and smoke 
of St. Louis. To any large manufacturing city coal smoke is 
an attendant, and disagreeable, of course. This smoke is from 
the carbon ; sulphur and iodine contained in it is highly favor- 
able to lung and cutaneous diseases. The smoke is also anti- 
miasmatic, and in some degree counteracts miasmatic affec- 
tions that may be in this region. In 1874 our death-rate per 
one thousand was 14.45, being considerably less than in any 
ocher leadinu' American citv. 


Until better times come to reduce municipal del)ts, we 
must bear the pain of dust from our macadamized streets and 
endure the expense of watering carts to allay the nuisance that 
it is. 

The city covers an immense territory. Streets are lonj^ 
and expensive to pave, even with the limestone that underlies 
the city, and that is prepared by convict labor. Patience, and 
discovery of cheaper methods of paving, will, in a short 
time, when taxes can be safely increased to meet the expenses, 
give us the comfort of cleanliness and beauty of well-paved 
streets and avenues equal to those of Paris and other great 
cities of Europe. 

The city authorities are constantly seekini^ liijlit on the 
subject, endeavoring to find that material which will combine 
durability with economy ; and so determined are they that it 
has been resolved not to lay down any more stone in the old 
macadam style upon new streets, but gradually supersede it 
with the Telford pavement, which consists of a top layer of 
gravel over the macadam beds, and any other system that will 
avoid the dust and give us a cleaner city 



When the long, sultry, summer days come, and all fash- 
ionable St. Louis have betaken themselves to far-away sweat- 
boxes, called summer resorts, at Newport, Rye Beach, Long 
Branch, Saratoga, and Niagara, the residue of the people, 
which constitute by far the most numerous, and infinitely the 
most respectable elements of the inhabitants, remain at home, 
and seek recreation and enjoyments in their own way, in the 
suburban groves of the city. 

There is a large class of eminently sensible people, not 
noted, however, as society gentlemen and ladies, who take a 
rational view of life, and seek repose during the long summer 
days beneath the forest trees, on the shores of lovely lakelets 
in the far Northwest or North, or among the sublime moun- 
tain fastnesses of Colorado and Montana. As to the summer 
birds who fly to Newport, Saratoga, Long Branch, and other 
places, they are of small consequence to the country under 
anv circumstances, and it matters little what pleasures come 
to them, or what discomforts and evils fall upon them, for, 
as a general rule, they are persons in whose minds the genius 
of folly revels, in whose pockets the chink of dollars, acquired 
by frufjul, hard-working ancestors, maybe heard. They have 
done nothing for the world, and the world may well let them 
go on the road to forgetf ulness. 

Then, again, there are the art and student classes, who 
seek instruction abroad among the famous seats of culture in 
the Old World. They go to learn. The preservation of 
society depends as much on aesthetics as on ethics, and those 
who seek to develop the taste for art are as much entitled to 
the consideration of the thoughtful as those who seek to im- 
plant the principles of morality in the minds and hearts of the 



people. It is safe to say that a large i)roporti()ii of St. Louis 
people who seek the great cai)itals of Europe during the sum- 
mer arc persons of artistic taste — students, who go abroad for 
the purpose of gaining a more thorough acquaintance with the 
conditions of a'sthetic culture in the ancient scats of arts and 
civilization. These are valuable members of society, and de- 
serve well of the community. Of course, we have another 
class — and we have reason to be thankful that it includes no 
more members — who go abroad, it would seem for the express 
purpose of casting reproach upon their country. These are 
successful stable-boys, who have acquired money by means 
fair or foul, and make themselves ridiculous by parading their 
ignorance in the very shrines of culture and retinement in the 
Old World. Such stable-boys and kitchen-maids, who go 
abroad as representative gentlemen and ladies of our country, 
are unquestionably calculated to lower the xVmerican charac- 
ter in the estimation of all intelligent people, who have no 
means of knowing, save by the samples presented. Fortu- 
nately this class is gradually fading out, and the cultured men, 
who have a better recommendation than the mere possession 
of dollars, are better samples of the American citizen abroad 
than is the rich ex-hod-carrier and his vulgar scullery maid of 
a wife. For this reason the American character is better 
known and appreciated abroad than it otherwise would be. 

Such, in brief, is a statement of the manner in which a 
small minoiity of the citizens of St. Louis numage to dispose 
of their time in the summer months. The rich and the pre- 
tentious go to Saratoga, Newport, Far Rockaway, Long 
Branch, Cape Ma}^ Rye Beach, and Niagara. The wcll-to-do- 
and-sensible go to the lakes of Wisconsin and Minnesota, or 
to the mountains of Colorado and Utah ; or perchance to the 
ancient seats of arts and culture in Europe. These last seek 
rest or knowledge, neither of which can be had at the fashion- 
able resorts first named above. 

But the classes we have described constitute only a moiety 
of the whole vast population of the city, and these are by no 
means the most im[)ortant elements of the city's inhabitants. 
What of the/bwr hundred and seventy-five thounnnd people who 
remain at home through the long, heated days of summer? 


Are they less important than the twenty-five thousand who 
have gone out? We will not discuss the question. 

Many very sensible people remain at home instead of gad- 
ding abroad during the summer time. It is no part of our 
business to recommend St. Louis as a fashionable summer re- 
sort, where strangers will enjoy all the sensuous pleasures of 
Elysium. But from personal experience we know that the 
inhabitant of St. Louis can not go to many places- within the 
limits of the republic, where he could enjoy life in the summer 
season so well as in his own city. But we are not engaged in 
writino; an arsjument in favor of remainino: at home. 

Now, what can the four hundred and seventy-five thousand 
people, who spend the summer in St. Louis, do to live through 
the sweltering heats of the season? Much, very much; and 
we shall proceed to relate some facts of which our ultra-fash- 
ionables are wholly unaware. 

The people who stay at home have all the amusements, 
suited to their intellectual and moral capacities, which the 
others can possibly find at the resorts abroad, and they escape 
many of the annoyances which the conventionalities of social 
life inflict at any other place than home ; hence the summer 
enjoyments of the vast multitudes of those who can not get 
away exceed the pleasures of those who resort to the centers 
of social life of the ultra-fashionable type. 

The question may be asked. How can such a thing be pos- 
sible? The miles of stone-built streets, and red-brick 
walls, are heated only in a less degree than Nebuchadnezzer's 
furnace, and all the city becomes still in the midst of the 
garish light of the August sun. Very true. But the city does 
not occupy the whole space of a continent, or even of a county, 
and outside — beyond where the lines of brick walls cease, and 
where the glaring limestone highways no longer afliict the 
eyes, beneath the raj's of the mid-summer sun, are shaded 
dells, and leafy groves, and mossy banks, and breezy hill- 
slopes, where, 

" On such a time as goes before the leaf, 
"When all the woods stand in a mist of green," 

We may seek that rest, and time and opportunity for con- 
templation, which so pleases the genuine lover of nature — the 


soul that yields naught to the conventional life established by- 
chattering imbeciles and braying fools — can wander 

"In our low world, where yet 'tis sweet to live." 

'Tis only in such situations that men can truly live — can 
rise above the turmoil, the strife, the littlenesses of the throng- 
ing world, and realize that there is something higher, nobler, 
better than a subservient yielding to the demands of the con- 
ventional society one meets. Away off from the crowd we 
begin to appreciate the yearnings of the being of the poet's 
creation — 

"Be mine a philosopher's life, in the quiet woodland ways, 

Where, if I can not be giy, let a passionless peace be my lot. 

Far off from tlie clamor of liars, belled in the hubbub of lies; 

Far from long-neck'd geese of the world that are ever hissing dispraise. 

Because their natures are little, and whether he heed it or not. 

Where each man walks with his head in a cloud of poisonous flies." 

Now, that is just precisely what very many intelligent peo- 
ple of St. Louis, possessed of ample means, do every year. 
They let " the long-neck'd geese "go, and they stay and run 
out into the quiet forest shades. 

The, summer season is the festive time of the majority of 
the inhabitants. And the people of St. Louis are quite cos- 
mopolitan in their habits and manners. They are the children 
of many climes. Here are to be found natives of every conti- 
nent. Of course, the manners and customs of their respective 
countries are still cherished, and are modifying elements in 
the structure of our social life. 

Perhaps the influence of the German immigrants have ex- 
erted the most potent influence ih the formation of our social 
life. Accordingly, we find transferred to the west banks of the 
Mississippi the same social customs and habits which charac- 
terize the inhabitants along the banks of the Rhine, Oder, 
Main and Vistula 

The hetereogeneous elements which go to make up the 
population of St. Louis, in the process of homogenizing, has 
caused a modification of all the social forms to be met with in 
other parts of the country. Though St. Louis may be rc- 
trarded as a city pre-eminently Christian, yet it can not Ix- 
claimed that its inhabitants are pious, in the sense of the word 


as understood in Boston. Indeed, Sabbatarianism never ob- 
tained a strong ascendency in the minds and hearts of the in- 
habitants of St. Lonis. 

Sunday is the great festival day of our people. In the 
summer-time the gardens and parks of the city and the subur- 
ban groves are thronged by immuierablc multitudes, including 
all ages, sexes and nationalities. Music, dancing, ball games, 
and other amusements are indulged in with a zest which shows 
the intensity of the pleasure realized from them by the partici- 
jxints. Sunday mornings the streets and roads leading to the 
principal parks, the suburban gardens, both public and private, 
are thronged by vehicles of every class, conveying whole fami- 
lies out to the umbrageous enclosures for a day's pastime. 
And such enjoyment as these vast throngs manage to extract 
from their retirement for a day, even a few hours, to the 
groves and gardens ! All the glitter and glare, and ])ompou8 
splendors to be seen at the resorts of the fashionable could not 
yield such pleasures as are found by the less pretentious bur- 
gers in their visits to their favorite gardens, parks, or wood- 
land pastures. To them these visits are soul-feasts. 

One of the peculiarities of German customs is that of visit- 
ing places of public resort en familie, that is, the parents 
always insist upon having the companionship of their children. 
It is often the case that a family consisting of husband and wife 
and half a dozen children may be observed seated at a table, 
sipping fresh, foaming beer, and eating pretzels. There is a 
freedom of intercourse, and withal, a refined politeness among 
even the lower classes of the children of the Fatherland, which 
might be imitated by more pretentious people with great ad- 

So the summer days pass away, and the throngs who go to 
the gardens, and parks, and groves, during the heated term, 
manage to make life not only endurable, but pleasurable. 
Their pastimes yield them more of enjoyment than all the 
courtly balls and fashionable dissipation indulged in by for- 
tune's favorites, at the sea-side and other resorts, can yield to 
those who participate in such splendid revelry. 



Midnio-ht in the great city, and all is well. The rattling, 
clashing, rumbling noises which characterized the day have 
ceased, and the hundreds of thousands of citizens so full of 
animation and action during the day, have sought repose, and 
are still now. The tread of the policeman on his rounds, the 
soft strains of music borne from some brightly lighted man- 
sion, where fair women and brave men have assembled for an 
evening's enjoyment ; the song of the belated, boozy bummer, 
who has just left a saloon full of sages, with whom he has 
ao-reed to settle the affairs of the universe, and who now tes- 
titles his joy in inarticulate peans of praise, to the virtues of 
"old rye," as he winds his uncertain way towards the place 
he calls home, are sounds which break the silence which might 
otherwise reign in the streets. 

An hour passes on, and still all is quiet in the city. The 
wind sweeps around the corners and whistles among the cor- 
nices, and sighs among the gables and pinnacles of the lofty 
buildings which line the streets. The music has almost ceased, 
the song of the bummer has died away, and the shouts of the 
bacchanalians are not so frequently heard. Five, ten, fifteen 
minutes pass. It is a witching time of night. Then a cry is 
heard, '■'-fire! fire !" and the deep-toned bells from a dozen 
towers toll the ominous warning. 1-2, then a pause, and 
the hammers, controlled by a mind in the tower of the Court- 
house and acted upon by a stream of electricity, slowly strike 
1-2-3-4—5-6-7 strokes. Tioenty-seven. Once, twice, thrice, 
were the signals given. Fourth and Walnut streets ! The very 
box for the Southern Hotel. And the awakened citizens gazed 
out on the night, and beheld a red glare on the sky, and a brighter 



center as if from a rising sun. The great caravansary was on 

But at the first tap of that ominous beil, a hundred and 
eighty men, watching in more than a dozen engine-houses, 
sprang from their drowsy seats. In five minutes eighteen 
fiery engines, drawn by horses, were thundering toward the 
point of danger. There was no time to be lost. The men 
and the engines came. Rapid as had been their movements, 
they came too hite. Ab;eady the whole interior of the lower 
stories of the vast structure was a seething mass of flames. 
Away up in the windows, with flames raging behind them, and 
the abyss of death — the street — yawning far below them, could 
be seen the awe-stricken faces of those prisoned there with 
no hope of escape. 

Then the firemen came, and the ladders were erected, and 
alas ! they were not high enough to afibrd means of escaj)o. 
The moments were awful. The vast croAvd gazed up at the 
ghastly faces of the apparently doomed ones. Then a fireman, 
followed by another, and another, with an additional hook-lad- 
der caught on a window-sill, climbed the dangerous height and 
threw themselves into the room where they were awaiting the 
doom which seemed inevital)le. The crowd became almost 
breathless with suspense. The moments a})poared ages of 
agony, and then the heroic firemen began to lower the poor 
girls, one by one, until all were safe, and then they safely 
reached the main ladder and safely descended themselves, 
while a wild shout of exultation and joy greeted them. No 
more heroic deeds were ever performed amid the thunders and 
caniage of battle than were there performed by these uncrowned 
kings of chivalric daring. 

We are not Avriting biographies, but sketches ; not history, 
but matters which concern the people of the present, and Avill 
interest the generations to come. Hence, the notices of the 
lives led by the firemen. There are a hundred and eighty 
men and seven officers, stationed in the various engine-houses 
of the city, with eighteen steam fire engines and hooks and 
ladders, and hose reels, all the appointments necessary 
to contend against the ravages of the destructive element. 
These men never sleep — that is to say, not all of them at once. 




Connected with every engine-house is a telegraphic signal 
srongr, which is sounded from the Court-house. 

Day or night, at all hours, the Fire Department is ready 
for action. Let but the alarm gong ring and in an instant 
there is a scene of activity, a rapidity of motion, which char- 
acterizes every movement of man or beast around the engine- 

houses which is absolutely startling. At the hour of mid- 
night, at one, two, or three o'clock in the morning, the signal 
provokes them to action, and in less time than it requires to 
describe the scene which ensues, they are thundering with 
their ponderous engines through the streets on their way to 
the fire. 


Among the first to reach the scene of threatened disaster 
is the Chief of the Department, Mr. II. Chiy Sexton. It has 
never been explained how he manages it, but it is nevertheless 
a general fact, that it matters not what part of the city is 
threatened by a great conflagration, 11. Clay Sexton is among 
the first to reach the post of duty. Always alert, sober, clear- 
headed, quick in perception, powerful in action, if any city can 
claim a Chief of the Fire Department who thoroughly under- 
stands his business, St. Louis is entitled to prefer that claim. 
And the Chief has able assistance. Geo. W. Tennille, for many 
years Secretary, still retains the position at this writing. 
John W. Bame is the Assistant Engineer to the Chief. 

The organization of the Fire Department, due in a large 
measure to the executive capacity of the Chief, is the most 
efficient, perhaps, of any in the United States. The men are 
very carefully selected. Since the Chief is a very strict tem- 
perance man, and seeks such to serve the department, though 
he does not make strict temperance a test of a man's qualifica- 
tion as a fireman. 

The losses by fire in St. Louis are less in proportion than 
in any other American city. That speaks well for the efficiency 
of our Fire Department. It is the best organized fire brigade 
in America. 



A city without police protection would be a very unde- 
sirable place of residence. From the very nature of the case 
a city is necessarily a sort of social cess-pool for a wide region 

of country, and all the 
highways of trade con- 
veririn 2 toward it, are but 
so many sewers through 
which the social filth of 
villages, hamlets, and 
small cities find an out- 

We can scarcely im- 
asrine the condition of a 
city of half a million of 
people, if it were not 
strictly and efficiently 
guarded. Here in St. 
Louis are the good and 
the bad, the latter consti- 
tuting a very numerous 
class of the inhabitants 
of the place. In order 
to protect the lives and property of the better classes, it is 
essential that the propensities of the pariahs should be held 
in check with a stern and strong exhibition of force. 

How can this be done? This was a question years ago; 
it is scarcely one for discussion now. Municipal governments, 
especially that part of it concerned in the preservation of the 




peace, the enforcement of the huv and the maintenance of 
good order, must not be subjected to the local inilucnces of 
political combinations. If such was the case, there can be lit- 
tle doubt that justice could not maintain a footing in populous 
cities. Think of the law-breakers electing the executors of 
the demands of the law ! It would be unwise to trust such 
agencies in the preservation of order. The police would be 
under the control of the mob. Even under the metropolitan 
system, there is occasional exhibitions of a partisan spirit not 
at all pleasant to contemplate. 

St. Louis has reason to be proud of her police organization. 
Boston, New York, Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Baltimore and 
Chicago, each support a larger force of policemen than is 
maintained in St. Louis. But it is safe to say that no city on 
the American continent is more thoroughly and efficiently 
guarded than the metropolis of the great valley. In moral 
qualities, physical development and intellectual attainments, 
the St. Louis police force may be regarded, as a class, as 
superior men. 

The government of this force is under a Board of Com- 
missioners, who are nominated by the Governor and confirmed 
by the Senate. There are four of them, and they hold office 
for the term of four years. But the appointments are so 
arranged that only two of them go out of office in any one 
year. The Ma^^or of the city is, ex officio, a member of the 
Board. It is the province of the Board to examine and act 
upon all applications for enrollment in the ranks of the force, 
appoint the chief, captains, sergeants, and generally to enact 
rules and issue orders to the officers who are charged with the 
command of the force. The Commissioners, in 1878, were, 
Hon. Henry Overstolz, Mayor, and ex officio President of the 
Board, John G. Priest, Silas Bent, Dr. J. C. Nidelet, and 
Basil Duke. 

The officers of the force consists of one chief, six captains, 
40 sergeants, 311 patrolmen, 99 special officers, 12 detectives 
and officers detailed for special service, 13 turnkeys and six 
janitors and armorers, making a total force of 488 officers 
and men. Certainly this is not a large force to guard a city 
covering a territory of fifteen miles in length and from two to 


six miles in width, with a population estimated at more than 
half a million of inhabitants. Still we reiterate the assertion 
that there is not a city on the American continent where the 
lives and property of the citizens are more secure than in 
St. Louis. 

Such a condition of things could not exist under the old 
order of things, when political interests dictated the character 
of the police of the city 

Under the metropolitan system the members of the Board 
are not directly responsible to the city government for the 
manner in which they administer the trust confided to them, 
hence they are not dependent upon local political favor for 
their j)laces, and may defy the ward politicians if they choose 
to do so. This is a situation so essential to the discipline and 
efficiency of the force that no one in the city who desires the 
reign of law and the maintenance of order would have the 
system changed. 

The city is divided, for police purposes, into six districts, 
each of which is commanded by a captain. In each of these 
there is a station-house and a sub-station. The " Mounted 
District," so named because the patrolmen and their com- 
manding officers are mounted, includes all the suburban por- 
tion of the city, and extends from Bisscll's Point, on the north, 
to the mouth of the river Des Peres, on the south, reaching 
entirely around the rear of the thickly populated districts of 
the city. This mounted battalion is a most important arm of 
the police service in St. Louis. 

The efficiency of the police in modern times is greatly 
promoted by the complete system of communication which 
science has developed. Every district station-house, every 
sub-station, and all important municipal institutions are con- 
nected by telegraph with the police headquarters at the Four 
Courts. In whatever part of the metropolitan district a crime 
may be committed, the fact once communicated to the officer 
in charge of a station-house or sub-station, it is at once com- 
municated to the office of the Chief of Police at the Four 
Courts, and from thence the information is at once transmitted 
to every station-house in the city. In an incredibly brief 
time almost half a thousand shrewd, watchful men, scattered 


over the city, from Bissell's Point to Carondolet, are sharply 
on the look-out for the violators of the hiw. Under suc-h 
circumstances it is no easy matter for the criminal to escape. 
It is a matter of astonishment to the uninitiated that so lart^e 
a proportion of the violators of the law in this city are 
brought to justice. Notwithstanding the daily occurrence of 
criminal acts, in almost every instance the guilty ones are 
arrested, and if they escape the penalty for their misdeeds, it 
is no fault of the police force. 

There are occasionally violations of law committed by old, 
shrewd and expert criminals which remain somewhat of a 
mystery, because of the skill of the perpetrator. But such 
incidents in the history of St. Louis police operations are 
rare. Some of the shrewdest burglars and other " crooked " 
characters, who have eluded the police of European and our 
Atlantic seaboard cities, have proved unequal to the task of 
*' dusting the eyes" of St. Louis officers. Every year a 
number of these " hard cases " come to grief on account of 
their failure to understand the tact of St. Louis police officials. 

The stranger in St. Louis is perhaps better protected than 
in any other city at all approximating it in size. In New 
York there are pitfalls into which the unwary visitor is almost 
certain to stumble when guided by the skillful "crook." In 
St. Louis there are pitfalls also, but the " crooks " are under 
such strict surveillance that it is a rare thing if they succeed 
in successfully " playing their game." 

Perhaps there is room for just one criticism of the police 
system of St. Louis. The rules of promotion seem to be 
defective, if not entirely nugatory. Long service and merit 
does not necessarily ensure promotion. Indeed, it is seldom 
that the Chief of Police has been selected from the force. 
However, there have been but few chiefs of the force who 
have not had experience as policemen. 

In conclusion, it is but just to say, that taken altogether, 
the police system of St. Louis is excellent, and the personnel 
and splendid discipline of the force is a matter of pride to 
every St. Louisian. 



The stranger to the city, who desires to gain a knowledge 
of every phase of low life in St. Louis, with the least possible 
delay, should visit the police courts. Of these courts, for the 
trial of persons accused of petty crimes and misdemeanors, 
there are three : one in that part of the city known as Caron- 
delet, over which Judge Spies presides ; another is held in the 
Four Courts ; and the other, known as the Second District 
Court is held in the old Mozart Hall building, situated on the 
corner of Fifth and Biddle Streets We have already given 
some account of the Central District Court, presided over bj 
Judge Jecko, in the Four Courts building. Judge Dennison 
holds his trial levees in the Second District Court. 

Dismissing the Carondelet Court, in which there are the 
fewest number of cases tried, we shall endeavor to present 
some of the scenes daily enacted in Judge Dennison's Court. 

It is ten o'clock in the morning. Already a considerable 
number of persons have gathered in the court-room. The 
marshal is at his desk ; the clerk is at his place ; the city pros- 
ecutor is leisurely looking over his docket, and a deputy 
marshal is keeping ward at the prisoners' dock. The Second 
District Court is situated in what is regarded as " a hard neigh- 
borhood." Undoubtedly there are a great many very rough 
citizens dwelling in that vicinity. The stranger, as he enters 
the court-room, will be forcibly impressed that the audience 
about him are not just exactly such persons as he would like 
to associate with on terms of familiarity. Indeed, there are 
few among them whom he would take delight in meeting at 
a lonely spot in the night-time. It is a hard crowd. 

Order is called. The judge has taken his seat. The trials 




begin. The delay is very brief, when he commences caliini,' the 
docket. Number such and such; "Case of Kate Smith, 
charged with being drunk on the street." It is not her first time 
in court. Kate resides for the greater portion of licr time in 
the City Work-house. She gets out occasionally, and then gets 
drunk in order to be sent back to her old place in i)rison. Her 
case- is quickly disposed of. The trial proceeds about as fol- 
lows : 

Judge. — " You here again? You are charged with having 


been drunk on the street, Kate. Are you guilty or not 

K. — " An' fwhat if I was iver so dhruidv? The perlace- 
man, the spalpeen a standin' afore yer honor, is prajudyced 
agin me, an' he jist tuk me in onyhow — an' " 

Judge. — " That will do. Five dollars. Call the next case, 
Mr. Marshal." 


The unfortunate prisoner, with bare feet, bloated face, and 
tlisgustingl}^ slatternly attire, is sternly commanded to take 
her place in the dock for the condemned. They never ask her 
to pay the fine. She is doomed to the rocks. The officers 
know she has not a nickel toward paying the fine imposed. 

The next case is somewhat different. " - 

The marshal calls out " Mina Schlessel." A deutsches 
madchen, who, but for the unmistakable expression of a cor^- 
rupted nature, would be regarded as a comely girl, takes her 
place by the side of the prosecutor. 

" You are charged with being a street- walker — plying your 
vocation on the public street. Are you guilty or not guilty?" 

It is the prosecuting officer who interrogates this time. The 
girl is slow to answer. 

" What say you, Mina? Do you speak English?' 

" Ya," she saj'S. " Ich Englisch sprech." 

" Well, are you guilty of this charge?" 

*' Veil, Ich dells you de trut. Vat you calls geelty? Ich 
var yust talking a leedle mit a shentlemans ven der politzeman 
komt und sagt, ' Sie, geh mit mir.' Das is alle." 

Then the judge calls the officer who made the arrest, and 
enquires of him concerning the character of the girl. 

" What do you know of this girl, officer?" 

" I know she is a hard case. She is one of the Blank 
Alley crowd. See her out every night. Have warned her to 
keep off" the street. She's a very hard customer." 

"Ten dollars. This her first arrest? Yes? Well, ten 
dollars, with stay of execution on condition of good behavior. 
Call the next case.' 

And so the trials proceed. One hard-faced and tougher- 
fisted citizen was collared while carrying on a discussion with a 
neighbor, " wid jist a bit av shtick no bigger nor yer little 
finger, an' not half so big, ayther." Another had indulged 
in a few mugs of lager bier, and vas yust so streat as nefer vas. 
Then a big burly citizen of color, was "collared" while in 
a suspicious position in relation to the house of a stranger. A 
countryman had fallen among the Philistines, taken too much 
bad whisky, lost his money, and his reason, too ; raised a row 
with the first man he met, and brought up in the station-house. 


He had come to the city to see the giralFe, and had found him. 
The judge considerately gave him an opportunity to go his 
way, with a promise that he would sin no more. 

There were many cases, but none of them occupied much 
time. The way business is transacted in these courts is doli- 
ciously sententious. In a couple of hours twenty-tive or more 
of the wretched beings, picked from the sloughs and slums of 
the great city, have been tried and sentenced, or again lil)er- 
ated, to be brought up again at some future assize. 

The audiences which assemble in these court-rooms are 
always the same. The individual entities which constitute 
them may and do change, but the distinctive character of the 
aggregate mass never changes. 

The morbid curiosity of some, the personal interest felt in 
some particular culprit on the part of others, are motives which 
prompt a part of the individuals composing these police-court 
throngs. Others are there because they have nothing else to 
do, and would not hav^e anything to do if they could. But 
after all, it is a sorry spectacle, and a wretched crowd. 

These are all pariahs ; with rare exceptions they belong to 
the great outcast host ever found within the populous purlieus 
of a great city. Men and women without hope, without a 
future before them ; cared for by nobody, and caring for no 
one ; who are ever marching in seried ranks, grimy and repul- 
sive, to the final scene, when for them the pulse-boat of time 
shall cease forever. Such are the scenes that may be witnessed 
every morning in the three police courts of St. Louis. Header, 
would you enjoy such a spectacle of misery, wretchedness and 
degradation as any one of them presents any day of the week? 
No? Well, why are such scenes possible in this age, in this 
country, under owr institutions? Go to asocial science mcct- 
ins: ! Well? What do vou hear? That man is intended bv 
nature to be a self-governing being ; that his highest moral 
perfection lies in his most perfect self-control ; and further, 
that our responsibility as men is prior to our responsibility as 
citizens. All very well, and yet there must be something rad- 
ically wrong in the present constitution and tendency of our 
social and political life to produce such a class as that which 
we have just attempted to describe. Are these pariahs of 


society all innately bad? Let the teachers of social science 
and economy answer. What environments are theirs? What 
star of hope gleams on their pathway? Who will say? 

So, day by day, and week after week, through the months, 
and on while the long years roll away, the police courts of the 
great city are sending the ^ana/is down to the rock-pile — to 
the prison. Do they become better for their experience there? 
Are they even deterred from their depredations on society? 
These are questions w^hich the thoughtful should desire to see 

Generally by 12 o'clock, meridian, the judges of the police 
courts have completed their morning task. The grimy, un- 
shorn and shaggy-bearded men, and the blear-eyed and untidy 
Avomen have gone out from the enjoyment of the morning's 
entertainment — for such it was to them. The place has be- 
come quiet and still. Well, there were tragedies in real life 
enacted here but an hour ago. Where are the actors now.'' 
Where? Yes, where the victors and the victims of life's 
trao;ic stage ? Where ? 




'•Ah, sir, I beg your pardon, sir, but I think you have 
dropped your pocketbook. I have just picked it up. By the 
"way, sir, it appears to be well filled — indeed, a fat pocket- 
book, sir." 

This little speech was addressed to a substantial looking 
citizen who was hurrying away from the Union Depot towards 
the marts of trade on Main Street and on Washington Avenue. 



The person who held a hirirc :uul f:it lookina: pocket l>()ok 
in his hand was well dressed, and i)resented allo<2;ellier a ^J^cn- 
tlenianly front. 

The person addressed immediately turned, and with con- 
sternation depicted in every feature, with eyes which seemed 
ready to ])urst from their sockets, he stared at his interlocutor 
and thrust his hand into his pocket. 


«'I am quite sure, sir, that you are the gentleman who 
dropped this," and he held the pocketbook close to the face of 
our honest friend from the rural districts. 

Of course the honest gentleman soon ascertained that his 
own cash was all right, and was on the point of saying so, 
when the pleasant looking person interrupted him by saying : 


"Surely this is yours. I could swear I saw it fall from 
your coat pocket, or from about your person. You had better 
examine your coat pocket, sir ; I have no desire to keep your 
money. See here," and he adroitly opened the book which 
was filled with nicely engraved papers which appeared marvel- 
ously like bonds or stocks, and opening it out wide, displayed 
in the bill case, a large number of green colored bills on which 
the astonished gentleman from the rural "deestricks" saw the 
talismanic fijrures 500. That was sufficient. 

"Why — why, upon my — upon my w-w^ord, I b-believe I-I 
h-have l-lo " 

"I felt sure you had — did not want to keep your money, 
sir. Honesty is the best policy, after all, sir. This is your 
property. Must be several thousands of it, at least. Glad, sir, 
to be able to restore it to you." 

By this time the pocketbook is all closed up again. Our 
honest friend from the rural "deestricks" has extended his hand 
for the property which never was his own. The finder — so- 
called — places it in his hand. He is exultant. The honest 
fellow who had given him the valuable book appeared to be a 
little reluctant to turn away. The gentleman from the country 
remembers the service rendered just at the right time, and as 
the city gent is bidding him good-day, he calls to him : 

"Much obliged, much obliged." 

The other retorts : "But thanks get no dinners for the 

"True, true. Here, you have done me a great service." 
He dives his hand into his pocket, fishes out a ten-dollar note, 
and hands it to the honest citizen, who takes it and immediately 

The poor deluded flat, or "gray," as the sharp ones call 
him, goes on his way, chuckling over his own good luck and 

Later, the very honest man, who sought to reap where he 
had not sowed, discovers the cheat, mourns over his vanished 
ten-dollar note, curses the swindler who got it, and thinks of 
calling in the police ; considers awhile, and arrives at the sage 
conclusion that he will keep his own counsels about the affair 
and profit by experience. The difference between the two men 


in this case is that one is a shrewd, professional knave, and the 
other is a knave and a fool. 

The game described above is an old one, and yet scarcely 
a month passes away without its being played in this city. 
Perhaps it will require some years more for the fool-killer to 
complete his task. 

It sometimes becomes necessary for those engaged in the 
detection of crime and the }nniishnient of offenders, to com- 
promise matters with the very worst of knaves. The truth is, 
some of the cracksmen, counterfeiters, forgers, and other 
*'crooked characters," are men of education, untlinching cour- 
age, and surpassing shrewdness. They have traveled in devi- 
ous ways from their earliest youth, and they have devoted all 
their powers of mind in planning robberies, and devising ways 
and means to defeat the "fly cops," who are regarded ])y them 
as their natural enemies. The greatest displays of ingenuity 
and shrewdness, by the ablest detectives, are often vain. The 
"crooks" have effectually "covered their tracks ;" they have 
bagged the game and have it securely in their own hands. 
These masters in the art of thieving well know when the}' hold 
the "trumps," and they never think of allowing the "cops" 
to play them out of their hands. They know far too much for 
that, and they always profit by their knowledge. Sometimes 
the results of a great haul, amounting to thousands of dollars, 
is so securely "planted," that is, concealed, that the utmost 
efforts of the detectives are vain. The thieves having accurate 
knowledge of the situation, and knowing that the detectives 
have been foiled, sometimes employ a negotiator — a third 
party, who had no concern in the robbery — to make terms with 
the parties in interest. In some of the great robberies of banks 
and jewelry stores which have taken place in this city, the 
cracksmen have carried oft' other valuables besides cash. These 
o-oods or securities, as the case may be, having been safely de- 
posited where the police can not find them, and then they open 
up negotiations for a compromise. 

In such cases the agents of the thieves, who in some in- 
stances are lawyers, make a proposition to restore so nuuh, 
or all the property, for and in consideration of the payment of 
a certain sum or the retention of a certain portion of the stolen 



goods or money. A bargain is made between the agent and 
the detectives and victim or victims of the robbery, an ap- 
pointment is made, and the two meet and the stolen property 
is restored. 

In tlie case presented in the cut, the detectives were com- 
pletely powerless to restore the property to its rightful owners. 
The cracksmen "had played it very tine," and as there were 


many valuable papers as well as a large sum of money, a com- 
promise had to be effected, in order that the victims might re- 
gain possession of important documents. A well-known secret 
service man met the agent of the "crooks" in a Fifth Street 
saloon by appointment, and the business was settled, which 
left the thieves in possession of more than sixty thousand dol- 
lars as the result of one night's work. This was a noted case 


and it occurred several years ago. But settlements of a simi- 
lar character are made constantly iu this city. The victims 
can only have "Hobson's choice" — accept tiie terms ollered or 

There are various sorts of confidence swindles constantlv 
practiced in St. Louis. In this respect the city is no worse 
than other cities. Such scoundrels alwavs con'^^rci^ate in "-roat 
human hives for opportunities to ply their vocation. 

The Union Depot, the packet landings, and the vicinity of 
the large hotels, are favorite fields for their o[)erations. Old 
games which have been exposed perhaps a thousand times, arc 
not unfrequently successfully played. The Texas, or other 
country merchant game, in Avhich a large shipment of goods 
and an un^Daid bill figures as an excuse, and a borjun check is 
the evidence of the gentility and respectibility of the sorely 
vexed merchant in a strange city, while a fellow countr}^ mer- 
chant, or other rural traveler, is the sympathizer, and the vic- 
tim at last. 

Three-card monte men occasionally make their appearance, 
but this class of swindlers are generally quickest spotted, and 
take an early departure from the city — go on a tour for their 
health's sake. 

Another class of swindlers, more difficult to deal Avith, are 
the "snide" merchants. Two or three respectable appearing 
men make their appearance in the city,'i3ut up at one of the 
first-class hotels, and look out for a place suitable for their 
purposes. Cards, circulars and lithographed letters are the 
principal stock in trade. With a commercial directory at hand 
they commence operations. Thousands of circulars are sent 
out, lithographed letters addressed to individuals, and other 
interesting publications are forwarded to all the post-olliccs in 
the States of the West. The firm of Gull, Swindle & Co., 
at No. 385 Blank Street, St. Louis, are liberal dealers. They 
assure those to whom they addrsss their business circulars that 
they have ample capital, and refer them to ever so many ficti- 
tious firms in New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltiincn-e, etc., 
and assure them that they mean business and have i-onie to 
stay. Sometimes these gentlemen are direct importers of cer- 
tain goods ; sometimes they are commission merchants with 




extensive connections and unsurpassed fticilities for handling 
their produce. They solicit consignments and promise heavy 
cash advances. Their business is always strictly private, and 
transacted in their own offices. Having sent out their circulars 
they await the result. 

The talk about swindling monopolies and business rings 
adroitly introduced generally has its effects. Car loads of 


butter and cheese, eggs, fruits, and other country produce, 
consigned to Gull, Swindle & Co., begin to arrive. When 
these have come in quantities sufficiently gratifjdng, and Gull, 
Swindle & Co. have disposed of their consignments, the firm 
suddenly disappears, the consignors are left to reflect on the- 



mutability of mercantile honor, anil for their ffoods have irained 
only experience. 

Another class of "snide" operators, who conduct business 
temporarily in St. Louis, arc jobbers of "bankrupt stocks," 
so they announce. Sometimes of one line, sometimes of many 
lines of goods. "Snide" jewelry, and especially watches, are 
favorite articles of traffic with them. A few years ago three 
Poles, who, no doubt, were familiar with the business methods 


of Chatham Street, New York, opened "an immense stock of 
gold and silver watches," so they announced it, "from the 
bankrupt stock of a celebrated Parisian maimfacturer." For 
a time they did a very satisfactory business. In the evening 
they had an auction, "as the goods had to be sold." Coun- 
trymen came in, looked, were captivated , and nicely taken in. 
We remembtr meeting one evening with a very intelligent 


young gentleman from the State of Mississippi. He had been 
to the bankrupt sale, and came back to the hotel exulthig over 
his purchase of six "heavy hunting-case gold watches, all 
guaranteed pure gold and accurate time-keepers," for which 
he had paid twenty-five dollars for each "gold watch." The 
disgust exhibited by the young man, when a friend examined 
and pronounced his watches all "snide," can better be imag- 
ined than described. 

A few years ago a very bold "land racket" was success- 
fully played by a sharper in connection with a notary public. 
The swindler found a vacant room on Market Street, between 
Third and Fourth streets ; paid a week's rent, furnished the 
place with an old table and three or four chairs, and, with a 
few lithograph plats of a rising city to be known as Vineland, 
about twelve miles from St. Louis, on the line of the Toledo, 
Wabash & Western Railway, a pile of blank deeds, and he 
was ready for business. 

The next morning an advertisement appeared in all the city 
papers, announcing that homesteads would be given away in a 
delightful suburban city, and inviting all mechanics and others 
to call at the office on Market Street to learn full particulars 
of "the unparalleled opportunity to secure a home." 

The place Avas literally thronged by an anxious and eager 
crowd of home-seekers at an early hour next morning. The 
explanation was simple and plausible. A wealthy land-owner, 
whose name was given, had concluded to found a new town. 
He owned a delightful site, and had laid off a hundred acres 
into lots, and streets, and parks. The lithographed plat looked 
charming. The lots, of course, were numbered. The great 
want of the new city was inhabitants. These it was proposed 
to "induce" by giving away everi/ alternate lot. Two dollars 
and a quarter would be required to pay the notary's fees and 
the expense of recording the deeds. Each lot-taker entered 
into a written obligation to commence the work of improve- 
ment within two years. The deeds were then duly signed, 
attested, and the would-be citizen of Vineland paid his two 
dollars and twenty-five cents, taking a receipt for the same ; 
left his deed to be sent to Illinois to be placed on record, and 


left conijratiilatins^ himself on account of his jjood foiiunc as 
an early applicant. 

Two days was this remarkable real estate office thronged. 
The limited numl)er of lots to be given away, as indicated on 
the plat, were given away many times. And still there were 
applicants. The third day came. The first takers had called 
with their friends early in the morning, so as to be certain. 
By nine o'clock a crowd had collected. But no libci'al land 
agent came ; the day passed away, and still the Vinoland land 
office was not opened. It was never opened again. The friend 
of the people had disposed of twenty-live hundred lots at two 
dollars and twenty-five cents per lot, and had gone out from 
the city for a day's rest. If he ever returned he was not 
recognized. The notary had made good fees, but he fell into 
difficulty in consequence. The owner of the land at the pro- 
posed site of Vineland had not even heard of the pro})osition 
to found a city on his estate. It was a bold but successful 

Such are some of the ways of the wicked in this great city. 
Space will not permit a further consideration of the swindles 
of lesser importance. It is sufficient to say that there are a 
good many people who are esteemed as quite respectable, who 
are advisers and backers of humbugs and share in the gams of 
the sharpers who run them. So the honest men and the 
thieves throng the streets together. 



Among all the protean forms of misery that meet us in the 
alleys and by-ways of the great city, there is none which 
appeal so strongly and directly to our sympathies as the sad 
condition of destitute children. There is reason for this. In 
the case of grown men and women, we are able to trace their 
sufFerinjrs and sorrows to their own faults and indiscretions. 
But with the boys and girls wandering through the desert 
ways of life the condition is different. In almost every instance 
their sufferings are vicarious. 

Worthlessness of character in parents, immoral and drunken 
fathers and mothers, heartless desertion of their offspring by 
wicked people ; the death of their natural protectors, are 
always sending fresh accessions of members of the great hordes 
of wandering Bedouins, who roam about the desert ways of 
the great metropolis. How they live is one of the deep 
mysteries which we are unable to solve. This we know, they 
manage in some way to pick up a precarious sustenance, and 
to grow up ever breathing a polluted atmosphere laden with the 
deadly miasm of moral disease and death. In St. Louis, as 
in all great cities, these Arab tribes count their hundreds, nay 
thousands. One of the most difficult problems with which the 
student of social science is called upon to deal is how to 
reclaim and govern these juvenile Ishmaelites. 

The writer of these pages has made a personal examination 
of the condition of the unprotected children, and a careful 
examination of the sources of supply from which are drawn 
the recruits to swell the ranks of the Arab bands. 

It is a singular fact, often noted but never satisfactorily 
explained, that certain localities, in all large cities, without 



apparent caiiSe, become the haunts of vice — the veriest plaijue- 
spots of iniquity. What geographical or ethical reason exists 
for the condition of Almond, Poplar, and a section of South 
Main Street? Why should Sixth Street from Elm to Spruce 
streets prove so favorable for the home of the vicious? What 
reason can be shown for the moral desolation which exists in 
the section of Lucas or Christy Avenue, between Sixth and 
Eighth streets? Can anv one explain Mhy there are certain 
districts in the city peopled almost exclusively by Africans, 
while there are other districts in w^hicli the population is almost 
exclusively Bohemian, while we come to another region in 
which the German people preponderate, and still in another 
locality we discover the inhabitants to be almost exclusively 
Irish in nationality and descent? Who can tell what occult law 
exists for the government of these settlements? 

And so, too, in relation to the recruits gained to the ranks 
of the Arabs — they almost all come from certain Avcll-defined 
localities. Take for instance the region immediately surrounding 
the Third District police station, about Sixth and Seventh 
sti'eets, from Wash Street north to Cass Avenue ; Eighth Street 
from — well, say from Chouteau Avenue to Cass Avenue — a i)art 
of Ninth and Tenth streets, and then a considerable district 
immediately adjacent to the Biddle IMarket, and the neighbor- 
hood of Collins Street ; in fact, all that part of the city east of 
Broadway and north of Cherry Street, furnish a vast propor- 
tion of the Arab tribes of the northern and central portions of 
the city. In the southern section we may trace the lines with 
some distinctness. South of Myrtle Street and east of Fourth 
Street, and extending southward to Sidney Street and the 
Arsenal, is a favorable place for the devcloiunent of the 
genus Street Arab, both boys and girls. In the northwest 
portion of the city, " Kerry Patch," is a well-known region 
haunted by the Arabian tribes. Westward, and southwest 
there are several localities in the depression of Mill Creek 
Valley w^hich furnishes not a few members of the Arahian 

The condition of hundreds, and we may safely say thou- 
sands, of young children in St. Louis, is pitiable in the 
extreme. They know nothing of a home-life calculated to 


make them better. On their pathway never a stray sunbeam 
falls. Parents very poor, and often dissipated and vicious, 
their homes are grimy, filthy abodes, which must necessarily 
extinguish every lofty aspiration. Commencing bad, the 
children of such homes continue bad all through their career. 

In the neighborhoods vaguely indicated above, a compara- 
tively large number of the children do not attend school. 
They are left much to themselves ; neglected and abused at 
home, they take to the streets. The result is not doubtful. 
They become wandering Arabs of the highways. Many par- 
ents are in such circumstances that they can not exercise that 
healthful guardianship over the morals of their children that 
they wish. While they are at labor the children are left to 
themselves, and, of course, will naturally find companionship 
among the outcast and vagabond children, and necessarily they 
must come to their level. So the ranks of the Aral)s are 
recruited. And these juveniles early become acquainted with the 
language, the propensities, and the skill of the young vagrant 
sncak-thieves with whom they come in contact. The parents, 
as well as the children, in such cases, are to be pitied. The 
stern necessity which compels them to neglect the care and 
moral training of their offspring, is certainly calculated to 
excite our sympathy rather than provoke our reprobation. 

There is another class of parents who are too indolent and 
too ignorant to care for the true interests of their children. 
Such people always live in the most abject poverty, and their 
offspring can never know what the meaning of the word home 
is in its proper sense. What can they become ? Only vagrants, 
tramps, and prostitutes. 

The writer has seen some of these people ; there are many 
such in St. Louis. Some years ago, a family consisting of 
husband, wife, and nine children, the oldest of whom was 
scarcely fifteen years, came from the country to the city 
because they could not make a living on a farm. It is sel- 
dom that such abject poverty is witnessed as was presented 
by this family of eleven persons. Indolence scarceh'^ expresses 
the characteristics of the family. Laziness, untidiness, and 
complete inertia characterized them all. But the six boys, 
ranging from five to twelve years in age, very soon learned the 



ways of their boy-companions, and some of them liecame 
unenterprising, but very expert sneak-thieves. They were 
actually too indolent to be active thieves, but they wwc none 
the less successful on that account, as thev were less sus- 
l^ected on account of their extraordinary inertia. The head of 
this famih' was a 
hale, stout man 
of about fortv 
years, and the 
wife Avas a wo- 
man who e n - 
joyed excellent 
health and pos- 
sessed prodigi- 
ous streugth. 
After living in 
garrets a n d 
grimy tenement 
rooms for seve- 
ral years, this 
ftimily secured 
au ancient, tum- 
ble-down c o t- 
tage, or rather 
hovel, not a 
great way from 
LindellPark. It 
was dreadfully 
out of repair, the 

blinds were unhinged, and the window panes were broken, 
and, in fact, the old cottage was in the last stages of decay, 
as can be readily seen by consulting the cut which is herewith 

Unkempt, uncombed, ragged and dirty, the bovs of the 
family, which occupied this wretched habitation, would do 
nothing ; indeed, sought to do nothing. AVhat promise of a 
man, useful in society, does the ragged, shock-liead boy 
represented in the i)icture give? Ah I indei'd, what piomisc? 
That family can never mount upward ; they must for ever 


remain low. What though they had the opportunity, they did 
nothing. No wonder there are boys who are thieves, and girls 
who have fallen, even at a very tender age, to be found among 
such people. 

The Street Arabs of both sexes in St. Louis are divided into 
tribes or clans, and susceptible of a classification into the 
working Arabs and the thieving, heathenish class. Among the 
first-named class may be reckoned the boot-blacks, newspaper 
peddlers, and the corps of boys who hang around to do chores 
about houses, stores, shops, stables, etc. Among the female 
Bedouins are to be found match-sellers, dealers in pins, needles, 
combs, etc., and peddlers of fruits and flowers. There are 
few flower sellers in the city. As for the vendors of fruits and 
nuts, the dark-eyed daughters of sunny Italy almost monopo- 
lize the business. 

Then we meet another class of Arabs, namely, the idle and 
vicious ones, who neither seek nor wish to find employment. 
These are the juvenile pariahs, and are most numerous in the 
neighborhood of Almond, Poplar, Plum, and a portion of 
Third Street, and in the nei<>:hborhood of Seventh and Eiijhth 
streets, from Wash Street to O'Fallon Street, and in the Avhole 
region of the town east of Broadway and north of Cherry 
Street. " Kerry Patch " is celebrated for its bands of young 

In a portion of the Seventh and Eighth Street district, 
mentioned above, there is a very populous region peopled 
altogether by people of color, most of them of a low and 
degraded character. The darkey Arab is a genius, and can not 
be classed with any other clans of wanderers through the desert 
streets and alleys of the great city. They constitute a class 
by themselves. The lives led by all classes of the Arabian 
population of the city is characteristic of the people from 
among whom they have come out. How can they live? Who 
can tell ? 

The bad boys and girls of St. Louis live much in the open 
air. During the hot summer days, they repose on the shaded 
side of buildings, lumber piles, and in old outhouses. In the 
summer evenings the street tribes are in their glory. Then 
they come forth and fill the streets and the vacant lots, and the 


various throngs fill the air with their fearful clamnr. Profanity 
and obscenity early become a ptirt of the Arabian character. 
Such cries, such foul language, such volleys of oaths, such 
shouts and boisterous laughter as ascend from thousands of 
strong-lunged children and youth of both sexes, from every 
vacant lot and old lumber-yard, are seldom heard or dreamed 
of, away from the city and its tribes of Arabs. 

Their gambols and noise is kept up to a late hour — midni<'-ht 
often stealing over the city ere they become still 

For lodging places, in the summer time, the street boys 
are at no loss. They crawl into basements, go into lumber 
yards, find beds under old sheds, and often even sleep on the 
green sward of some vacant lot. Everv nio-ht will find them 
at a different lodging-place from that which they occupied the 
night before. Girls and boys are often found scattered around 
indiscriminately through the vacant spaces of lumber yards. 

In the winter season, the condition of the Arab is certainly 
not enviable. Some of the tribes of this class have established 
their headquarters in caves, which they have excavated in some 
vacant lot ; some take possession of untenanted buildings and 
establish themselves in the cellars, where they crowd together 
thick enough to keep themselves warm. The police know 
of more than half a dozen caves excavated in favorable situ- 
ations by these street boys, which are capable of accommo- 
dating from twelve to twenty-five boys each. Into these sub- 
terranean dens the boys crawl through a small aperture, and, 
once within the grimy cavern, the coldest weather may be 

It has happened that a dozen or more masculine Ara])s 
have secured a cavernous abode, and taken a girl of fourteen 
from her wretched home to play the role of housekeeper for 
the tribe. Such an establishment was broken up not a great 
while ago. 

Sometimes two clans of street boys will disagree, and u 
feud between them be the result. Severe fights take place 
between them, and very often serious wounds are received and 
inflicted by the combatants. Such feuds are perpetuated for 
years sometimes. 

Stealing is practiced as a fine art by a large section of tho 


Arabian tribes. Gambling is a vice indulged in by all. It is 
the delight of the Arab, when an opportunity is offered for 
him to get into the gallery of one of the variety theatres. The 
genus make excellent claquers, to render famous the latest 
star clog dancer, or the most abbreviated dressed female dan- 
seuse of the variety boards. The applause they indulge in is 
perfectly deafening. 

The problem of rescuing the street boys and girls from 
their career of vice and crime, has often engaged the attention 
of the philanthropic people of the city. Sometimes much 
good has been accomi)lished among them by the efforts of 
friends who have established Mission Sunday-schools especially 
for their benefit. The Newsboys' Home is one of the permanent 
institutions established in their particular interest. In another 
part of this work we give a more specific account of that 
and other means which have been provided to assist in their 
reformation and elevation. 



Only about one-fifth of the inhabitants of St. Louis, ac- 
cording to the estimates of well-informed persons, reside in 
their own houses. Of course, then, four-fifths are tenants in 
houses belonging to other people. There are several classes 
or orders of tenement people. Our present purpose is to deal 
with only two or three of the lower orders of such inhabitants. 

Tenement life in St. Louis is certainly not as bad as it is in 
some of the districts of New York city, but, as we shall see, 


it is bad enough ; too bad, indeed, for the moral well-being of 

There are not a very great number of tenement buildings 
of vast extent in St. Louis. A few such there are, and some 
of them arc wretched enough to make social pariahs of all their 
inmates. If it were not advertising them, we might mention 
two or three large tenement houses which do credit to the 
humanity and goodness of their owners ; and then we might 
mention some large tenement houses that are a disgrace to the 
owners and cast a severe reflection on the good name of the 
city. Why such nuisances are permitted to exist is more than 
we can tell. There are houses for which their owners ask hijrh 
rents, which are simply a disgrace to our civilization. We 
write but the simple truth. 

Some of the largest and worst tenement ])uildings in the 
city are situated in what is known as the Third District, in the 
Second and Fourth Wards of the city. Many of these are 
built on back lots, and instead of fronting on the street, they 
look out upon dirty alleys that always emit a loetid odor. They 
are dilapidated, grimy and foul beyond our powers of de- 
scription. In many of them white and black people are mixed 
up promiscuously, and somehow manage to eke out an exis- 
tence in the midst of smells of awful potency. 

The stranger visiting St. Louis for a few days only is not 
at all likely to become acquainted with these social pest-houses. 
Some of them belong to very respectable gentlemen, who 
dwell in stone-front, plate-glass-windowed buildings in Stod- 
dard's Addition, and attend church on Sundays with scrupu- 
lous regularity, and on other days, Avith rigid punctuality, 
they collect the rent from the miserable tenants in the foul 
houses, which poverty compels them to inhabit. 

A large brick building on Eightii Street, between Carrand 
Biddle, has been named by the police ofticers " Castle Thun- 
der." Taken altogether, this is one of the worst tenement 
buildings in the city, and its inhabitants arc altogether as hard 
a lot of men, women and children, of all nationalities and 
colors, as can anywhere be found. A considerable majority of 
the crowded population of the " Castle " are colored people, 
but white or black, they are alike of the most inferior class. 




Negro rousta- 
bouts, white 
vagrants, Avhite 
and black wo- 
men without 
deccnc}^ live 
crowded to- 
gether. " Fort 
Sumptcr," is 
the name given 
another tene- 
ment building, 
little better in 
r e p u t a t i o n 
than ' ' Castio 

The scene 
presented in 
the cut is very 
suggestive and 
true to the life. 
It presents one 
of the alleys or 
foot-ways in 
the rear of 
" Castle Thun- 
der." The old 
woman, with 
the Satanic 
face at tlio 
window, has 
resolved to 
keep the old 
man, who has 
been keeping 
late hours over 
his benzine, 
from entering 
their palatial 


home. A rain storm has come up, and Iho old fellow liiids 
his bed near the outlet of a gutter spout — very uncomfortable 
indeed. He shouts long and loudly to the charmer inside, 
■who appears at the window with the angelic smile and soft 
hand waving, as depicted by the artist. Such is life among 
the dwellers in these wretched .slums. 

During summer the hot stews of evil smells in " Castle 
Thunder" arc deserted for the top of the house and the liltK^ 
courts and allej^s about the localit3^ Sometimes hundreds of 
them may be seen, representing both sexes and both the white 
and the black races, slumbering in promiscuous groups on the 
house-tops, and in the court-yard and alley-ways. The place 
is exceedingly unpleasant in rainy weather. 

Not far from these buildings, in the same district, that is 
on the block enclosed by the lines of Seventh and Eighth 
streets, and Wash and Carr streets, are situated a number of 
three and some four-story buildings, on the alleys Avhich in- 
tersect the block. This spot was once noted in police par- 
lance as " The Cross Ke3^s," on account of the existence of 
two alleys, extending half way across the block from Carr 
Street, and because the alleys made an offset at the point of 
intersection in the center of the l)lock. The large building on 
the southeast corner of these alleys is generally full. It is 
possible that some of the inhabitants are simply decent, but 
unfortunate people. But the major jiart of the people who 
make this locality their home, are un(]uestional)ly only raised 
a little above the wild Indians of the plains. In point of 
morality the Indians have a decided advantage. 

Few people accustomed to read the St. Louis city journals 
do not remember some incident in the annals of the police 
force, in which the scene is laid in Clabber Alley, or in Wild 
Cat Chute. These are notorious tenement alleys, in which the 
worst classes of both sexes are residents. 

It is difhcult to draw the lines of distinction between the 
ffood and the bad, the innately vicious and wicked on the one 
hand, and the unhappy victims of misfortune on the other, 
when we come to deal with the inhabitants of these wretched 
localities. In some instances, undouljtedly, some of tlu'inhab- 
itauts of these neighborhoods are simply victims of misfortune ; 




ill other cases, 
those who ten- 
ant these foul 
and grimy 
places are, 
without doubt, 
willfully vic- 
ious. They are 
outcasts by na- 
ture. They 
would not have 
better quarters 
than such as 
are afforded in 
the neighbor- 
hoods which 
we have indi- 
cated. And 
these are bad 
enough quar- 
ters in all con- 

In Collins 
Street, and all 
along the dis- 
trict Ijnngeast 
of Broadway, 
there are mul- 
titudes of ten- 
ants who are 
in a wretched 
state of pover- 
ty. The fault 
of these peo- 
ple, as a gen- 
eral thing, is 
the love of 
strong drink, 
which they 


indulge to an inordinate extent. From Franklin Avomio 
to Cass Avenue, and from Eighth Street to Sixteenth Street, 
there exists a very populous region, in which householders 
and tenants dwell together. The people in this district 
arc in a much better condition than are the dwellers in the 
tenement houses east of Eighth Street. There arc many per- 
sons in this part who own their own houses, and many othcis 
who arc well-to-do mechanics and workingmen, who desire to 
live in a better style and a more isolated manner than they 
could in a great tenement house. 

But in this district there are a very large number of tenants 
who live in the most wretched condition, in the midst of the 
direst poverty, and whose children are growing up to acquaint- 
ance with every form of vice. There are sinks of ini(|uity in 
the district named that rival any similar localities in any East- 
ern city. From among the girls brought up in such regions, 
victims for the assignation houses and tenants for the houses 
of shame are sought and found. The bo3^s in many instances 
become sneak-thieves, find their way to houses of correction, 
and eventually become the thieves and murderers who popu- 
late our State Prison. 

In various sections of the city are to be seen whole tracks 
of land thickly built up with the most wretched habitations 
imaginable. These are mere shanties, erected by poor people 
on land not their own, upon which they have constructed their 
dwellings without the leave or license of the owner of the soil. 
The largest and best known settlement of this character is the 
Kerry Patch settlement. A few years ago a much larger area 
of land Avas covered by the shanties than at jiresent. The 
Kerry people have not succeeded in establishing lor themselves 
an enviable reputation for amiability. On the contrary, they 
are esteemed to be rather pugnacious. As a general thing 
the citizens of Kerry Patch are laboring men, who, for the 
price of a couple of months' rent of rooms, have obtained the 
material with which they constructed dwellings, which have 
served them and their families for five, six and seven years. 

The shanties are not always kept in the best of repair, as 
will readily be seen by examining the accompanying cut of a 
first-class Kerry Patch residence. The hinges of the windows 





are often broken, the doors down, and bundles of rags often 
do service to keep the wind from circulating too freely, be- 
cause of broken window panes. The people of Kerry Patch 

are poor, but 
Their chief 
cousistin punch- 
ing each other's 
eyes, occasion- 
ally battering up 
a "peeler," 
yclept police- 
man, and in 
dog-fights and 
cocking mains 
on Sundays. 
They are quite 
religiously in- 
clined, and be- 
stow great rev- 
erence on tho 
pastor of the 
parish in which 
they live. Tru- 
ly, neither the 


women are the most tidy in dress and lovely in manner 
that could be conceived of, but they arc a ver}^ animated 
people when they are moved to wield the " shtick or hurl the 

What joy can such homes give to those who spend a 
wretched existence within these miserable abodes? And yet 
on Sundays and holidays these poor wretches go abroad and 
engage in pastimes, and talk as cheerfully and laugh as lightly 
as though they were dwellers in marble halls. Alas ! their 
sensibilities require no higher enjoyment than is afforded 
them, even in the midst of their wretchedness. 



Not very long ago a number of gentlemen met in a place 
of public resort. The conversation turned upon the possibilitj 
of spiritual and supernatural influences acting upon the human 
organism, to the extent of making a revelation of things which 
the passive ajrent could not have known before. Amouir tho 
company was a highly respectable, very zealous, but not a 
very intelligent or wise professor of the orthodox Christian 
faith, who stoutly maintained that witches, wizards, and other 
devil-inspired persons, had always existed, and yet dwelt upon 
the earth. He had learned from the Bible that necromancers 
and witches and wizards, and people possessed of devils, lived 
in ancient days, and why not now? And the question waa 
pertinent. If there were such persons in existence at any 
time in the past, there is no reason that they might not have 
successors. This gentleman contended that the Devil was as 
potent now as in the days of Saul and the woman of Endor, 
and there was neither science nor good sense in rejecting the 
belief in witches, wizards and such like persons, who belong 
exclusively to the Devil. True, there is a marked diflerence 
in the character of Milton's Satan and Gothe's Mcphistopheles, 
and these in turn must have a very ditTcrent charaotei- from 
that Avhich the Christian Darwinians have evolved. Milton's 
Satan is a debased intellect, w^ith boundless ambition, a sui)er- 
natural bemg, who has lost the vulgar flesh and bone, horn 
and hoof character of the .Jewish Rabbis and Christian fathers. 
Gothe's Mcphistopheles is the incarnation of our complicated 
modern social evils, full of mean, petty tricks and K^arncd (pio- 
tations ; he piously turns up his eyes, he lies, he doubts, ho 



calumniates, seduces, philosophizes, sneers, but all in a polite 
and educated way, since he is a scholar, a theologian, a politi- 
cian and a diplomatist. 

The Darwinian devil lately evolved from the super-scien- 
tific brain of modern thinkers, is altogether another sort of 
character. He is unlike any other devil before known to the 
sages and theologians of the world. It may l)c in order to 
express some doubt as to the capacity of tliis devil to serve as 
master and instructor of our professors of occult sciences. 

This Darwinian devil evolved himself from the protophism 
of ignorance. Of course then this devil was in process of 
development through countless cycles, and in the gloomv fog 
of fear and superstition, he grew by degrees from a rudely 
formed but doubtless an originally ugly toadstool, throu<di 
all the gradations up to the horrible monster which human 
fears have painted him. To the prehistoric man of Kansas 
he must have appeared as a gigantic grasshopper, or Rocky 
Mountain locust, and in various lands this Darwinian devil 
must have assumed many shapes. He is the Protean devil 
after all. This reptile devil, the owl devil, raven, dog, wolf, 
lion. Centaur, monkey, elephant, and the most uncouth of all 
devils, the Dagon-dcvil, once worshiped in Palestine, a sort of 
half man and half fish monster, which was doubtless only one 
of the stages through which the Darwinian devil passed in the 
cycles of his evolution. Now, there can be no question that 
the Darwinian devil has passed through more forms and con- 
sequently must possess a more universal character than any 
other devil known to history. But is that any evidence of his 
fitness to play the role of head-master in the occult schools of 
our city? To our mind, Gothe's devil is the greatest cheat, 
liar and fraud of any one of the family whose history has yet 
been written ; and being a gentleman and a scholar, it seems 
only reasonable that he should inspire the distinguished men 
and women who are able to make revelations concerning the 
past and the future of a stranger's history. 

We beg pardon of our readers for this brief treatise on the 
members of the devil family, but inasmuch as we are treating 
of a class of people who are popularly sui)posed to be under 
the continual control of a sort of infernal schoolmaster, it 


was deemed best to describe different sorts of devils in 
order that our readers might reach a safe conclusion as to 
which of them acts the role of head-master to our occult 
academies, where men and women learn the art of unraveling 
the web of destiny for any willing to pay them a dollar or two. 
The pupils of these institutes are to be found nearly every- 
where in the city. 

Of professional astrologists, fortune-tellers and mediums 
of various kinds, there are in St, Louis no less than one hun- 
dred, and it is believed that all these make a comfortable 
sustenance for themselves by the practice of their profession. 
Some make large incomes. 

If we were advertising the business of such charlatans, we 
might describe the apartments of a certain professor of occult 
science, who advertises himself as the world-renowned Dr. — 
well, we will say Dot. But that is not our mission. We may 
say that Dr. Dot has a finely furnished suite of apartments in 
a fashionable part of the city ; that he dresses exceedingly 
well ; that he is admitted into social circles which claim to be 
quite exclusive. Dr. Dot has another office in an unfashion- 
able part of the city, which is under the direction of an assist- 
ant. Dr. Dot advertises in distant papers — can be consulted 
by mail, and will reveal the secrets of life to the inquirer. 
His mail is sent to the office in the unfashionable street — and 
to a name his fashionable friends do not know. His patrons 
are often people of wealth, and it is said that Doctor Dot's 
income exceeds ten thousand dollars a year. He claims to be 
an astrologer. He is a man of fair education, agreeable man- 
ners, and altogether, he is well calculated to win his way in 
society, especially when he has the reputation of being a 
gentleman of fortune, with sufficient secure investments to 
return him a good income. The Doctor always visits his 
ini fashionable office after night and looks over his mail and 
directs his correspondence. 

Being a gentleman of popular manners, and well provided 
for in funds. Dr. Dot finds means of doing his friends and 
associates out of many hundreds of dollars in the course of a 
year. His game is as follows : Once in the rotunda of one of 
our fashionable hotels, Dr. Dot, who does not pass under that 


name in the beau monde, was telling a company of admiiino- 
friends., with more cash than, abont a strange adventure 
he had passed through at a recent period. He had lost his 
elegant chronometer ; he was distressed about it ; he heard of 
the great Dr. Dot accidentally through a friend. He concluded 
to consult him. He had some diflSculty in finding his olKce. 
The Professor at once told him who had his watch, and how 
he was to proceed in order to recover it. He followed the 
direction given, and had the happiness of repossessing his 
watch in less than twenty-four hours. It was all very strange 
to him. Really he could not tell where the Professor held 
forth, but it was on such and such a street, near to such 
another street, but indeed he was not good in rcmemberinff 
numbers — for the life of him could not remember the number 
of the Professor's house. The Professor well understands 
that the curiosity of his hearers will prompt them to pay a visit, 
and then he well knows that through information given by 
himself, his brother or nephew, who plays projihet at the office, 
will know how to bleed the fine gentlemen friends of his other 
character. Dr. Dot, the astrologist, pockets the larger portion 
of the cash which has stimulated sundry persons to spend 
while in his other character as Major Blank, the easv-goin<»- 
gentleman of competency and fortune. Dr. Dot and his 
associates belong to the higher class of astrologists. He is 
the outside man in St. Louis, while in the Cincinnati cstal>- 
lishment, which the firm operates, the genial, pleasant Major 
Blank is the veiled prophet. 

There is still another class of humbugs of this species, 
namely, the world-renowned jSIadame de Plesses, and Lotties, 
and Annas, and Coras, who advertise their business in the 
local journals, and have apartments in ostcnsii)ly rcsi)ectable 
boarding-houses. These, for the most part, claim to be lately 
from Paris or Berlin, or Madrid, Vienna, St. Petersburg, or 
London, and are not unfrequently announced as seventh 
daughters of seventh daughters. These are peripatetics, and 
are irenerally accompanied by an agent of the masculine sex. 
Sometimes those who advertise as fortune-tellers and clairvoy- 
ants and mediums, are no more immoral in character than 
other classes of advertising humbugs ; but there are many of 


these wandering fortune-tellers who use the profession as a 
pretext, while they act as agents in recruiting young girls for 
houses of shame in other cities. The fallen wretches of St. 
Louis have their agents in Chicago, Cincinnati, and other 
places, while recruits are sought in this city for the bagnios of 
those centers of population. 

The clairvoyant mediums have been so often described 
that we deem it unnecessary to devote much time or space to 
them in these pages. Spiritualistic circles exist in consider- 
able numbers in St. Louis, and one might be present at a 
seance any evening, if he so desired. Trance mediums are 
tolerably numerous, besides the mediums Avho come from 
other localities to expound the doctrines of spiritual commu- 
nication, and act as mediums through which the disembodied 
spirits may communicate with their friends who are yd in the 
material tenements. Of course these seances are exhausting, 
perhai)S because of the reluctance of the ethereal beings to 
quit the perfect peace and happiness of the summcrland even 
for a brief space, and therefore the medium generally assures 
the recipients of other-world communications that gifts in 
cash are well-pleasing in the sight of the spirits, hence their 
desire for filthy lucre, not that the medium cares, of course 
not, but because of the reluctance of the disembodied to 
answer calls made by persons of a sordid disposition. 

Many of the female fortune-tellers who employ cards, and 
palmistry and cofiee and tea grounds in casting the horoscope 
of those who consult them, are grossly ignorant, and can 
practice their art only among the poor and ignorant classes, 
over whom, it must be owned, they exercise an immense 

The largest number of patrons of these professors of the 
gifts of prophecy and second sight, and spiritual inspiration, 
are women and girls, principally belonging to the lower classes. 
Servant girls desire to know how their beaux feel affected 
toward them, and whether they are sincere, and Avhen they 
may expect to have their bridal trousseau ready, and many 
other things. But these are not the only people who, like 
Saul of old, desire to consult the necromancers and women 
with familiar spirits. Superstition is a plant that often 



flourishes as luxuriantly in the palace as in the hovel. Sonio 
of the best patrons of the professors of occult knowleth'c aro 
persons of high social standing, who, like Micodenius, seek 
information by night. Ladies of wealth, and shrewd business 
men, alike consult them. 

There can be little doubt that some of these old hao-s who 


assume to forecast the future are very wicked i)ers()ns ; that 
they are only procuresses in disguise, and are capable of any 
crime. That they accomplish much evil, there is no room for 
a doubt. Such as are not positively bad are humbugs at best, 
and only the grossly ignorant and superstitious are their 
patrons. Such are the features of Mystic St. Louis, which 
our readers will appreciate. 



The genus tramp is of modern origin — an outgrowth or 
excrescence of a diseased condition of the social body. Be- 
tween the rural tramp and the city vagabond there is only the 
likeness which exists between well-marked varieties of the 
same species. The one prefers the l)road fields, the lanes, the 
bountiful, if coarse, fare obtainable at the wayside farm-house. 
The other does not fancy walking on country highways ; they 
arc cither too muddy or too dusty for his metro[)olitan tread. 
Nor does our fastidious city vagabond relish the homely fare 
of the sturdy agriculturists. He infinitely prefers dainty 
scraps of steak and shreds of tender spring lamb, and some- 
times the but half-picked bones of the spring chicken, which 
come from the talkie of the city gentleman. Indeed, your 
genuine city vagrant has the tastes of an epicure and the 
appetite of a gourmand. These refined propensities can not 
be so well gratified among the grangers. Another cause of 


his aversion to country life is the provoking ease with which 
the toil-worn wealth-producers of the rural regions manage to 
find something for him to do — some job which will afford him 
an opportunity to earn his porridge. If there is one thing in 
all the world fully calculated to fill the soul of the genuine 
vagabond Avith unutterable disgust, surely it is the fact that 
there there is work for him to do. Death in its most horrible 
form would not aff*ect his delicate sensibilities much more. 
Therefore, it is, that our high-toned city vagabond avoids v/ith 
reliofious ftiithfulness the demoralizing influence of labor ; 
hence he ventures as little as possible into the country. 

Your city vagabond is often a man of extensive information. 
He reads the newspapers ; knows Avhat is going on in political 
circles ; keeps posted in regard to the movements of actors 
and actresses ; and has no objection to giving his opinion con- 
cerning the musical proficiency of the different yourig ladies 
and gentlemen who took part in the last fashionable amateur 

And, in truth, many of them are really persons who have 
filled honorable stations in life — some of them arc classical 
ischolars. We have met graduates of Harvard and Yale, 
the University of Virginia, and other first-grade American 
institutions of learning ; and once knew a ragged, penniless 
vagrant, who carried with him the credentials of a Fellow of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and possessed a facility in Greek 
composition which would have astonished an American college 
president. Another city vagrant, Avho was once a frequenter 
of the saloons of St. Louis, Avas the Avearer of a high literary 
degree, obtained from Trinity College, Dublin, and Avas a 
linguist thoroughly versed in the classics, the Italian, Spanish, 
French and German languages. Of course these Averc ex- 
ceptional cases, and all of them Avere persous Avho had seen 
better days; men Avho had no future before them, and made 
no effort to regain the high station from Avhich they had 
descended. This class of city vagabonds never leave unless it 
be to make an effort to reach another city. The country to 
them Avould be unendurable. 

Another class of vagrants occupy the boundary betAveen 
helpless vagrancy and downright sneak-thieving. They are 



men rude jind unlettered, with ii strong propensity de^^eloped 
to avoid all kinds of niannid lahor, and they are fitted for 
nothing else. These are generally found loafing about l>ar- 
roonis and on street eorners. They have the same aversion to 
the eountry notice*] among 
other classes. They know 
nothing of country life, 
and the}' long ago resolved 
that they would not knoAV 
if they could. 

Still another class ot 
vagabonds are met with in 
the great city. These are 
generally young men who 
use the slang of the slums, 
and who lounge around 
particular p 1 a; c e s , and 
make raids in the night 
time. They are techni- 
callv called loafers, young 
roughs, engaged ni learn- 
ing the shortest, easiest, 
and quickest way into the 
State's prison. Talk to 
them about work in the 
country ? AVhy , they would 
not undertake to do an 
honest day's Avork for all 
the wages paid the best 
Avorkman, for a week's 
Avages. Go to Avork ! No ; 
nothing of that kind for 
them. Mention a job to 
them and they will assume 
an insulting attitude, and 

in an ofFensive tone inquire '• What d'ye soy? 
the Avorst of all A'agrants. 

The rural tramp sometimes comes to the city, for he is an 
experienced traveler, and makes himself at home in any place. 


These are 


The accompanying portrait is one of a country tramp, tempo- 
rarily inhabiting the city. During their stay they lodge in 
lumher-yards and vacant lots, in suburban districts, and manage 
to pick up a living, which keeps them in very good physical 
condition. The fellow-citizen of America, so accurately 
depicted by the artist presents an appearance of physical thrift 
very much out of keeping with his apparent social environ- 

This work is not intended as a statistical production, hence 
we have not taken the pains to ascertain the precise number of 
vagabonds and tramps constantly present in the city. It is safe 
to sa}', however, that they may be enumerated by the thousand. 
And Avhat can be done with tiiem? Ah! that is a question. 
Social science congresses debate it, and closet-students study 
their peculiarities, and theorize concerning their condition and 
the causes which produced them. We have our own views, 
too, and those views arc clearly and sharply outlined, but this 
is not the place for their ventilation. AVe deal only Avith the 
fact. The tramps arc here, and so arc the vagrants, and they 
are likely to remain here. 

Day after day and week after week they come and go, 
from the city to the country, and from the country to the city. 
And the vagabonds are here, in their environments, and hero 
they remain, and will remain. What can be done about it? 
Society must bear the burden of their maintenance. If society 
is partly responsible for their presence, society pays the 
penalty with costs, for society is wholly chargeable with their 

In winter time the tramps and vags must have " shelter 
and grub." They come to the city in crowds. The soup- 
house was their home, a bunk their bed last winter, and luny 
be the next. In summer time the tramp is quite an indc[)cn- 
dent character. In the evenings he can retiic to a secluded 
lumber-yard, and slumber the night aAvay. Then, the city 
vagabond finds a comfortable place in the all-night houses. He 
gets his drinks, too, and the bar-keeper generally gets his pay. 
The city vagabond is cunning. At early dawn he comes forth 
from his night refuge, and begins maneuvering for his morning 
drink. He meets a benevolent-looking stranger, and at once 


invites him to furnish him a drink. He is generally successful. 
The man who Avould refuse to give a dime will not refuse a 
thirsty mortal a dram. He invites the tramp to the nearest 
bar-room, and tells the barman to give the fellow a drink, at 
the same time throwing the requisite amount of cash on the 
counter. With profuse thanks our vagabond gentleman pours 
out a full glass and tosses it oft". If he linds any one willing 
to talk, or rather to listen, he Avill become garrulous, and tell 
the listening by-standers of his former state and greatness. 

Day after day, the same method is pursued, the tramp 
changing his locality as often as may be deemed necessary. 
He goes upon the principle that it is best not to " wear out his 
welcome." But, he must live and he must have his drinks; 
and though he does not and will not work, yet, after all, society 
supports him. He will live, and flourish too ; and there is no 
method yet discovered by which he can be prevented from 
doing so. They are ever 

" The hollow orbs of movinj^ oirnimslance 
Rolled round by one Hxed law." 



The repose of the remains of the dead in the narrow tene- 
ments of earth to which loving hands have consigiuMl them, 
cjui not l)e assured in this venal nge. Schools of i'listruction 
in medical science require subjects for dissection, and there 
are always to be found ghoulish men ready to supply the 
demand. In truth it is a ghastly commerce, and yet there 
have been many persons engaged in it in St. Louis. Perhaps 
there is not so much grave-robbing carried on at present as 


there was some years ago. A law of the State of Missouri 
authorizes the physicians in charge of public hospitals to give 
to the various medical schools the unclaimed bodies of such 
of the unfortunates as may die in hospitals. Since the pas- 
sao-e of that act, the business, technically known as body- 
snatching, or crave-robbing, has very much fallen off. But 
still it has not been abandoned, and many a body is exhumed 
in the quiet precincts of Bellefontaine, Calvary, Picker's, Holy 
Trinit}^ St. Peter's, and other cities of silence in the vicinity 
of the great city. 

It may be that the disembodied spirits of the departed 
ones take no interest in the earthy forms — the chrysalis — from 
which they have escaped. But the living honor the dust of 
the dead, and cherish the sod beneath which the beloved foims 
are mouldering as a sacred shrine, where the heart worshipeth 
the memory of the lost ; where they 

"Contemplate, all alone, 
The life that had been theirs below, 
And lix the tlioiights on all the glow 
To which the Crescent would have grown." 

For this reason the human mind naturally recoils from the 
matter of fact way with which science is required to deal with 
the tenement of the soul when once the living spark has 
fled. Hence, also, our horror at the idea of making mer- 
chandise of the mortal remains of those we knew and loved 
during their career in time. We can not forget thetu ; and 
although all that remains of them is but dust, there is a 
measure of sad satisfaction in the knowledge we have con- 
cerning the place where that sacred dust has been deposited. 
We can not help it if we become melancholy when we con- 
template the universal reign of death. In such mood we know 

"Tears from the depth of some divine despair 

Rise in the heart and gather to the e\es." 

In such frame of mind we very naturally entertain senti- 
ments of extreme aversion toward the choul-like human bcinj]: 
who would seek the hallowed precincts of the ceiuetery and 
diir down into the narrow o-rave and dras' from its dark abode 
the clav-cold forms of our beloved ones. 


And yet such men there are, wlio woiikl resurrect the very 
dust of their grandmothers and convert it into sordid goUl, 
were such a thing possible. In all large cities "body-snatch- 
ing," as it is called, is followed as an occupation to a greater 
or less extent. Medical men \vish sulyects for dissection, and 
the wants of students of anatomy and physiology, both i)rivate 
and public, of course beget a demand for dead bodies, and 
there are always enough people unemployed who rejoice at an 
opportunity to engage in the business. 

That "body-snatching" has been extensively carried on, 
and as a matter of course must have been profitable, in St. 
Louis in other days, we will take the testimony offered by the 
condition of large numbers of graves when the growing 
demand for space required the abandonment and removal of 
the remains from some of the old cemeteries of the city. In 
many cases when the old Presbyterian Cemetery was aban- 
doned and the graves were opened to remove the remains, it 
was found that the coffins had been rifled of their contents ; 
in some cases billets of wood had been substituted lor the 
dust of the dead. So, too, when the gj-aves of the "NVcsleyan 
Cemetery were opened, not a few of them were found empty; 
and so of all the old cemeteries which have given place to the 
growins; citv. 

The number of arrests made, or even of the discoveries 
of robberies of this character, when compared with the number 
of crimes of this sort annually committed, are in all probability 
comparatively small. 

Notwithstanding the existence of a law giving the unclaimed 
bodies of the pauper dead of the city hospitals to the medical 
colleges for dissection, yet there is reason to believe that the 
trade in dead bodies in St. Louis is still maintained ; and there 
can be no doubt that the bodies of some of those who were 
laid away to rest in the pensive forests of Bellefontaine and 
Calvary, and St. Peter's and Picker's, and others of the ceme- 
teries adjacent to the city, have been exhumed, conveyed to 
the medical colleges' dissecting-rooms, or the private othrc of 
a country doctor, and their bones at last converted into gliastly 
skeletons, hung up in country doctor-shops, to be the wonder 
and terror of rural urchins and lasses. But these robberies 


were successfully accomplished. The dead tell no tales, and 
the livino- can not keep an eternal watch over the graves of. 
even the most devotedly loved ones. 

One of the most interesting cases of graveyard robbery 
which ever occurred in the city of St. Louis, led to the 
arraignment of one Ernest Doepkc, a man of considerable 
propert}^ in the Criminal Court, charged with a felony in 
stealing from Picker's graveyard, on the 14th of December, 
1875, the coiSn containing the body of one Conrad Doll, and 
his case is even now pending in the Supreme Court. Still 
more recently, on the occasion of removing bodies from the 
Wesleyan Cemetery, it was found that several graves had been 
molested, and one coffin contained nothing but a great log of 
wood. The Doepke case was in some respects peculiar. 
About 4 p. M., on the 14th of Decem.ber, 1875, Conrad Doll, 
father-in-law of Louis Merkel, was buried in the cemetery of 
the Church of the Holy Spirit. At 9 o'clock that evening, it 
being a dark, rainy night, a covered wagon drew up to a house 
of entertainment near by, and after the horses had been 
watered, was driven off in the direction of the cemetery. 
Persons in the house had their suspicions aroused, and rightly 
ffuessed that some " bodv-snatching " business was about to 
take place. A posse of citizens was at once quietly and 
quickly gathered together, and the graveyard was approached 
and surrounded on all sides. Those listening at the fence 
soon heard the sound of the pick and shovel and the murmur 
of suppressed voices. Following these sounds, the posse 
gradually came upon the ghouls as their work was finished. 
The coffin had been taken out of the grave and put in the 
wagon with the body, whose long gray hair streamed free to 
the wind. As the Doepkc party were driving out of the 
cemetery, some of the citizens seized the horses' heads. There 
was a short and desperate struggle in the dark, but the citizens 
prevailed. Doepke and his two assistants were at their cap- 
tors' mercy. 

Under the law the stealing of the body was only a misde- 
meanor, and Doepke was, with a view to his being sent to the 
penitentiary, indicted for grand larceny in the stealing of the 
rosewood coffin containing Doll's body. On trial in the 



Criminal Court, Doepke was found guilty and awarded two 
years at Jefferson City. jNIotiou for new trial was filed mid sus- 
tained, on the ground of varianee between the aUegalion of 
the indictment and the proof, for it turned out that the eoftin 
was really not rosewood, only an imitation. A now imlietnient 
was found, charging the stealing of an imitation rosewood 
coffin, and again was Doepke found guilty on trial and sen- 
tenced to two years in the State penitentiary. Appeal was 
taken to the Court of Appeals, which sustained the Circuit 


Attorney, and still another appeal to the Supreme Court, 
where the case was lately pending. 

Of course, as soon as Doepke had been arrested, all sorts 
of stories commenced to be told about himself and his nefa- 
rious business. It Avas said that for years he had had the 
burying of the pauper dead in the potter's field, and tliat on 
opening many of the graves the coffins were found eni[)ty. 
A wild, weird story was told by a woman, who, it was said, 
had accompanied her employer, Doepke, to the pauper burying 



ground for the purpose of opening a grave ; of how, when 
that grave was opened, the inmate of the coffin was found to 
have been Iniricd alive, and that a spade blow ended that 
pauper's life then and there. The story is, of course, wholly 
incredible, and is only given as a sample of the sensational 
tales put in circulation about that time. 

Just how the medical schools of St. Louis got their sub- 
jects for the dissecting-room in the olden time is one of those 
things that has not been found out. The supply was never 
equal to the demand, and about two years ago the Legislature, 
b}^ enactment, decreed that the bodies of all patients dying in 
the city charitable hospitals, and unclaimed within forty-eight 
hours after death, should be distributed among the various 
medical colleges, in proportion to the number of students in 
attendance on each college. Since the passage of this act the 
city hospitals have been looked to as the source of subjects 
for anatomical demonstration. Even this regulation has not 
worked quite successfully, on account of the difficidty of 
regulating the death rate so as to supply specimens just when 
they are needed, and in periods of low mortality the supply 
has fallen fearfully and wofully short of the legitimate demand. 

The robbers of the graves of the dead do it for money. 
There is some risk attending the conduct of this sort of traffic, 
and the medical students have had to pay handsomeh'' for 
subjects in the past. It is 23ossil)le that there is comparatively 
little body-snatching going on in this city at present. 

There is a prejudice against dissecting the bodies of the 
dead among the masses of the people. In consequence of 
this condition of public sentiment, a very large number of 
bodies of paupers who die at the city institutions are claimed 
by friends and buried, who might otherwise remain in the 
back ground, and leave the defunct to find repose in potters' 
field. Because the people dislike the notion of allowing the 
bodies of the dead being carved up by medical students, even 
l)aupers' in death have friends who care for their mortal 
remains. It is a fact, that all the paupers dying in St. Louis 
hospitals do not furnish a sufficient number of subjects for the 
colleges alreadv established. 

But after all, this traffic in the bodies of the dead is a 


ghoulish, ghastly business. Think of this midnight trip to 
the solemn cljirkness of the cemetery ; the stealthy approach ; 
the whispered consultation ; the (juiet and secret work ; tinally 
the opened grave ; the disentombed coffin ; the clay-cold form 
of the dead, lifted from its resting place, and liurriodly jjlaced 
in a wagon to be carried away to the charnal-room of the 
medical college ; all there in the shadow of the gloomy night ! 
Who would care to engage in such business, when 

'The powers of the night, 
That range above the region of the wind. 
Deepening the courts of twilight, brealv them up 
Through all the silent spaces of the worlds.*' 

But in this materialistic a2:e, for orokl, men will enfjajje 
even to rob the livinof of the dust of their dead. 



A box-like contrivance, six feet long and three feet wide, 
mounted on a pair of wheels a la gig, with a man phiying the 
part of the horse, is not unfrequently charged with the fortune 
and the hopes of a newly-made American citizen, lately of King 
Humbert's dominions. Many such peripatetic sales-stalls are 
to be met with on our streets by the visitor. Generally there 
are two men — let me say Messrs. Macaroni and Vermicelli, 
for instance — with these wandering stores. Mr. Macaroni 
will propel the well-stocked perambulating fruit store, while 
Mr. Vermicelli will take the sidewalk and continually an- 
nounce, " Nice, fresh bannany ! on-lee twenty cent a doo-zin I" 
or " Ere's your nice, fresh pine-appela, on-le-e thirty cent 
apiece!" Then, immediately he calls out, in tones plainly 
audible five blocks away, " Pine ap-pel-la, nice p-i-nc ap-pel-la ! 



Pine appols!" Sometimes Mr. Vermicelli will carry with 
him a bugle, with which he ever and anon sounds the cavalry 
call, interspersed all along with the announcement of the 
character and quality of the fruits or nuts which he has for sale. 
The trade in tropical fruits and in nuts is largely in the 
hands of Italians, who are altogether the most successful 
vendors of such things on the street. Some of them peram- 
bulate the streets, while others are fixed at corner-stalls^ 
Some of them select a favorite corner and stop their peram- 


bulator in the gutter, while they continually cry out the 
quality and price of the fruits, nuts, etc., which they offer for 
sale to the passing throngs. Some of these street cries ar^ 
quite musical, and, uttered by the soft-voiced sons of Italy, 
the effect produced is not unpleasing. "Pea nut-^ee ! frez 
ro-asted pee nut-^ee ! On-ee Jive cent a quart !" The cadences 
employed in these efforts at commercial oratory are very 
pleasing and not unfrequently effective. 

Many of the fruit-stands on the corners are attended by 


girls and women, who are, with very few exceptions, Italian 
in nationality. Some of the corner frii it-venders carry quite 
a stock of fruits, nuts, etc., and in the course of years, by 
strict attention to business and the practice of the most rij;id 
economy, they have acquired C()nsideral)le fortunes. There is 
one corner-vendor with a stock of no more than tlnrty or forty 
dollars worth on dispUiy at a time, who pays taxes on foi'tv- 
five thousand dollars worth of real estate. 

A still humbler class of vendors than those we have mi'U- 
tioned carry a basket with a few apples, oranges, nuts, etc., 
according to the season. Not a few of these are Italian girls, 
ranging in age from five to fifteen 3'ears, and in many instances 
have been sent out by padrones, who have purchased their 
services and treat them like slaves. 

The patent-medicine vendor of St. Louis partakes of the 
nature of his class everywhere. Those who have paid any 
attention whatever to the characteristic features of a great 
city, have not failed to observe the noisy orator, who has taken 
possession of the mouth of an alley, or a little vacant space in 
the heart of the business part of the city, and from the " first 
dim shadow of dewy eve, till the full moon in Hiid-heaven 
careers," ceases not to assure a waiting, gaping crowd that 
the remedies he dispenses are sovereign panaceas for all the 
ills to which human flesh is heir. For a consideration any one 
of the company may try it on themselves. All the medi- 
cines the aEsculapian orator sells are cure-alls, and he gener- 
ally carries along several specimen huml)ug remedies. 

The " snide" jeweler on the corner, in the alley, or the 
vacant lot, is a similar being to the patent nostrum vendor. 
If he were not a " vsnide " jeweler, he would be a humbug 
medicme dispenser ; and if the nostrum vendor were not that, 
he would be a " snide " jeweler. Indeed, the same individual 
may play both i^oles at ditferent times. 

Another characteristic dealer of a great city is th(> seller (><' 
canary birds, from a convenient alley-mouth. The style of 
his game is something like the following: Having establisjied 
himself at a suitable place, he commences business i)y expos- 
ing- a caofe containing several birds, in front of which is a letter- 
rack filled with envelopes, enclosing a small slip on which 


some sentences are lithographed. Having engaged the at- 
tention of the passer-by, he proposes to have one of his birds 
to select an envelope, Avhich would prove to be the key to his 
future career. The "gudgeon" don't care for the nickel, 
which the bird merchant expresses a willingness to take. The 
bird in the cage, coaxed by the adroit dealer, hops about the 
cage and chirps and flutters, and then selects from the letter- 
rack in front of the cage the sealed envelope, which he raises 
in his bill and thrusts through the wires of his cage toward the 
nearest spectator. The object of the vendor is accomplished. 
The attention of the uninitiated flat is engaged, and he has a 
good chance to sell the " gray " a bird, which is really worth 
nothing, being a female and not a singer. The fortune-telling 
programme is merely an episode in the bird trade, seeing 
that the vendor in this case is always an adept in the art and 
mystery of selling valueless non-singing canary birds. The 
question asked is, " Do these birds sing I" The answer is, 
" Of course they do." And then the " flat " concludes to take 
one, and accept an invitation to tea at the home of the Misses 
Lofty, from whose tender parents he is just in receipt of an 
invitation — a high distinction, by the way. But alas ! the 
bird for which he parted with so much clear cash never repays 
him with a single wild carol. He wisely concludes that he 
will say nothing about having been caught as a " sucker," 
and gives his bird to the first little girl who is willing to accept 
it as an unmusical pet. 

The antiquarian book-dealers, who run the street stands, 
are a class of traders unlike all the rest. Among them are 
some people of strongly marked traits of character, full of ec- 
centricities and vagaries. As a general rule they are ipen of 
more than ordinary intelligence. They buy old and rare books, 
as opportunity off'ers, and sell them at a considerable profit. 
But they deal in all kinds of books, and they have among their 
patrons all classes of citizens. It is not unfrequently the case 
that a second-hand dealer may have in his stock works that 
are not for sale at the large book stores, and can not be found 
on the shelves of our extensive public libraries. 

Of course there are scores of perambulating dealers in 
everything which can be of possible use to mankind. The 


peiidler of novelties, patented articles, agents for the sale of 
toilet soaps, pins, needles, fancy goods, sewing machines, 
lightning rods, fluting irons, wringers, needle threaders ; in 
fact, it is possible to buy anything, from pianos and hand- 
grain mills to a patent pen-holder ami infinitesimal scent-bag, 
without once venturing beyond one's own threshold. 

In addition to the classes we have mentioned as street ven- 
dors, there are some hundreds of people who make a living as 
rag merchants on a small scale. They do not themselves 
gather rags, but having obtained a sufficient amount of wealth, 
they invest in a hand-cart, and go through tiie streets pro- 
claiming their mission. Strictly speaking, these are not ven- 
dors, but they are, nevertheless, members of the same class 
to which the persons w^e have heretofore described belong — 
that is, they are street traffickers. 

But by far the largest number of street vendors are in- 
cluded in the ranks of the hucksters — peddlers of domestic 
fruits and vegetables, sellers of kindling Avood, charcoal, etc. 
In the spring-time the flowers bloom, and in the si)ring-time 
the birds sing their love carols ; so, too, in the sj)ring-time, 
the huckster starts forth on his noisy mission. Al)ove the 
rumbling, crashing noises of the streets of the great hive of 
humanity rises the long-drawn proclamations: "Ch-a-r- 
c-o-al ! " " Nice n-e-w^ po-ta-toes f " " Straw-ber-rees .' ' ' 
*' Ross-ber-rees !" " Fine, fresh ban-nan-?^^^."' " Gre-en 
pe-es.^" " Ap-^o?5/" and other similar announcements, the 
cries being varied in accordance with the changes of the 
market. All over the city these street-cries resound from 
early morning until nightfall. Hundreds of men and ])oys, 
all through the variable spring sK'ason and the hot summer 
days, make their rounds, uttering the same monotonous cries. 
And this street traffic presents one of the most interesting 
phases of the stiuggle for existence — for wealth, in the 
crowded thoroughfares of the great city. Year in and year 
out the same announcements are made. The individuals change, 
but not the methods of l)usiness. Several generations of 
hucksters have come and gone already since St. Louis became 
a city, and a hundred generations may come and go ere the last 
huckster is laid to " rest 'neath the daisies." 



The dawdy dandies, those ill-conditioned and useless out- 
growths of our modern social conditions, are a class by them- 
selves well deserving of a special mention. To say the best 
that can be said for them, they are but foul excrescences on 
the social body. 

These fellows may be seen in groups and companies any fine 
afternoon on the most fashionable promenades of the city, 
when the innocence of girlhood and the beauty of bellehood 
throno; the thorousrhfares. 

His costume is modeled after the extreme of fashion ; pants 
of the greatest latitude flap gracefully as he ambles along, 
while collar and cuffs are of such prodigious prominence that 
one unconsciously finds himself wondering if he pays his laun- 
dress by the square yard. An eye-glass dangles carelessly 
upon his immaculate vest-front, when it is not daintily poised 
upon the nose, while the fascinating owner, with chin slightly 
elevated and head a little on one side, impudently ogles the 
passing belles. The other hand carries a delicate little cane, 
with which in moments of elegant leisure — and they are num- 
erous — he can gently tap his boot as he leans negligently against 
some convenient pillar or post. His favorite lounging place 
is the portico of a large hotel, or the doorway of some favorite 
restaurant, where his usual employment consists in picking his 
teeth, as if he wished to inform the world at large that he had 
just partaken of a most delectable lunch or dinner. The fair 
frequenters of the matinees will invariably find him in the row 
of male spectators drawn up in line of battle before the main 



exit from the theatre — a sort of vohinteer l)ody jrnard to pro- 
tect the weaker sex, one might ima<rine, if thej did not 
perceive, from the killing glances and graceful poses, that the 
object was only to "mash" frail feminine hearts. 

A sort of hrst cousin to the fashionable swell is the sport- 
ing swell, the principal ditferencp being that the latter is a tone 
or two louder and more vulgar than the former. The "sport" 
is apt to exhibit more shirt-front, with a brilliant display of 
diamonds thereon, and the style of his cravat and clothes gen- 
erally is not so neat and elegant as that of his more respect- 
able kinsman, and the latter, too, generally enjo3's even more 
eleo;ant leisure than the former, for as John (1. Saxe truly 
puts it, to be "without any visible means of support" is 

"A crime by no means flagrant 
In one wlio wears an elejjant coat. 
But the very points on which they vote 
A shabby man a vagrant." 

Again one very frequently sees a tall, rather thin, and 
beardless young man, arrayed entirely in black, with a serious 
cast of countenance, a sort of settled gravity as though life 
were too short to laugh and talk nonsense, and everybody 
must be up and busy preparing for the next world. If you 
follow this young man you will tind his destination to be the 
Baptist or Presbyterian, or some other Board of Publication 
rooms, whence he will soon issue with a package of tracts, or 
ornamental cards of printed texts for his Sunday-school. 
This sort of young man is inclined to think very well of him- 
self; his appearance indicates it; there is a sort of complacent 
look on his smooth., well-shaven face ; and his very locks, 
combed so neatly behind his ears, and curling over the collar 
of his coat, are redolent of assurance of self-satisfaction. 

Closely allied to the clerical youth is the "nice" young 
man. You will know him by his always being with the rest 
of the o-irls, or else dutifully escortinir his " ma." Another 
distinguishing mark is his never having a cigar — he doesn't 
smoke, nor chew, nor drink anything stronger than lemonade, 
nor swear, nor do anything else that is " naughty." lie has 


always been brought up with his sisters ; he was delicate in his 
youth, and isn't \ery strong now ; and, instead of playing 
snowball with the other boys, he sat in the house by the fire 
and sewed patch-work on his mother's knee. His earl}^ tastes 
have not changed with his years ; he stdl has a weakness for 
feminine fancies ; likes to sew on his own buttons, and do his 
own mending. He doesn't like to be left alone much in the 
dark, and quietly slips out of the way at the first mention of 
the probabilities of a fight. A slight lisp and affected pronun- 
ciation distinguish his speech, and of a Sunday he walks 
properly to church with a showy little j^rayer book in his hand. 

That gentlemanly looking fellow in the seedy coat is a 
young legal aspirant, at present somewhat unknown and strug- 
srlino-, but in his own estimation at least a future Blackstone. 
There is an eager, questioning look on his face as he glances 
at every passer-by, as though each one were a possible client 
commissioned by Heaven to open up to him the path to wealth 
and glory. 

Then there are the bummers, and the "mashers," all 
industriously occupied of a fine afternoon, staring at every 
passing lady, old or young, matron or maid. Working girls 
and sportive belles are alike objects of their attention. Of 
what use are such fellows in the world? Ah, who will answer? 
Thorns are they, prepared by some inscrutable agency to tor- 
ment human society, and blast all dreams of happiness and 
peace unalloyed by the presence of sin and shame ! Alas ! 
for the frailties of the race ! The wicked continue to trouble, 
and the world gets on slowly towards the millenium of perfec- 

If a stranger in the city w^ould esteem it pleasant to take 
up a position, any fine evening, on the corner of — well, say 
Fourth and Olive streets, — he would no doubt conclude that 
he was well repaid for the outlay of time before the shadows 
of evening fell and the gaslight gleamed through the dusky 
darkness. In such a position he would be very likely to 
become cognizant of the fact that, to use the stereotyped 
phraseology of the schoolboy's composition, " there are many 
different kinds of irirls." First and foremost, there is the 


school girl, who may be seen any bright inorniiig durinir school 
term, coming down Olive Street, wilii her i)ile of books uiukir 
her arm or neatly stowed away in a littU' l)ag which she swings 
carelessly by her side. The average age is " sweet sixteen ;" 
and mightily sweet she looks, too, in her neat school dress, 
always made in the latest style, and with a goodly number of 
bright bows and ribbons fluttering around. 8he doesn't exactly 
carry out the old nursery rhvme, "with riuirs on her flnsers 
and bells on her toes;" but the rings are a matter of fact, 
and the bells, instead of l)eing on the toes, are transferred to 
the Avrists in the shape of bangles, and sometimes dangle from 
the dainty ears or round the neck of the youthful student. 
Whatever is the latest vagary of fashion, you may be sure 
these young female Socrates will find it out and exhibit it on 
their costumes. As a rule, the school girl is prettv ; the 
freshness of her complexion is such as to render artificial com- 
pounds unnecessary ; and bright eyes, elastic step, and free 
movements, make her rather a pleasing picture to contem- 
plate. But it isn't well to go any further than outside contem- 
plation. The wisdom of the sages, with which she is supposed 
to be filling her pretty cranium, doesn't appear to take deep 
root. The soil evidently is not congenial ; at least such ap- 
pears to be the case if one may judge by her conversation. 
Now, one w^ould naturally suppose those two dainty specimens 
on the opposite side of the street, in such deep and earnest 
conversation, were discussing the character of Julius Cicsar or 
George Washington, or, perhaps, comparing notes on the solu- 
tion of some difficult problem in Euclid. Alas ! alas ! nothing 
of the kind ; they are only discussing the respective good looks 
of two young men on the car that has just passed them, and 
whom they favored with a smiling glance and audible giggle. 
If they condescend to speak of their studies at all, it is some- 
what in thiswise: "Oh, Jennie, have you got this horrid 
history lesson?" "Not I, indeed," says Jennie, Avith a toss 
of her head. "I. don't see the use of bothering our heads 
oyer these dry dates and a lot of old duffers who are dead and 
gone, and whom nobody cares anything about anyhow. As 
for mathematics, I can't see any sense in them at all ; I always 
set brother Tom to do mine for uie ; — and, oh, Kate, did you 


see that lovely hat on the lady that just passed ; it Avas a per- 
fect love ; — and look at that elegant fellow there ; he tries to 
flirt with me every morning, but I never look at him." And 
so on to the end of the chapter. It's all very pretty and 
poetical, that 

5 " Standing with reluctant feet, 

Where the brook und river meet, 
Womanhood and cliildliood fleet;" 

but the melanchoiy fact is that the feet are not reluctant at 
all ; they are only too anxious to wade out of the brook of 
childhood, and get over head and ears in a whirl of balls and 
parties, and beaux, and theaters, with all the horrid old books 
and teachers consigned to the bottom of the sea of oblivion. 

The next in order, then, is the society belle. She rises at 
ten o'clock in the morning, and with her front hair still in curl- 
papers, slides into a pair of old worn-out slippers and slouchy 
wrapper, and sits down to a solitary breakfast, only half awake, 
and cross as a spoiled child. She answers her mother's re- 
marks petulantly, and, reclining upon a lounge, declares she 
is a victim to all the aches and pains that flesh is heir to. The 
only thing that elicits any sign of interest from her is the dis- 
cussion of a new dress which she is al)out having made ; she 
may even get so far as to rise and make some alteration in a 
robe for the evening's wear. When evening arrives, however, 
behold our languid invalid transformed into a radiant butter- 
fly. The discarded apparel of the grul) — wrapper, slippers and 
curl-papers, are hustled into a convenient closet for future use ; 
and, in elegant robes, all smiles, bewitching glances and irre- 
sistible frizzes, my lady mashes masculine hearts by the score, 
and reigns supreme the belle of the ball. Whatever her out- 
ward charms may be, her mental endowments are certainly 
not sincerity and truthfulness. A ring at the bell interrupts 
her afternoon nap ; the servant hands her a card — "That hor- 
rid Nellie ; I wish she had stayed at home," snaps the amiable 
ladv. In a half-hour's time she is extending her hand and 
presenting her cheek, with, "My dear Nellie, I am so glad you 
have come." In a few " seasons " she has " hooked " some 
unluckv man, and made him miserable for life. 



A general favorite with the opposite sex, unless it may be 
a few of the nuniby-paniby sort, is the dashing belle. This is 
apt to be a young lady with a lot of brothers or male cousins, 
whose training has not been very closely attended to bv a 
watchful mamma. Her education in all sorts of atldotic 
sports began when she was a little girl, in c limbing trees and 
jumping fences. She can skate and swim, row a boat, or ride 
a horse innocent of a saddle, as well as any of the "boys." 
Of course, now that she is a grown 3^oung lady, she is obliged 
to curb her hoydenish propensities a little ; but even now her 
great pleasure is to get hold of the " ribI)ons '' behind a pair 
of mettled steeds ; and she manages them well, too. Her cos- 
tume is what one might term "natty," or "jaunty"; she 
affects sailor hats, blouses, basques with coat tails and short 
dresses in preference to trails ; these latter she dubs a " nuis- 
ance," always getting around "a fellow's" feet and upsetting 
him. She invariably speaks of herself as " a fellow," and 
calls her companions b}^ their Christian names of Tom, Dick, 
or Harry. Everything with her, too, is " awfully jolly ;" and 
she occasionally indulges in such Avild ejaculations as "by 
Jove !" and " the deuce !" Her delight is to tilt back ever so 
little in her chair, with a cigarette between her pretty red lips, 
and have a talk about horses and boat-races, with the rest of 
the boys. She is thoroughly " up " on all these subjects, and 
holds in unutterable contempt all the little tittle-tatth^ and 
gossip which occupies the time and attention of the majority 
of her sex. Her admirers are a little shy of making love to 
this sort of a girl ; she is apt to declare, plainly, that there is 
" no nonsense " about her, and to squelch the amorous youth 
by interrupting his sentimental mooning Avith some satirically 
practical observation. 

In direct opposition to the above, there is the literary 
belle. If she is very rich she adopts a classic costume, de- 
signed to illustrate some character or period in literature, 
about Avhich she talks very much. If only moderately well 
off, she follows the prevailing fashion, taking care to inform 
every one she considers it every Avoman's duty to make her- 
self as beautiful as possible, Avith all the accessories of dress, 
but intimatins: that in her own case, at least, the outward 


adornment is only a secondaiy consideration — the body but 
the casket, containing the rare jewels of her cultivated intellect. 
She is always quoting the poets, and talks much about culture, 
great minds, and the advancement of science. She never con- 
descends to read novelists of less note than George Eliot, and 
affects to enjoy Ruskin, Emerson, and Carlyle. Her remarks 
about these authors are very vague, and she adroitly avoids 
discussions with any likely to know aught al)out them ; but she 
has an inmiense reputation for learning, and manages to keep 
it up with a tact known only to her own sex. The literar}' 
belle is not particularly j^opular with the gentlemen ; she talks 
too much for the savant, and is a notch above the intellectual 
level of the average male biped, who has an instinctive dislike 
to being outdone by the inferior sex. As a consequence, the 
literary belle is apt to live a life of single-blessedness. 

A not uncommon phase of womanhood is the devotional 
belle. You will see her always in the corner of the pew on 
Sunday morning. _iain or shine, she never misses a service ; 
and the Sunday-school, too, has the benefit of her religious 
instruction. It is true, as far as dress is concerned, you will 
not be able to distinguish this devout and cherished member 
from the gayest worldling of them all. Her diamonds sparkle 
just as, brilliantly, and her silks and velvets trail just as grandly 
m the sanctuary as over the floor of the ball-room, and she 
has considerable trouble sometimes to keep the not " ower'' 
clean little urchins from contaminating her daintiness. But 
then some trials must be endured for piety's sake, and so she 
gives them good words — and keeps her diamonds. 

This charming religieuse is an adept at working altar-cloths 
and embroidering slipjiers for clerical feet. She has an intense 
admiration for young ministers. No one listens to his learned 
and edifying sermons with such rapt attention as she. No one 
assures him with such enthusiastic warmth that his words were 
inspired droppings, and did her "so much good." She is 
deeply interested in all church work, and never neglects a 
Dorcas meeting, especially when she knows the minister will 
be likely to escort her home. Should she fail to -win the first 
prize, there are always a few " nice " young men in the church 
to be cauofht hy her winnino: sweetness and air of devotion. 


The gushing belle is found in nil society, and may ho readily 
known In' her frequent exclamations of " perfectly ex(iuisite," 
"handsome," "so delicious," "perfectly horrid," clc. It 
doesn't make a particle of difference what may be the subject 
under discussion — a sunset or a new bonnet, a painting or a 
poodle, the same adjectives are applied ; they are elegant, 
delicious or lovely, Avhichever word comes uppermost. S;iid ;i 
pretty l)lue-eyed damsel once in the writer's hearing, chisping 
her little white hands and gazing ecstatically into the clouds, 
"Oh, I adore short tailed dogs." Another of the dear creatures 
thought a blue fawn dress was " heavenly," while a third 
declared her lover's moustache the most " an2:elic" thiniz; she 
had ever seen. These tender plants will scream on the slight- 
est provocation, and a June bug on their dresses will throw 
them into convulsions. When not in a state of nervous terror 
they are always "so charmed" and "so delighted" over 
everything that their attendant gallants may be saving or doing 
that the poor dear fellows themselves are charmed into tem- 
porary imbecility, and find themselves bound in the silken fet- 
ters of a matrimonial engagement before they know what they 
are about. ' 

There is still another class of girls met with on the streets, 
which can not be classed with those above mentioned. The 
girls who compose this class ai-e the working girls : the attend- 
ants in stores, the milliners, and the shop girls ; the workers 
in clothing factories, in box factories, and in various other in- 
dustries in which women are engaged. Tlie stores and facto- 
ries and shops where these girls are employed, are located 
"down town;" and the girls live "uptown," away north, 
far west, or in a distant district in the south. At an early 
hour every morning these girls form long processions, and in 
pairs seek the places where they toil througli the day. These 
Avomen represent all the peculiar features common to the sex. 
Youno- o-irls, fair as Aurora, beautiful as VenuSj and fresh as 
daisies, are not infrequently met. Brunetttes and blondes : 
vouno- charms, and the calm scdateness of more advanced 
A'^ears ; rosy cheeks and roguish eyes nu)ving along, in the 
great stream of life, with sallow fac(>s and cniacialcd forms, 


to perform the dreary tasks of the day. These are the street 
pictures of the morning. 

The afternoons and evenings present another picture. The 
weary, toil-worn women and girls are on. the streets again. 
From five to six o'clock, and a little later, the streets are 
ao-ain thronged. This time the thoroughfares are croAvded. 
Others beside working women and girls have a place on the 
streets. There are dandies and fops, and such like fellows, 
with tiny rattan canes and wax-pointed mustaches, on every 
street corner, lying in wait, as it were, to ogle these poor 
women and girls. Every pretty working-girl may calculate 
upon the certainty of being subjected to impertinent stares 
from these scabs on the social body. 



There must of necessity be vicious phases of life in a great 
metropolis, such as St. Louis has become. There arc many 
abodes of the sinful, and many hundreds of sinners to inhabit 
them. The subject is one which we do not care to dwell upon. 
It is an exhibit of human depravity which must <;ause sorrow 
and grief and shame to every right thinking citizen . A minute 
description of the low dens of infamy, of which there are 
many, would be out of place even in this volume. Wo turn 
from the performance of tlie task. But there are phases of 
life which present themselves which we can not ignore. 

If the strict confidence of business would permit the lips 
of detectives to be opened, they could a " tale unfold" which 
would startle the pious and grieve the souls of the moral. 
Happily, business and honor conspire to seal their lips, and the 
sad revelations are not made. If the noble and pure women 
who preside over that vast institution on the block bounded 
by Chestnut and Pine and Seventeenth and Eighteenth streets 
— the Refuge of the Good Shepherd — were not too hopeful 
and chaste, they might tell of budding beauties, who, forgetful 
of the purity and high destiny of true womanliood, the honor 
and good name of parents and friends, have started out on 
the road that leadeth to death. It is well that they treasure 
up the knowledge they have gained. There is sorrow enough 
in those homes into which this blight of disgrace has entered 
without increasing its poignancy by proclaiming tboir shame to 
the great, careless, cruel, cold-hearted world. And if no other 
reason existed, the fate of the unfortunate may be altogether 

89 1449] 


changed by allowing her time, in the quiet retirement to which 
she is forced to submit, to reflect that 

"• Beauty fades, 
Years roll by, 
Lowering shades 
Obscure the sky, 
And joys, so sweet of yore, 
Shall charm us then no more," 

And amend her ways and return to the paths of rectitude. 

If the " truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth '* 
were told concerning the chmdestine social sins of the great 
city, it would startle the pious and bring sorrow to the hearts 
of the judicious. To relate only a moiety of the many as- 
tounding facts which a little mvestigation will reveal, would 
subject the author to the suspicion by the pul)lic that ho must 
be a common slanderer. We seek not the reputation ; and 
propose to deal witli the hidden sins in as gentle a manner as 
the extent and character of the evil will permit. 

The statement is made on the authority of physicians and 
detectives, who have made careful investigations, that there is 
a far larger number of clandestine prostitutes and libertines 
than there is of tlie lewd women and pimps who are open and 
notorious smners. And these women and men come from all 
ranks and grades of society. 

A physician, whose name forob\nous reasons we decline to 
publish, lately informed the writer that he had just dismissed 
a patient, a young woman of about eighteen years of age, 
whom he had treated for a loathsome disease contracted in 
clandestmc meetings with a young man about town. This girl 
was described by the physician as the only daughter of most 
respectable parents, who move in good society and have an 
elegant home in the West End. Of course the physician kept 
her secret from her parents. 

Another story is told by a member of the private detective 
corps, which presents a sad picture of the social demoraliza- 
tion which exists in unexpected places. 

A most respectable gentleman, the possessor of an ample 
fortune — at least a competence — sought the aid of the detective 
to discover for him the whereabouts of his only daughter, a 


beautiful and accomplished girl of nearly ciirlitcen years, uho 
had absented herself from the elegant family home, without 
affordnig any clew to her whereabouts. Some slight circum- 
stances, which he related to the detective, had given him 
some uneasiness, but were not deemed of sufficient importance 
to excite alarm. The shrewd detective at once ptMiot rated the 
motive of the girl in leaving home, and, getting some traces, 
he was not many days in discovering her hiding-place, in a 
house in one of the streets running west, above Eleve^ith 
Street, inhabited by a woman who claimed to be a respectable 
person, a regular attendant at church on Sunday, and (juite 
profuse in her professions of piety. 

The young woman had already surrendered her honor, and 
had been for some days the mistress of a libertine and gam- 
bler. Who can conceive of the depths of that wordless grief 
which overwhelmed the parents of the wayward daughter, 
when informed that their child's character was already black- 
ened by ineffaceable stains. Gladly would they have yielded 
her to the arms of death, in her sinlessness and i)urity, rather 
than this terrible shame should have fallen upon her, and upon 

Another detective relates a sadly touching story of a foolish 
maiden who resided in a handsome house, in a respectablo 
neighborhood. She was an ori)han, but had received the same 
care and attention from the relatives who had taken charge of 
her as if her own father and mother had been spared to 
behold her develop into a strikingly handsome giil. She 
went to school ; she had music teachers, and everything which 
even vanity could require was given by her indulgent foster- 
parents. To all appearance she was contented and happy. 
She regularly attended church and the Sunday-school. Her 
conduct was in all respects exemplary, and though she pos- 
sessed a sufficient amount of vivacity, yet she betrayed no 
recklessness : indeed, she was esteemed to be thoughtful 
beyond her years. 

One Sunday she attended her class in the Sabbath-school 
as usual, and gave instruction to them in the old way. But 
she did not return home that night. This circumstance created 
no alarm, as she had many friends, and, though it was unusual 



for her, the kind relatives thought she had spent the night with 
some of her young hidy associates. But when the next night 
came and she had not yet returned, they became alarmed, and 
sent around to make inquiries among their friends. They 
received no tidings of her. The foster-parents then sought 
police aid. On the Thursday following the Sunday on which she 
had so strangely disappeared, she was found in a notorious 


house of prostitution on Christy Avenue — Green Street, as it 
was then called. She had gone directly to the den from the 
Sunday-school room ; laid aside her modest apparel and donned 
the Haunting robes of a harlot. Her foster-parents came to her 
and wept over and besought her to go with them and all would 
be forgiven. She seemed somewhat affected by their tears 
and appeals, but was firm in her refusal to leave the j^lace of 
degradation. Not one word of explanation would she utter. 
As she was of age nothhig could be done to prevent her exer- 
cisinsr her own inclinations. 



With breaking hearts they U'ft their darling in her slianie 
— darling to them now no more ; and she went on and on, 
until some three years after she was taken out of the turbid 
waters of the Mississippi — dead. She had died of a broken 
heart for the very man for whose sake she had given up home, 
and friends, honor, and everything that had been dear to her — 
a libertine and a gambler who won her love, and afterwards 


compelled her to sell her charms of person for money whieh 
he squandered, and then, when her l)eauty began to fade, he 
cast her away, and so she died. Ah ! 

' 'Bring the dead treasures : the pleasure, the pain, 
Losses and crosses, and grieving and gain ; 
Much that was loving, and patient, and pure; 
Much that was hopeless and hard to endure; 
Lay them down gently, the trials and tears, 
Hopes that are faded, and fiiendships and fours, 
Nursed by the sunshine, or nipped by the blast; 
Garner them safe in the grave of the past."' 


Brief and painful was her career. But was the wretched 
girl the only sinner? So the world says. After singing falls 
the sigh ; and all the blackest midnights succeed golden morns ; 
after the sweet comes the bitter. Surely she could have 
appealed — 

*' Hearts' dreams are the sweetest in the lonely nest; 
Leave me while you love me — this is surely best !" 

But would he^ Would the base-hearted one have left the 
flower unplucked ? Say, would /ie.^ Ha! 

Now we have presented three little stories, and every one 
of them is a tragedy. Two beautiful girls, with kind parents, 
with sumptuous homes, with friends, with all that humbler 
wishes could possibly desire, in the silent hours, when the cur- 
tain of night descends over the great sinful city, steal away 
from those homes, not to meet a lover, in whose soul the fires of 
an honorable passion burns, but to meet a confessed libertine, 
in order that they may gratify the base passions of their own 
lascivious nature. Another, guided by a fatal, foolish love 
for " a pretty man," abandons all things which the world 
regards as essential to happiness, dooms herself to the life of 
an outcast — a thing to be scorned, and dies for love of him 
who wrought all her sorrow. Are these not trao;edies in real 
life? And yet day after day, night after night, somewhere 
among the miles and miles of house-lined streets, such social 
tragedies are played. 

But what can we expect of these simple and innocent ones, 
when an American king can so far forget his dignity as to play 
procurer for an old world princeling? Sometime the full 
measure of responsibility for these sad phases of metropolitan 
life will be adjusted, not in accordance with the fallible 
judgment of men, whose senses maybe perverted by gold, 
but by an infallible decree of absolute right and truth. Ah ! 
who then will stand? Who then will be awarded " a crown 
that shall outshme the stars forever?" Who? Let every 
voice become still. Eternity will answer. 

Ninth and Tenth Streets, a part of Eighth Street, and 
many houses on Eleventh Street, and indeed nearly all that 
part of the city between the business streets and Twelfth 


Street, jDresent a striking picture of the Social Undercurrents 
of St. Louis. Not that there are not some respectable and 
worthy people to be found within the limits we have indicated. 
But there is a strange blending of the good and the bad — the 
old, old story, the wheat and the tares growing together. 

He who would see must open his eyes. He who Avould 
learn must strive ; and he who would observe must place him- 
self in a suitable position for observation. A little experience, 
as an amateur detective, will reveal knowledge which, perhaps, 
it would be best we should not gain. Th; author tried the 
experiment, and obtained the knowledge. 

A quiet, June night ; time, a few minutes to eleven o'clock ; 
place, a horse-car on the Olive Street line, near Twenty-ninth 
Street, enter a dark-eyed, rosy-cheeked maiden — perhaps 
seventeen or eighteen years of age, modestly attired and 
lady-like in demeanor. Why does she want to go down town 
at such an hour? She may have been a pretty, servant maid, 
but her manners betra^-ed a station something above the 
ordinary servant girl. Reader, let us observe her movements. 
Ninth Street is reached. She signaled the conductor ; the ear 
stopped, and she lightly tripped to the street crossing. We 
will leave the car here also. Let us cross over to the other 
corner, under the shadow of the trees there. There she stands 
near the corner. She is waiting for some one. She does not 
have to M'ait long. A young m;ui comes up the street. They 
meet. The clock in the tower of a church not far away tolls 
the hour of eleven just as they disappear in the door-way of 
an assignation house near at hand. To-morrow she will be 
demurely performing her accustomed duties. Who will sus- 
pect that she is a sinner? 

AH around in the part of the city indicated, we shall sec 
pairs of men and women stealthily coming and going, till far 
into the night. 

The women and girls who visit these places do not abide 
in houses of ill-fame as a general rule. They come from all 
quarters of the city, sometunes with a market basket on then- 
arms. Some of them are married women, some are grace- 
widows, some are young gn-ls, and some wear the weeds of 


Of course all these have male paitners, representing nearly- 
all classes, conditions, and professions. 

The casual pedestrian through the streets will obser\'e on 
Morgan Street and Washington Avenue, Locust, Olive, 
Chestnut, and other streets, in the neighborhood of their in- 
tersection with Eighth, Ninth, Tenth and Eleventh streets, a 
number of " Sample Kooms," with a private entrance at the 
rear, with these words conspicuously painted on the door or 
just above it, " Ladies' Entrance." By stepping in it will be 
seen that the apartments are cut up into little stalls, the fronts 
of which are draped with heavy curtains, which may be drawn 
so as to give privacy to the guests on the inside. These little 
stalls are furnished with a table and chairs. Here in the 
evenings come women and girls from distant parts of the city 
and meet with their male "friends." Sometimes these 
meetings take place in the day time, and the women who are 
parties to them are the wives of men who are away attending 
to their business. 

In the same neighborhoods the observer will notice many 
houses with a small tin or gilt sign attached to the lintels 
which reads, " Furnished Booms to Rent." It appears these 
houses are never supplied with lodgers, since the signs are 
never taken down. We have been informed that all of these 
places are open to engagement at any time for the worshippers 
of Venus. Men and Vv'omen make their engagements while 
sipping their cobblers in the stalls of the sample rooms, and 
then retire to one of these "Furnished Room" houses 
together, where they pass a few hours in each others society, 
and then the woman comes down, takes a car and proceeds 
home, while the man very often passes out the backway. 

Another dodge resorted to by the sinful is to take a house, 
put out a sign " Furnished Rooms to Let," and on the other 
lintel of the door " Shirt Making and Plain Sewing." Gentle- 
men have an excuse to call about getting some shirts made 
or sewing done, and women go to look at rooms. Of course 
they meet affinities there and forget all about the shirts and 
the rooms. To judge by the number of men who call on 
account of shirt making, the shirt makers ought to do a 
thrivmg business, and one would suppose the landlady would 


soon have her house full of lodgers, and all the shirt makers 
she could accommodate, if the num])er of women and girla 
who call could be accepted as indicative of honest motives ou 
the part of the callers. 

In some sections of the city where the people are poor, the 
immoral girls and lecherous youths resort to lumber-yards, 
dark alleys, and back sheds for the purpose of gratifying their 
propensities. If one will take the trouble to visit the exten- 
sive lumber-yard districts of the northern part of the city at 
twelve o'clock at night and be very quiet about it, he will see 
startling evidences of the general demoralization prevalent in 
some circles of society. 

We have said nothing of a very numerous class of women 
in the city known as " kept women." Of these there may ])e 
thousands. Some of the men wdio keep these mistresses are 
married men, and such women are not unfrequently domiciled 
in private families as boarders. Of street-walkers there are 
hundreds who have no homes, and Avill accept a night's 
lodging from any dirty tramp who can afford a shelter for 
the niijht. 

Such are some of the features of the social undercurrents 
in the seething life of a great metropolis. Like 3'ou the 
picture? Yet it is painted in a feeble manner, and poorly 
portrays the reality. 



The deep-toned bell in the tower of St. Francis Xavier's 
Church was tolling the hour of 11 o'clock at night. But the 
city was not silent — indeed, St. Louis is never silent ; there 
comes no hour when all her inhabitants are quiet in sleep. 
It was a dark night — that is, it was moonless, and a pall of 
clouds hung above the city, and a thick mist fell into the 
streets and hung around the eaves of the houses. Such nights 
are not known in the country, where there are no thousands of 
chimney-pots to pour out their sooty volumes. The gas-lights 
cast a red and dismal glare against the mists which enveloped 
them. And yet a thousand lights flashed from windows and 
shop fronts and open transoms, and the city was not gloomy, 
like such nights would be away on the prairies, or in the 
humble hamlet. 

It was at the corner of Locust and Eleventh streets. The 
tall tower and imposing walls of a church stood like giant sen- 
tinels keeping ward and watch over the dusky streets above 
which they loomed. There she stood, in the shadow of the 
tower of the church, but in such a position that the light of a 
street lamp fell upon her features. A fair and fragile girl — a 
mere child, perhaps no more than sixteen years of age, with a 
wealth of soft brown hair falling about her shoulders, and 
great brown eyes peering into the gloom of the street. She 
was clad in such garments as the self-respecting poor can 
obtain. She was very still — so still that a stranger hurr3nng 
by might have mistaken her for a permanent figure carved 
from wood or stone. What can such as she be doing out there 
at night? Look at her features. Ah, there is a moisture in 
the glance — there are tear-drops on the fair cheeks, there is 


NIGHT IN t:ie streets. 459 

an expression of agony on the young and beautiful faec — a 
look of determination born of despair. Poor child ! She was 
somebody's darling once ! Kow what? A friendless outcast, 
and yet no sinner ! 

The great pulsing life of the city throl)bed around her ; tlic 
hurrying throng surged by and heeded her not. Very still 
and quiet she waited for the coming of some one. Was it man 
or woman? And the minutes went on, while she waited. 
There is no shame in paying attention to such life-pictures 
about us. The expected one came. A prowling she-wolf, no 
doubt. There Ayas a brief conversation. Then the woman 
said, " But what can you do? I can not give you lodirinors 
without you do it. Besides, he is a nice man, with plenty of 
money, and you will have a splendid time. You had better ! 
Say, won't you? You're real foolish !" 

There was one who looked into the face of the irirl. It 
was white and despairing, and the lips quivered, and the bosom 
heaved, and she exclaimed in a low, passionate wail, "Oh, 

Mrs. , w4iy did you ask me to come here? I did not 

know you would have me do wrong; I can not; oh, God, I 

will not !" The words were lost in a sob, and the vouuj]: 

girl started forward ; the wind moaned about the tall church 
tower, and the mists fell heavier in the streets, and the throngs 
rushed along with a quickened pace, and the fair and sinless 
child passed on — aw^ay down the street — disappeared in the 
mist-veil that shrouded the city. Her companion, a hard- 
featured, unsympathetic being, old enough to have been her 
mother, looked after the retreating figure until lost to her 
gaze, and muttering, " What a little fool !" she, too, passed 

It was a little street drama, one of a series played during 
the one night the author spent in the streets playing the role 
of a vagabond. What a iiicture of life, manners and morals. 
Where is the old sinner, and the sinless child she Avould lead 
down to hell? Where? They separated that night, and each 
went her way. Will the sinless one remain as she claimed to 
be? We know not. We have related only what we saw and 


A night in the streets of St. Louis will afford many oppor- 
tunities for the acquisition of knowledge. 

Franklin Avenue is a thoroughfare which presents a greater 
number of peculiar characteristics of the social developments in 
metropolitan life than any other street in the city — perhaps in 
any city. Franklin Avenue of a Saturday night affords a 
brilliant panorama of the lives of the middle and working 
classes. From sunset to sunrise Franklin Avenue affords op- 
portunities for acquiring imj^ortant information to the student 
of sociology — facts which can be ascertained in no other way. 
What a wonderful street ! 

From Fourth Street to Leffingwell Avenue, a distance of 
two miles, Franklin Avenue is lined with shops, and stores, 
and saloons, and from early in the evening until the hour of 
midnight it is thronged by people of all ages, sexes and con- 
ditions. It seems to be the great thoroughfare of the masses 
in going from the business quarters, down town, to the resident 
districts in the West End. 

Franklin Avenue is unlike any thoroughfare in any Ameri- 
can city, if, indeed, it has its like in the whole world. It is 
not an aristocratic shop-street, and yet a vast amount of busi- 
ness is transacted in it. Aristocratic people in public affect to 
despise the fabrics from Franklin Avenue stores, while they 
quietly drop in and patronize them in private. 

At 7 o'clock P.M. the sidewalks of Franklin Avenue bear a 
constant stream of humanity. From 7 to 8 o'clock the larger 
proportion of the people met on the street are mechanics, and 
artisans, and laborers, sewing girls, saleswomen, and women 
employed in down-town factories, with an intermixture of 
boarding-house keepers, out to drive a bargain. 

At 9 o'clock, and from that time till past 10, another class, 
or, rather, other classes, take possession of the street. These 
are the young clerks, and, in fact, the large nondescript 
element always found domiciled in the city, who seem to have 
nothing in particular to do and plenty of time to saunter on the 
streets. The female portion of the great surging throngs who 
travel on Franklin Avenue are equally as nondescript as the male 
portion. Some of them are belated saleswomen ; another large 
section of them are servant girls, who resort thither to indulge 


in little flirtations with the troops of JioUe-de-hoys always to be 
found sauntering on the streets. The freedom of manners in- 
dulged in, while not indecent, or even bordering upon the "flash 
style," informs the casual passer-by at once that the throngs 
on Franklin Avenue, however well dressed they may be, are 
not of the aristocracy of the city. 

By 11 o'clock the crowds of hoydenish servant girls, and 
many girls of more social pretensions, and their " fellows," 
have mostly withdrawn, and the street, though by no means 
deserted, yet presents a less thronged appearance. 

Below Fifteenth Street the stranger will meet many very 
well-dressed and decent-appearing women after the hour 
named above. These are "street-walkers " of a better class 
than those encountered on Sixth and Seventh streets. They 
seldom address a man in passing, but will make such signals 
as he can not mistake. Many of these women sew during the 
day, or at least a part of the day, and go on the streets to get 
money to gratify their extravagant love of dress. Numbers 
of them have rooms in the " furnished-room houses," where 
no questions are asked, situated on Morgan, Ninth, Tenth, 
Eleventh, Twelfth, and some few on Wash Street. Of course 
they retire as soon as they have succeeded in " picking up a 
friend," and seldom appear for a second promenade on Frank- 
lin Avenue the same evening. 

After 12 o'clock only a few women are met on the Avenue. 
These are mostly walking to the west, and are, in most in- 
stances, young girls, in pairs, who are returning to the homes 
they have disgraced, after keeping engagements M'ith their 
"friends" in some down-town lodging-house. It is easy to 
ascertain their character by walking in the same direction Avith 
them, near enough to hear their conversation, which they arc 
not at all careful to deliver in a low tone. Sometimes these 
young female tramps may be encountered on the Avenue, 
walking, above Twentieth Street, at 3 o'clock in the moniing 
on their way home, where they Avill make up a story to tell their 
mother about waiting on some sick companion or associate, or 
some other equally plausible tale. 

Manv of the down-town saloons are all-night houses. 
Weird, strange places — mere dens some of thom arc — and 


these are patronized by some of the worst scoundrels in 
America. The dives of this character are generally to bo 
found in the neighborhoods of bagnios, steamboat landings, 
railway depots, and the principal market-places. 

The wayfarer at 3 o'clock in the morning would do well to 
avoid these places. A stranger would be almost certain to be 
knocked on the head by the thieves and pickpockets who 
make these " all-night houses " their headquarters. 

One night, during the year of grace 1878, the author of 
these pages resolved to spend the night among these places. 
In the guise of a vagabond, his best friends passed him by. 
With a limited amount of cash, a keen Spanish dagger, and a 
firm resolution to keep his eyes open, and his lips reasonably 
close, and a fixed purpose to protect himself, but avoid difiicul- 
ties, he went forth. Vv^ell, what? In one saloon, it was not 
far from Union Market, a crowd of ill-looking fellows were 
playing cards, a neat-looking young fellow had gone to dream- 
land on a chair, and a pariah — his friend, they said — quietly 
relieved him of a fat-looking pocket-book. Not being in the 
service of the city of schemes and charters, and likely to 
get more blame than praise, this scribe did not investigate. 
They said the tramp who took the oinopotized gentleman's 
pocket-book was that personage's friend ! What could we do? 
After spending half an hour in that sooty den of ill odors, 
we sought another place. 

On Poplar Street there are several places which keep open 
doors. Into one of these we entered. Time, about 3 o'clock 
in the morninof. There were four or five miserable wretches 
sitting about, and a yawning, winking man leaning over the 
bar counter. We were another tramp, and our entrance, with 
all the grimy appearance of a lately returned harvester, aroused 
the gentleman of the saloon. The bar-keeper straightened 
up. "A cigar, iPyou please," we gently suggested. He 
set down a box — villainous excuses for cigars they were. Then 
a bummer, who had managed to get upon his feet, came for- 
ward to inspect the features of this author. He was appar- 
ently satisfied. " Cahn't yeou set hup ha fellah ha glahss hof 
hale?" "Mighty near out, my friend," was the answer. 
" Wish I could think about that old sons; about a dollah or 


two, you know! Let me sec, I b'licro I've one more nickel 
left. No, by jucks, it's a dime. H:i, ha, we can get the ale." 
"Ha, 'ow genteel. Hi say there hare many gentlemen 
whom we eonld disconnt, you know, if we hare vagabonds. 
Now, as tq the song, hi think Hi cahn give yeou that. Let 
me see. Ha, hi 'ave hit." And he sanjr : 

" With cautious step as we tread our way through 

This iutricate world as other folks do, 
May we still on our journey be able to view 

The benevolent face of a dollar or two ; 
For an excellent thing is a dollar or two — 

No friend is so true as a dollar or two ; 
In country or town as you pass up and down, 

No passport so good as a dollar or two. 

"Would you read yourself out of the bachelor crew, 

And the hand of some female divinity sue, 
You must always be ready the handsome to do, 

Although it should cost you a dollar or two ; 
Love's arrows are tipped with a dollar or two, 

And affection is gained by a dollar or two ; 
The best aid you can meet in advancing your suit, 

Is the eloquent chink of a dollar or two. 

*' Would you wi'ih your existence with faith to imbue 

Control in the ranks of the sanctified few, 
Enjoy a good name and a well-cushioned pew, 

You must surely come down with a dollar or two. 
The gospel is preached for a dollar or two, 

Salvation is reached by a dollar or two , 
You may sin some at times, but the woret of all crimes 

Is to find yourself short of a dollar or two." 

The manner of execntion of this song " brought down the 
house." But the others had not observed what we had, that 
the singer possessed fine dramatic powers, and that his voice 
and manner betokened one who had seen better days. His 
accent was not at all cockney in the song. 

*'Ale for one?" 

"Yes !" 
"Ah, yes, a glahss of hale will do ha fellah good hat this 
time hin the morning." 

We modestly suggested that it might not be so beneficial 
after all. 

"Well," dropping the cockney, "I do not know but you 


are ri2;lit. I've taken cnouiih to (lout :i stcambo:it, and c-liani- 
pagne enough to l)ankni|)t a millionaire. "Well, it all goes in 
a lifetime anyhow. One time I was not the man you see me. 
I was rieh and honored. Twieo I held a .seat in the American 

Congress. My name is , hut pray do 

not mention it abroad. There are those ibr whoso sake 1 
would not be known as in my present eircumstances. They 
think I am with a friend in England. I haven't a penny, and 
haven't taken food sinee yesterday morning. 1 see you have 
not come from the race of vagabonds. I saw that as soon as 
you came in. No more have I. But what's the difference. 
1 may get some swag before morning, and then I will go on a 

And he broke forth singing : 

The noblest sorrow man can feel, 

Is pity liid brotlier man; 
To bare the heart before the .'teel, 

Throu<ih all of life's eventful span. 

There are some first-class saloons in the vicinity of the 
hotels which keep their bars open all night. Into these at 
dawn, or just before, the genteel tramps enter to " negotiate 
for their morning bitters." Sometimes the bar-keepers " can't 
see it;" and when the genteel persists, they " give them a 
waltz " out at the door. The accompanying i)icture represents 
the interior of a well-known saloon on Chestnut Street. The 
neat-looking individual to the right, who "sports a plug hat," 
etc., has approached the bar-keeper for his morning dram, 
and finds negotiations difiicult. Just before the patience of 
the bar-man goes to tatters, one of the two gentlemen to the 
left proposes "to set 'em up " for the gentleman from Jei-sey, 
at which the bar-keeper gives him a mingled look of gi-atitude 
and astonishment — gratitude for his generosity, and astonish- 
ment at his liberality. 

Such scenes as that illustrated may be witnessed any 
morning, just about the dawn, in the first-class saloons in the 
vicinity of the great hotels. 

If one determines to spend a night in the street and among 
the "all-night houses," it might be well "to take in " a part 
of BroadwV* Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and 



Ninth streets, with the east and west streets intersecting them, 
from Franklin Avenue south to Spruce Street. In this dis- 
trict street-walkers and gamblers do most abound. The 
vicinity of the large hotels are favorite waiting places for the 
fallen women who seek their prey on the thoroughfares. Sixth 
Street, between Washington Avenue and Market Street, is 
much used by these degraded beings. Chestnut Street, from 
the Court-house to Eleventh Street, is also a much traveled 
highway of bawds after nightfall. 

It is after night that nearly seven-eighths of the larcenies 
and burglaries in the city are committed. It is when the pall 
of darkness hanscs above the 2:reat human hive, and thousands 
are quiet in the embrace of the deep sleep which falleth upon 
the wearied m mind and body, that nearly all the murders are 

A working man receives his pay and seeks shelter ni a 
levee saloon and boarding-house. Some one finds out that he 
has money — fifty or a hundred dollars. They induce him to 
drink — jjenferallv a not difficult task — and the next morning 
his mangled body may be found stiff and cold on the levee ; 
or he may suddenly and mysteriously disappear — the dark 
river is convenient — and no one will be very likely to make 
much effort to discover his fate. He was only a deck-hand, 
may be, without home or friends. None will ever know his 
resting place. But somewhere may be heard the plaint : 

' 'He comes no more, 
Rowing' upon the river-tide." 

It is in the hours of darkness that the burglar steals forth, 
with "lock-picks and jimmies and skeleton-keys, nippers and 
wrenches," to enter the houses of the unsuspecting, "blow a 
bank," or "crack a strong box." It is in the hours of dark- 
ness that the libertine seeks his prey ; in this night-time, when 
honest men slumber, and the virtuous are at rest, the deceiver 
goes forth on his mission to destroy. It is needful that there 
should be a Devil and an "awful hell," after the orthodox 
pattern, in order that hoary old sinners, whose rank, wealth 
and character intervene to protect from froAvns and l)lows, and 
all the "deep hell" of retribution in time. In the shadowy 


night "the drink-crazed fool" goes to the den of the de- 
stroyer and commits a deed with knife or pistol that leads 
him at last up the steps of the hangman's gallows. It is in 
the night-time that the deeds which we find chronicled in the 
journals, after the following style, happen: "A policeman 
fatally stabbed in a saloon." "An awful tragedy — a man 
disembowels his wife last night." "A nmrder on the levee." 
"A startling crime." "Robbery in a den on Almond Street." 
"A row in a low dive — one man fatally injured." "Bad fel- 
lows at Castle Garden." "A cutting aflVay on St. Charles 
Street." "A mysterious affair." "The Orchard murder," 
and a hundred other pecadillos and crimes, all take place in 
the night. Take up the morning pai:)er ; what do you see? 
Ah, there columns of accounts of crimes which happened last 
night ; and so day after day, and weeks and months, grow into 
years, and the record is a repetition of the old Story of the 
crimes that were committed last night. 

In the gray dawn, wearied and worn by the sights and 
scenes of that "last night" in the streets, the author with- 
drew. But still 

" Now and then, in the dim-gray dawn, 

As I looked, and round, all round the house I beheld 

The death-white curtains drawn; 
Felt a horror o'er me creep 

Prick'd my skin and caught my breath, 
Knew that the death-white curtains meant but sleep, 

Yet I shuddered and thought like a fool of the sleep of death." 

They were haunting memories of the night scenes which I 
had surveyed. 



«* I remember a very interesting criminal case. It occurred 
many years ago . ' ' 

These words were addressed to the author by a gentleman 
long connected with the secret police service, and afterward 
the Chief of Police of St. Louis, one evening, as avc sat on the 
sidewalk, in a couple of chairs, tete-a-tete, in front of his place 
of business. 

"Yes," he continued, musingly, "I remember the case 
well. The fellow was hung in the old jail-yard, where the 
Laclede-Bircher hotel now stands. A most adroit and accom- 
plished burglar named Wilson was wanted for some enter- 
prises in which he had been engaged. Wilson resided on 
Chambers Street, and kept a mistress, or wife, in a house just 
above Eleventh Street, if I remember correctly. A detail 
was made to work up the case, and the boys, a sergeant and 
two men, went to the house one night for the purpose of cap- 
turing hira. They effected an entrance into the house, and as- 
they had anticipated, they failed to find any tenants, Wilson 
being out on a job. The officers quietly ensconced themselves 
in the house to await the return of their expected prey. The 
night wore away, and the burglar had not retui'ued. About 
seven o'clock in the morning the sergeant told the men to go 
home, or somewhere, and get breakfast. While they vrerc 
gone Wilson and a pal returned, and finding a sergeant of 
police in the house, they commenced a mortal combat, which 
resulted in Wilson drawing a pistol and sending a bullet 
through the head of the sergeant, and he fell dead in the room 
where the struggle took place. Wilson and his companion 
then fled, and escaped arrest for a short time only, as the 




affair created :i good deal of excitement, at the time, and Uil- 
sou was very Avell known to the police authorities of tliis and 
other cities. 

"Well, he was capti:red and had his trial, wliich resulted 
in a verdict of guilty of murder in the fust degree, and ho 
was sentenced, and finally hung in the old jail-yard, near 
Sixth and Chestnut streets. 


"Wilson's 'woman,' A\dio was very shrewd, indeed, one of 
the hardest cases I ever knew, was devotedly attached to him, 
and made most strenuous efforts to save him from the extreme 
penalty of the law ; she appealed to the citizens, got up peti- 
tions, and finally made a last effort by personally appealing to 
the Governor. It was all in vain. Ilcr 'man' was hung. 
The blow fell with terrible effect upon her. She who had been 
so reckless, so disregardful of consequences, was completely 
broken down. After the burial of the remains of lu>r ' man,' 
she expressed a purpose to enter the house of the (lood Shep- 
herd, and there end her days as a penitent and Magdalene. 
She disappeared from her accustomed places in the city, and 
none knew what had become of her. I sujiposo she kept her 


The story of the former officer was completed. The sequel 
is easily related. The poor heart-broken sinner retired to the 
penitential retreat, and many years afterward was recognized 
by one of the few visitors who ever penetrate into the recesses 
within those walls, among the Magdalenes, an humble Chris- 
tian, who had forsaken her sins and the world together. There 
may be — and in the case related there was — deep affection 
existing between the criminal man and sinful woman, a devo- 
tion to him on her part which we rarely find exemplified among 
people who are much above them in station. Even sinners 
may love and be faithful. 

A few years ago there was a startlingly sensational murder 
committed in an orchard, some nine miles from the center of 
the city. It was the topic for comment for more than the 
traditional nine days. A farmer had heard some strange 
noises in his orchard in the night time, and was on the point 
of investisratino: the cause. But as the noises Avere discon- 
tinued, he allowed the affiiir to pass until morning. 

In the gray of the morning he went forth to discover the 
cause of the cries which had disquieted him. Out under an 
orchard tree, with blood upon the grass and weeds around her, 
lay the stifi", cold form of a girl — murdered there in the hours 
of darkness. The police authorities were notified at once, the 
coroner was summoned, and while he was proceeding to hold 
an inquest, the detectives and policemen were w^orking up the 
case. It was not long until the murdered woman was recog- 
nized as having been an inmate of a bagnio on Green Street, 
and was there known as Ida Buckley. Of course her history 
was then easily traceable. She had always lived in St. Louis ; 
had contracted an unfortunate marriage ; had separated from 
her husband, and had, in fact, gone to the bad. 

The mystery to be solved was, how she came to be away 
out there ; who was her murderer, and what could have been 
the motive. She had been seen at the hagnio sStar 11 o'clock 
the preceding night. She had some friends to call upon her 
that niirht — amonj? them a youns: man — said to be a cousin of 
hers. She had danced with him, and retired to her room with 
him ; they had sat and talked together for quite a while in the 
most amicable manner in the presence of others. The people 


about the bnr/nio hiid last seen her in company with lier cousin, 
John McNearv. They disappeared from the house at about 
the same time. Another person had seen a wagon pass aloii"- 
Olive Street about Eleventh Street, and identified the wa-ron 
as one used by McNeary. Further out, another witness had 
met a wagon with three persons, one of whom appeared to be 
a woman, who was seemingly struggling with the other per- 
sons. Some persons were witnesses to other incidents, and 
the McNearys were arrested and committed to jail. After 
behig duly indicted, they were placed on trial, and final I v, 
within little more than a year after the murder, after lia\ ing 
been twice arraigned, with two mis-trials, the case of John 
McNeary, the cousin of the girl, the last person seen witli her 
before that mysterious journey to the farmer's orchard in the 
dead of night, and to that tragic death which awaited her in 
the light of the stars and in the presence of God, was con- 
tinued generally, and he was liberated from the custody of the 
officers of the law. Ida Buckley was not avenged bv the law. 

One night not many years ago, was enacted a tragedy 
which led to an execution in the Four Courts prison yard, 
which has already become a part of the history of that already 
noted place. 

It happened in an upper chamber of a little two-story 
frame building which still disfigures Franklin Avenue, in the 
block between Twentieth and Twenty-First streets, north side. 
John Patrick O'Shea, a laboring man, returned to his humble 
abode that fatal night under the influence of whisky. He and 
his wife did not agree very well, and when he was partly in- 
toxicated he was accustomed to abuse and beat her without 
mercy. On this particular night John Patrick was more fault- 
finding and disagreeable than usual. The result was a family 
broil, during which he drew a knife and completely disem- 
boweled the woman whom he had vowed to love and cherish, 
the Avoman who had l)orne his children. Mrs. O'Shea fell 
across a bed and expired some hours afterward. Tin; wiCc- 
slayer was arrested, committed to jail, indicted in due time, 
and finally brought to the bar of the Criminal Court, tried by 
a jury of his peers, found guilty and sentenced to die. 

One day an anxious throng gathered in the neighborhood 


of the Four Courts. A hundred persons or more who had 
been provided with passes, were admitted to the prison yard 
where the dismal skeleton-lil^e frame of the "drop of death" 
was erected, and the unsympathetic officers of the law headed 
and brought up the rear of a little procession, which moved 
out of the jail-court into the yard. In the midst of the pro- 
cession walked John Patrick O'Shea, and by his side a priest. 
Up the rude steps he marched until he stood under the gal- 
lo\vs-l)eam, with the fatal noose dangling about his neck. The 
last prayer was said, the roi)e was adjusted, the sable cap was 
drawn over his face, and in an instant he sprang through the 
fatal death-trap. A few contortions, a few convulsive shud- 
ders, and all was over. The wife-slayer was a corpse, and the 
children were orphans. 

Some 3^ears ago an old man named Anton Ilolmc went to a 
house on South Fourth Street, Avhcre his wife, from whom he 
was separated, was stopping, some time after ten o'clock at 
night. The two engaged in a quarrel, and Ilobne stabbed the 
woman to the heart. Death almost immediately ensued. 
Holme gave himself up, or was arrested, the same night, and 
afterwards he was tried, convicted, and sentenced to be hanged. 
The case was taken to the Supreme Court, and, after various 
delays, the sentence was finally commuted to imprisonment for 

One morning in the summer of 1878 a saloon keeper in the 
vicinity of the Levee and Market Street, discovered a ghastly 
corpse lying on the crest of the Levee, to which place it had 
been dragged for some distance from the sidewalk. It had 
evidently been the intention of the murderers to conceal the 
remains of their victim in the oozy bed of the ]Mississipi:)i, 
and they would have no doubt succeeded but for the presence 
of a watchman on one of the wharfboats. The name of the 
murdered man was ascertained to be Henry Seymour, and he 
had been drink iiiir in a neighboring saloon as late as eleven 
o'clock the night before. It came out also, in evidence before 
the Coroner, that the man Avas in all probability murdered for 
three dollars! No clue to the identity of the murderers was 
ever obtained. Henry Seymour was a common laborer and a 


The saddest murders of all, the crimes of deepest damna- 
tion, is the exposure and sometimes the cruel slaughter of in- 
fants. Some years ago a notorious woman named Fortmejer 
maintained an estahlishment in which infanticide was carried 
on as a trade. The death of a young girl who had entered the 
place to procure an abortion, led to an investigation -which re- 
sulted in revealing a vast record of iniquities practiced by the 
woman Fortmeyer. The bones of lately cremated innocenta 
were raked from the stove furnace. They had been cast, 
while yet alive, into the glowing tire, and their feeble wails 
were heard l)y the unfeeling wx)man, and by Ilim who iioteth 
the sparrow's fall. 

"Bal)y farming" is practiced to some extent in the city, 
but not in a way to attract very much attention from the pub- 
lic, and 3'^et there are dark transactions takmg jilace every day 
of which the great world knows naught, and yet they are crimes 
w^hich might well make devils shudder. 

AVe have only sketched a few of the peculiarities which 
characterize criminals in this city. Only a few samples are 
given out of the hundreds, nay, thousands, of smiilar deeds 
which have been committed and still continue to be committed 
almost every day somewhere in the dirty alleys, m the grimy 
dives, in the shadowy places by the river side One day wo 
read of a mysterious disappearance, the next week the river 
3'ields its ghastly secret, and "the floater" tells the fate of our 
neiirhbor. "The secrets of a pond," the bloated and swollen, 
house of the soul, deserted and putrid, and horrible, come to 
reveal the fate of some one "missed at home." Crimes black 
as hell, are committed in the dark, still hours, and Ave hear 
of some one who strangely disappeared, but never of how ho 
came to go away, and never of why he returns again no more. 

So the voices of the high life, and the low life, the pleas- 
ures of the palace and the miseries of the hovels, the synipa- 
thizin"' si<ih of anijels of love and mercv, and the horrid oaths 
und bitter laughter of devils in crime, ascend together at the 
feame instant from the midst of the great city to the court of 
Him who sitteth on a great white throne. 




St. Louis can not claim entire exemption from those evils 
which are supposed to be developed in the largest measure in 
Baden-Baden, Monaco, Gaudalaxara, and New York and 
Washington. The gamblers are here, not in pairs, but in 
scores and hundreds. They infest the business portion of the 
city. On Fourth Street are situated some of the finest 
"gambling hells" of the city. On Fifth and Sixth streets 
are numerous houses, where the silly and the " duifers" go to 
dispose of whatever money they may possess. On some of 
the streets running west are to be found some of the finest 
houses. To say that there are any elegantly or gorgeously 
furnished gambling houses in St. Louis would be not strictly 
true. There are some decently furnished faro and keno apart- 
ments, and some very respectable "poker rooms." But the 
situation here does not permit the sporting fraternity to 
indulge in elegant furniture — it might be broken up by the 

These gambling places are open to the right kind of visi- 
tors, both day and night. The principal games indulged in are 
faro, keno, poker and rouge et noir. In the squares adjacent 
to Sixth and Chestnut, and up Sixth to Olive Street, there are 
lialf a dozen or more gambling houses. 

The keepers, and more fortunate habitues of these places, 
may be met almost any pleasant afternoon about the comers 
of the principal thoroughfares, ogling the passing ladies, and 
"perusing the style of the times." Some of these fellows 
are scions of aristocratic families in the city, and on a favor- 
able corner on Fourth Street, will be recognized, bowed to 



and smiled at by more tlmn one "liigli stepping damsel " from 
the palaces of Lucas Place and the AVest End. We have 
wondered Avhethcr these jonnir ladies would be qnite so free 
in the bestowal of their smiles if they knew that those favored 
by them were so "very fly" — that is, gamesters and debau- 
chees of the lowest instincts, and that the corner loafers all 
wonder what fresh heart-crushing Aspasia has come to town. 
They never suspect she is a lady. She smiled at "Ben, the 
Bouncer. ' ' 

Many gamblers are strictly men of business ; sober as 
Puritans and grave as parsons. These go about their trade 
very much in the same manner that a lawyer would go to his 
oflSce, or a doctor to his patients. There are several of this 
character in town — some of whom have acquired considerable 
estates, have well-regulated families, who attend fashi()nal)le 
up-town churches. This class generally dress faultlessly, and 
assume aristocratic airs in manner and bearing. They are, as 
a rule, honorable and correct, accordirig to the wavs of the 
v/orld. They have houses of their own, and seldom play a 
game, contenting themselves with percentages, etc. 

There is another class of gamblers who are "on the Hv." 
These mav be described as o-amblins: loafers. The successful 
gambler, who has "won his pile," delights in taking his ease. 
In the language of a writer in the Journal, the gambling 
loafers as a class are those "who have been lucky enough to 
win an abundance of money, or else those who are 'broke.' " 
Gamblers who have but little money are so eager to acquire 
more that they have not time to play the loafer ; or, as they 
express it, "their business requires more capital," and there- 
fore they must be up aiid doing. 

"The jramblino; loafer is noticeable from his cfeneral ' 2;et- 
up,' regardless of expense — snow-white shirt, elegantly-fitting 
dress and fine jewelry. He is too smart a man of the world 
not to buy the best of everything Avhen he has mone}', sis he 
is perfectly well aware that in case he should get broke he can 
soak his outfit at his ' uncle's,' who has throe gilt balls for a 
sio-n. When a loafer of this class is full rigged, he sails up 
and down the streets with the air of a nabob, putting the style 
and airs of the wealthy loafers (who try to imitate him) far 


in the shade. These fellows care not for the worldng girls ; 
they flv for higher game, and seek alliances with 3'ouiig l:idie3 
of the first families, in which thej arc not infrequently 
successful. , 

"These loafers are not much in the way while they arc 

* flush,' for they are in the best of humor with themselves 
and every one else. They make a practice, on matinee (\:\ys, 
of standing on street corners to see if they can't catch a 
girl who is rich and handsome. Their nights are sjjcnt in 

* high-toned' bagnios^ where, Avitli wine and women, they 
pass the time away pleasantly themselves, and to the infinite 
delight of the madame and her immoral boarders. 

* 'But the broken gambler. Poor fellow. lie has been in 
funds in his time, and has as exquisite a taste as his more for- 
tunate professional brother, but he is forced from sheer neces- 
sity to wear threadbare clothes, jerk lager beer lunches in the 
more disreputable parts of the citjs and sleep — well, ho don't 
often sleep, except in a chair in an obscure corner of come 
one of the < all-night' saloons, unless a brother chip has 
compassion enough to give him a quarter or a half with which 
to go to a lodging-house. The broken 'gamb' haunts beer 
and other saloons, and if a 'sucker' drops in, and wants to 
play a game for the beer, he is alwaj^s in, and when the bar- 
tender or owner of the saloon comes to serve them, he slips 
some money into the hands of the broken sport, who" induces 
the greeny to play for a little stake, Avhicli ends in the sucker 
losing, the sport playing 'advantages' on him. Of course 
the sport's staker gets his money back and half of the win- 
nings. In this way the poor fellow manages to eke out an 
existence until he strikes some fellow with a 'pile,' when he 
gets hold of a pretty good 'stake,' then he quits these haunts 
and appears among the gentlemen sports. lie plays faro bank 
(which is the squarest game on earth if dealt 'on the 
square'), and if he is lucky, wins a bundle, and aj^pears on 
the street as a 'high-toned galoot' and exquisite. If he 
loses, he settles back into the old groove and bides his time." 

So the game goes on — we mean the game of life, with all 
its chances and changes, and ups and downs, fraught with 
pleasures to some and with woe to many. So, too, the 


gamblers carry on Ihcir nefarious traffic, and night after night, 
crowds gather in the houses of this c'ty, some of ^^ hom will 
not depart until they arc "cleaned out," that is wrecked and 

!Many of the houses arc mere swindling contrivances, 
where nothing is done " on the square," but every device of 
roguery is resorted to in order to Ileccc the victims who may 
be lured within these dens of thieves. 

Is there no law against gambling? Plenty of laws, l)ut 
somehow the fact that the demoralizinc" business is conducted 
in scores of houses in the principal streets, seems not to be so 
well known to the very excellent and honorable Doard of 
Polico Commissioners as it might be, for some occult reason 
not publicly known. Anyhow, the gambling goes on, inter- 
rupted only by occasional raids, after the gamblers luivo 
received intimations from some mysterious source, and have 
quietly stored away their " fine sets of tools." The i)()lice on 
these raids, as a general rule, secure a lot of connnon })ine-wood 
deal tables, wooden chips, cheap urns and tin card boxes. 
The raids do not interrupt the game very long. After mid- 
night the "fine tools" are brought out, and the most "rat- 
tling games " are played. 

And when the morning comes, some there will be who will 
realize their misfortune, and curse their folly for venturing 
into the toils of the spoilers. 



One Saturday evening a very respectable appearing lady 
came into a West End grocery store, and gave orders for quite 
an amount of groceries, all of the choicest qualities. The pro- 
prietor waited on the lady himself. When she had completed 
her purchases the grocery-man, feeling a desire to express his 
appreciation of her patronage, very politely inquired if she 
would take a glass of soda or cordial. The lady replied that 
she did not care for soda or liqueur, but that if she took any- 
thing she would thank him for a glass of beer. The grocery- 
man at once retired to the saloon at the rear of the store and 
returned with a sort of Gambrinus drinking glass overflowing 
with- foamy lager beer, Avhich the lady took and quaffed evi- 
dently with great satisfaction. 

This incident resulted in the author's making quite exten- 
sive inquiries, and the result was the formation of an opinion 
that more than two-thirds of the women of the city, including 
all classes, orders and conditions, are beer drinkers. Very 
respectable people, not addicted to visiting saloons, will send 
for pitchers or buckets of beer, and a large proportion of the 
other third drink wines on some occasions. 

Large as is the consumption of distilled, vinous and fer- 
mented liquors, in the public drinking saloons and halls, of 
which there are upwards of twenty-five hundred in the city, yet 
that amount does not represent the whole of the consumption 
in the city. Private drinking in homes is very extensively in- 
dulged in. Many persons always keep a stock of liquors on 
hand in their wine cellars for home consumption. 

Formerly beer was regarded as a beverage almost exclu- 
sively indulged in by people of German origin. That is not 



true. The consumption of lieer is promoted hy all classes. 
Americans, Irishmen, Swedes, Italians and Frenchmen, and 
women of all nationalities and in all classes of society, drink 
more or less of the Teutonic beverage, lager beer. 

Notwithstanding the almost universal practice of beer sip- 
ping, and drinking wine and whisky, indulged in by the inhai)- 
itants of St. Louis, it has been remarked that drunkenness is 
not extensively prevalent. 

Americans down town who patronize the magniticent palaces 
to be found in the parts of the city adjacent to the principal 
hotels, the Chamber of (Commerce and the Court-house, and 
the principal streets in the heart of the city, drink whisky and 
brandy Indeed, in this respect, representatives of all the 
nations which have contributed to our population may be 
found at these elegant bars taking their whisky and brand v, 
toddies, punches and cock-tails. The first-class drinking sa- 
loons do not keep beer. 

In some of the principal streets are to be found great beer 
halls provided with chairs and tables, at which customers seat 
themselves and leisureW quaff the nectar of Gambrinus. In 
the mirror-enclosed palaces the customer finds no chairs in the 
main bar-room, but there are handsomely furnished apartments 
connected with them, where a party can be as private as at 
their own rooms. There are some saloons that can not bo 
classed among first-class whisky shops, or among the beer halls 
and wine rooms. In these places they sell all kinds of litpiors, 
including beer, and it is not unfrequent that a little table and 
a few chairs are found within them. The picture represents a 
first-class establishment of this mixed character, nnich fre- 
quented by theater-goers and persons addicted to out-door 
sports. Notwithstanding the fact that two friends are indulg- 
ing in a "little game of draw-poker," the place is sufficiently 
respectable to be patronized on occasions by our leading citi- 
zens, especially those of political proclivities. 

It will not be difficult for one familiar with the faces coH' 
stantly met on the streets of St. Louis to single out the gen- 
tleman on the right who is lighting his cigar, and the portly 
individual just in front of the bar-keeper, Avho appears to bo 
wholly engrossed in the process of creating a glass of punch 


for the excellent gentleman with the elevated^ cigar, who has 
invited him to join in "taking a little something." The "in- 
vitor" will surely be recognized — there's only one like him in 
St. Louis. Two friends are seated at a table trvinw their «-i- 
gantic intellects at "ten cents ante." The very sugjrestive 
attitude of the hiirh-toned gentleman who sits and nazes and 
has not been invited to drink, does not require any explana- 

In the fine wine parlors to be found on Fifth Street, and on 
Market and Walnut streets, tables, chairs and other conve- 
niences are to be found. Some of the beer halls on Fifth Street 
do an immense business, and their proprietors expend large 
sums in procuring attractive novelties for the edi Heat ion or 
amusement of their patrons. One Fifth Street saloon is a gal- 
lery of the caricaturist's art. Everybody \yho comes to St. 
Louis visits that saloon, whether Murphyite or common sin- 
ner. Some of the great beer halls are almost constantly 
thronged, and the services of a dozen attendants are required 
to serve the patrons. The sales average from liftccii to twen- 
ty-five barrels of beer per day in three or four of the h'ading 
houses of this character in the city during the warm season. 

In the summer time, Sunday afternoons and evenings in the 
beer gardens would give a stranger an excellent imj)ression of 
the social freedom and politeness of large numbers of our valu- 
able citizens. Every one of these evenings are genuine re[)ub- 
lican re-unions — the people meet on a level, and conversation is 
general and free. In some of these gardens thousands of men, 
women and children, may be seated about tables sipping beer, 
eating pretzels, smoking, talking, and listening at the l)und iis 
it discourses grand marches, etc. They look happy — they 
must enjoy life in this way. 

We can only say further, that it takes no small (quantity of 
whiskies, brandies, wines, beers, etc., to supply the niarket of 
St. Louis, and yet the inhabitants of St. Louis are compara- 
tively a sober people. They use so much because so many are 
to be supplied. 




We have presented a sombre view of the inner life of the 
great metropolis. We have penetrated into the darkest 
recesses and revealed the seething cauldrons of misery, of 
woe, poverty, vice and crime. The picture is bad enough, 
though all too leniently drawn. We have shown that in the 
great city, sin, fraud, shame, lewdness, lying, shams, crimi- 
nals of all grades, from the illiterate vagabond to the schol- 
arly forger and the gentlemanly cut-throat, find a refuge and 
make opportunities to carry out their devilish designs within 
the limits of the great city. What then? Are all bad? Has 
the canker of corruption eaten into the heart of humanity and 
converted the whole people into hypocrites and scoundrels, 
debauchees, gamblers, seducers and murderers? All of these 
characters are to be found in the sinful hive, but not all the 
people are sinners. But it is unquestionably true that the 
spirit of the world is at variance with the requirements of 
the laws of love. "Love thy neighbor as thyself," and 
*' Do unto others as you would they should do unto you," are 
the precepts of Him before whom the wisest of the sons of 
men shrink into nothingness. And what a sublime doctrine 
is inculcated in these few words ! A doctrine which, if carried 
out, would convert this earth into another Eden. 

We look around us, and there is not an object on which 
the eye can rest that is not a silent witness to the wisdom and 
the goodness of the Creator. The sun shines down upon us 
to light the day, and when he has sunk beneath the horizon, 



his rays, reflected by the queen of night, relieve the dsirkncss 
of its silent gloom. The earth teems with grain to satisfy 
the wants of man ; with fruit that is pleasant to his taste ; 
with flowers of varied hue and delicate foliage, to minister to 
the pleasures of the eye. Whether we contemplate the heav- 
enly hosts above — where worlds multiplied upon worlds pre- 
sent themselves, until they are lost to sight in the unfathom- 
able depths of a space that knows no bounds — or circumscribe 
our vision to the most insignificant plant that grows u})on our 
earth, or the meanest worm that creeps beneath our feet, 
everything bespeaks the wisdom and beneficence of their 
"Great Original," and his wish for the happiness of mankind. 
Yet selfishness, which wa'aps the heart of man, as in a 
casing of "triple brass," shuts out that precept inculcated 
in the words and life of the divine Teacher. Revenge, ambi- 
tion, the heartless calculations of worldly wealth and power, 
drive far aw^ay that love w^e ow^e our neighbor, and which 
should be measured in degree by that we bear ourselves. 
These, and other evil passions, neutralize, to a large extent, 
the kind orderings of Providence for man's hapjiiness. 
Goaded on by self-love, men seek their own selfish ends, 
indifferent to, and oftentimes in violation of, the rights of 
others. Thus the man of traffic sharpens his wits, and, with 
an eye eagerly fixed upon gain, congratulates himself upon 
his shrewdness and superior business talents, if he can secure 
an advantage over some less penetrating neighbor. Thus the 
wily diplomatist, in negotiations with his opponent, wrests 
language from its original design, and uses it as a cloak to 
cover up and keep from view, instead of bringing out and 
making clear, the real object for which he is contending. 
Hence it happens that, while everything in nature is, with 
surpassing wisdom, adapted to administer to the happiness of 
man, there is so much of wretchedness and misery. Striking 
its fibres deep into the human heart, and finding there a soil 
Avhich furnishes most ample nourishment for its growth, self- 
love shoots out its branches, until, if allowed to grow, they 
overshadow every virtue, and like the Upas tree, exhale a 
deadly poison, beneath the influence of which no kindly charity 
can live. It is this great source of evil, so congenial to the 


natural inclinations of fallen man, and which brings so many 
troubles in its train, that Christianity seeks to eradicate, and 
in its stead to rear the lovely plant of charity. 
Alas ! that men should forget that 

' 'The dearest treasure mortal times afford 
Is spotless reputation ; that away, 
Men are but gilded loam and painted clay. 
A jewel in a ten times barred-up chest, 
Is a bold spirit in a loyal breast." 

But such is the tendency, yet not the ultimate conclusion. 

If we have the darkness of night, so we have the bright- 
ness of day. If we have sinfulness in the great city, so we 
have righteousness. The picture is not all so dark — or rather 
there are many phases of life in St. Louis, and we have shown 
the worst. It is with joy that we turn from the contemplation 
of the misery and wretchedness, the vice and folly, the shame 
and the crimes of the great city, to the humanitarian phases 
of our urban life. In the midst of the gloom the everlasting 
sun breaks forth in radiant splendor. While boisterous moral 
lepers are engaging in the dance of deatli in a thousand haunts 
of sin, thousands of God-watching spirits are soothing the 
miseries and ministering in various ways to the physical and 
moral well-being of their fellow-creatures. 

If St. Louis has, in common witli other cities, the elements 
of evil in her social organism, yet she can justly claim to 
possess more abounding elements of good. There are too 
many evidences of the goodness still left in the human heart, 
notwithstanding the putrifying glamourof gold which corrupts 
and destroys all the better impulses of man. 

St. Louis may well afford to be proud of the fact that 
among her citizens there are so many thousands who were able 
to realize the blessedness of giving. If we have street Arabs, 
we also have philanthropists who can and do feel and care for 
them. The world was not made in a day, and neither can the 
evils of society be cured in a brief space of time. 

A quarter of a century ago St. Louis had street Arabs — 
little soiled-face boys and unregarded girls, who have grown up 
to manhood and womanhood. Some of these are fathers and 
mothers now. The dark beginnings have given place to a 




hopeful life and high aspirations. Some of the Ara])s of the 
long-ago have become respectable citizens. Some of the boys 
have become lawyers, and doctors, and teachers, and a few- 
have become priests and preachers. To achieve these posi- 
tions they must have had helping hands to assist them. Did 
they? Thirty years ago and more, Mr. Thomas Morri- 
son, the friend of all the poor boys and girls of the city, saw 
and sympathized with the Arabs of that time, and devised ways 
and means to assist them — to reach their moral sensibilities, 



to inspire them with hope, to lead tliem to nobler aspirations, 
to lead them in the pathway of honor and virt ue. It was noble 

in him. 

He devised a plan, for he is a man of many resources of 
mind. He sought to find the best place for his work, and he 
found it. P>i(l(lle Market is confessedly a central point in a 
district where there is much poverty and much vice — the last 
hot necessarily a result of the first — and commenced his work 
there in the hall of the market-house. Sunday was a day on 


which all could corae who would, and he opened a Sunday- 
school. Mr. Morrison is an earnest man, a man of faith — a 
man who prays, and whatever lessons he would there impart 
would have a tendency to make them all the better for their 
attendance. By guile he induced the wild hordes of the streets 
to come in ; by love he sought to win and to redeem them. It 
was a noble work. Gradually the numbers increased, and 
soon hundreds and hundreds came, until the attendance at each 
session exceeded half a score of hundreds. They came from 
Avretched homes, where all was dark, hopeless, despairing ; 
they saw, they heard, and they returned to the places whence 
they came with light, confidence, and hope. Who will esti- 
mate the value of the instructions which they received ? 

And so, Sunday after Sunday, while the mighty multitudes 
of men and women surged through the streets and disregarded 
the laws of morality, and while nations came into birth, and 
while some governments struggled for existence and others 
perished from the earth, during a quarter of a century Thomas 
Morrison has not foi-gotten his wayward, neglected boys and 
girls, and Sunday after Sunday he still goes to meet and to 
greet them. They come to him by the hundred. Some men 
love the chief seats in the synagogue, and the glamour of gold 
blinds them, but Thomas Morrison has loved the poor little 
children, and when the sitters in the high places of the syna- 
gogues shall have been forgotten, the name of one will still be 
a tradition in thousands of families, for "he kept the Biddle 
Market Mission Sunday-school for the poor." Kings and 
queens, among the people, will doubtless come in due time 
from those who have attended Morrison's Biddle Market Sun- 
day-school. And the beneficiaries of the Provident Associa- 
tion, of which he was one of the founders, will rise up in some 
distimt time in the future and call him blessed — "I was hun- 
gry and ye gave me to eat." 

The Street Boys' Home is another institution which the 
generous and the noble have established, to alleviate the mis- 
eries created by the sins of the vicious and reckless. One of 
the chief patrons of this place is James E. Yeatman, a gentle- 
man whose interest in suffering or depraved humanity entitles 
him to the kindly remembrances of posterity." 


Even the "vagabonds," so-called, are not neglected. Mr. 
Penrose Chapman, having the confidence and support of Mr. 
C. R. Garrison and others, has established a "Friendl}' Inn," 
where bed and board can be had at a merely nominal fiirure, and 
where all the influences around the place arc intended to ele- 
vate and inspire those who patronize it with zeal and hope, and 
aspirations for a better life. Five cents can not certainly bo 
called an extravagant charge for a good wholesome breakfast 
of well prepared and nourishing food. A dime is not an ex- 
orbitant demand for a mattress and its accompaniments. But 
then, Penrose Chapman is a Christian ; and C. R. Garrison, a 
member of one of the most distinguished and wealthy families 
of the city, is also a Christian. And yet we are told that 
Christianity accomplishes no good ! Hypocrisy docs not. 
The devil endeavors to imitate the inimitable work of God's 
servants, and his votaries sit in cushioned pews, and assist in 
paying for magnificent edifices and lofty spires, and worship 
the gods created by the tailors, and leave men to starve, as if 
they could contribute to the glory of Him who is the author 
and owner of the nniverse ! 

Well, the poor wayfiiring women — the victims in many in- 
stances of man's duplicity, and the highly refined instincts of 
modern civilization, which excuses the faults of the rich and 
damns the mistakes or ignorance of the poor — have not escaped 
the kindly attentions of the Christians — the lovers of all God's 
children. So, we have the Guardian Home, an institution 
designed to shelter, feed, and lead into virtuous ways the un- 
fortunate " fjillen ones," as the popular phrase describes them. 
Of course society only condemns one-half of the guilty ones 
in these cases of "alapse from morality." But then, what is 
society? We have not space or inclination to discuss the 
question. The Guardian Home, situated on Twelfth Street, 
offers a friendly shelter to all who apply, and the design is to 
make them better, to save them from sinning with greater — it 
may be — richer sinners. Poor Avomen ! They need kindly 
otSces ; and the good and the true, who have means, have es- 
tablished that place in order that they may receive that kind- 
ness and sympathy which their forlorn condition so much re- 


On Fourteeuth Street, between Cass Avenue and O' Fallon 
Street, is another noble institution, under the especial " watch- 
care " of James E. Yeatinan. This is the " Working Women's 
Home." At this institution Mrs. M. A, Evans has long pre- 
sided. The object for which this " Home" is maintained, is 
to afford a place of refuge for worthy women, strangers or not, 
who find themselves without means or employment in the city, 
until such time as they can find work by which they can earn 
an honest livelihood. A home for blind girls has also recently 
been established in connection with the " Home." 

"The Worthy Women's Aid and Hospital " has been es- 
tablished for some years on Howard Street, between Tenth and 
Eleventh streets, and is managed by Mrs. Hariot. This insti- 
tution is accomplishing a great work. Every day some poor 
unfortunate comes to seek rest, and none are ever turned 
away. Employment is sought for all who can work, and 
shelter is refused to none. Mrs. Hariot conducts this estab- 
lishment without the aid of any organized association of phi- 
lanthropists. It is seldom that a fewer number than twenty 
inmates are to be found in this institution. 

Then we have the "Home of the Friendless," a well- 
endowed charity, w^here aged ladies, persons who have no 
relatives or friends convenient, and must otherwise become a 
charge on the public, are received and cared for until the 
closing scene, when they are relieved from anxiety and care. 
What a company of venerable and stately old ladies are here 
to be met ! They have all seen better days ; and am9ng the 
seventy-five old ladies always to be seen about the home, the 
visitor will not fail to meet some persons who were once 
queens of society away back in the past ; some decaj'ed and 
wrinkled survivor of many a splendid social re-union, where 
the highest dignitaries of the nation participated. Ah ! we 
remember one, whose history shall not now be written, who was 
once a great belle, and reigned a queen in the highest ranks 
of society in the national capital. How beautiful she must 
have been then ! It was so long ago, when John Quincy 
Adams and Andrew Jackson reigned as social kings at Wash- 
ington. Her name appears in the old-time journals as a leader 
of society ; and in a little scrap-book she has preserv^ed the 


many, raany memoranda of her triumphs, recorded by the 
Jenkmses of those days. It is an interesting little volnme, 
and treasnred by its owner as above the price of rubies. What 
has become of all those " lovely ladies," the beautiful Miss 
So and So and the charming Misses Blank, who iigured so 
prominently in the balls, and soirees, and 7?iusicales in those 
long, past days? "Where are they now? Whore? Well, 
some, like the charming reminiscence of lost bellcliood down 
at the " Home of the Friendless," may exclaim — 

" My life has crept so long on a broken wing 

Throu<fh scenes of sadness, haunts of horror and fear, 
That I come to be grateful at last for a little thing." 

And some have mouldered away ; and some, a few it may be, 
are beloved grandmas of belles, wealtliy and more beautiful 
than the queens of a season in Jackson's day. So the " Old 
Ladies' Home," as it is generally known, receives these fallen 
and exiled queens, and in the quiet place which charity has 
provided, they are only waiting for the boatmen to carry them 
over to the other shore. One thins;, one sole memory of the 
past which time can not efface, and only death can wi})c out, is 
left to these ancient belles, it is the love of gossip. Dear old 
souls ! Shut out from the world as they are, they yet find 
time to gossip, and sit for hours commenting on the peculiari- 
ties of some one of their mates in the Home. 

Up on Nineteenth Street, between Christy Avenue and 
Moro-an Street, substantial buildings have been erected, and 
accommodations provided, for a hundred and seventy-tive 
orphan girls. It is the " Girls' Industrial Home." What a 
beneficent institution ! Poor, unfortunate waifs of the street 
are taken and placed in that house, which becomes their home, 
and they are educated, and trained up to habits of industry. 
Mrs. C. T. Baker, the matron, is the mother of the family, and 
rules well her household. A teacher is constantly employed ; 
and young girls of fifteen, when they leave the Home, are very 
well educated, having had eciually as, good opportunities as 
those who have attended the pu])lic schools for an ecpial period 
of time. It is an institution Avhieh well deserves the com- 
mendation and support of every class of the comnmnity. It 
is entirely on a charity foundation. 



So long ago as 1858, the good pastor, Louis E. Nollau, of 
St. Peters' German Evangelical Church, was forcibly im- 
pressed with the necessity for some home where destitute, 
friendless orphans might be saved from vicious contamination 
and reared to habits of industry and economy, thereby becom- 
ing useful citizens. The beginning of pastor Nollau's benevo- 
lent enterprise was small. A couple of rooms in an old 
residence in a crowded street, was the best that could be 
done. To this place he was accustomed to convey the poor 
waifs left by persons from the dear fatherland, and consign 
them to the care of an old lady who had agreed to take charge 
of them. The little home was soon filled. The good preacher 
became a beggar for the destitute children. In time there 


was no more room, and a six-room house, not far from Carr 
Park, was secured, and became the abiding place of the boys 
and girls who had no other habitation. That, too, quickly be- 
came too small, and then a number of persons of means took up 
the burden, and an association was formed, and the old 
LaBeaume Homestead, nine miles from the city, was purchased 
and became the German Protestant Orphans' Home. It was 
subsequently added to, and in time an elegant structure had 
been erected about it, when one night an alarm of fire was 
given. The orphans were all rescued save one, but the build- 
ings were entirely consumed. It was a great disaster ; but 
the spectacle of more than three hundred homeless orphans 


excited the benevolent feeling of many hciirts, and it was not 
long before the foundation of the elegant structure represented 
was laid, and the building was speedily ready for the lar<ro 
family of boys and girls which had been gathered for Mr. Mid 
Mrs. Hackemeier ; and this has since been their home. 

This is one of the best conducted orphanages in or near 
St. Louis. There more than three hundred children of both 
sexes are constantly maintained. They have large gromids, 
and quite a farm, where they are taught the trade of farming, 
and the girls are brought up to the proper conceptions of 
domestic duty. This institution is on the St. Charles Eock 
Road, nine miles from the court-house. 

The Methodists have established a most useful and well 
conducted orphanage on Lindell Avenue. Here a large num- 
ber of orphans, usually averaging more than a hundred in 
number, are provided for. This institution, like the preced- 
ing one, is maintained altogether by the offerings of the 

The Episcopal Orphans' Home has been established at 
Webster Groves, near the present city limits. It is another 
home where humane sympathies have thrown around the 
helpless the shield of protection. 

The Lutherans also have a home for their orphans, main- 
tained by charity, situated on Sidney Street. 

The German Orphans' Home is a new institution, founded 
by an association of German gentlemen, not particularly 
attached to any church organization. It is accomplishing 
much good. 

St. Luke's Hospital is maintained by the Protestant Epis- 
copal churches of this diocese. It is one of our noblest 
charities — one that could not be dispensed with, inasmuch as 
its doors are opened to all. 

There are other institutions maintained by Protestants 
and others, which are doing great things for the unfortunate 
and the lowly. 

The Good Samaritan Hospital, maintained by the German 
Evangelical denomination, situated at the head of O'Fallon 
Street, on Jefferson Avenue, well deserves to be mentioned 
in this connection. It is a charity, the foundation of which 

492 • TOUK OP' ST. LOUIS. 

was laid by the good pastor, Nollau, already mentioned. The 
building is capable of accommodating more than a hundred 
patients at this time, and is not often left unoccupied by 
the sick. 

It was Roman Catholics in faith who first planted the 
standard of civilization in the wilderness on the site now occu- 
pied by this great city ; it was a Roman Catholic priest who 
first held formal service to Almighty God, with the name of 
Christ as a mediator, in this region. But the musical Gallic 
accent in which those divine offerings were made is now sel- 
dom heard. Still, Roman Catholics have always maintained 
a predominance in the city, with all its teeming thousands. 
To-day the massive structures reared for the benefit of the 
destitute and the suflfering poor attest the greatness and liber- 
ality of this important element in our population. 

Among the oldest of the charitable institutions established 
And maintained by the Roman Catholics of this city is the St. 
Louis Hospital, now situated on Montgomery Street, near 
Grand Avenue. It was originally built on a square of ground 
on the east side of Fourth Street, and south of Spruce Street, 
which was donated by the late Judge Miillanphy. " The Sis- 
ters' Hospital," by which name it is best known, is under the 
direction of those noble, self-sacrificing ladies, the Sisters of 
Charity It is impossible to estimate the vast amount of good 
which has been accomplished by these ladies at their hospital 
during the past fifty years. It was for a long time the only 
hospital for the care of the sick in the city. The building at 
present occupied by them is spacious and well ventilated, in a 
beautiful portion of the city, and here every attention possible 
is paid to the sick. 

St. Ann's Asylum, situated on the corner of Tenth and 
O'Fallon streets, also under the direction of the Sisters of 
Charity, was erected many years ago, principally from an en- 
dowment given by the late Mrs. Ann Biddle. It has a three- 
fold character — an infant asylum ; second, a maternity hos- 
pital, and third, a home for aged and decrepit women. The 
amount of service rendered to unfortunate, helpless, and 
friendless humanity in this institution can not be estimated. 

Across, on Tenth and Biddle streets, adjoining the grounds 



on which St. Ann's is situated, is the extensive Ori)haniiire of 
St. Mary's, under the direction of the Sisters of Charity, where 
there is an average of more than three hundred girls to be found 
at all times, most of whom never knew any other home. Tliis 
is one of three institutions maintained by the English-speaking 
Roman Catholic parishes of the city. It is altogether main- 

tained by such benefactions as the charitable give to the cause 
of helpless humanity. 

St. Vincent's Orphanage, situated on Twentieth, near Cass 
Avenue, is another monument to the benevolent of heart. It 
is under the direction of the Sisters of St. Joseph's, most, if 
not all, of whom are Germans. In this place not loss than 


one hundred and eighty to two hundred orphan boys are con- 
stantly maintained and brought up to industrious tastes and 

St. Bridget's Orphan Home for Girls, under tlie care of the 
Sisters of Charity, is situated on Christy Avenue and Beau- 
mont Street, and is one of the three institutions maintained by 
the English-speaking Catholic parishes, 

St. Joseph's Orphan Home for Boys is situated on Fifteenth 
and Clark Avenue, and in it more than three hundred boys 
find a home and are taught useful trades. 

St. Philomena's Home for Girls is situated on Clark and 
Summit avenues, and receives the larger girls who have been 
brought up in St. Mary's and St. Bridget's. It is under the 
direction of the Sisters of Charity, and is wholly maintained 
by charity. 

The House of the Guardian Angel is situated on South 
Eleventh Street and Soulard. It is under the management of 
the Sisters of Charity, and is intended as a protectory for 
young girls liable to be exposed to temptation. There are 
upwards of a hundred inmates in this place. It is principally 
maintained by gifts from the benevolent. 

St. John's Hospital, Twenty-third and Morgan streets, is 
maintained through the exertions of the Sisters of Mercy of 
St. Joseph's Convent, which adjoins it. Here patients, both 
male and female, are received and treated for all the diseases 
to which flesh is heir, save those of an eruptive and contagious 
character. In connection with the convent is a female night 
refuge and lodging house, maintained by the same self-sacrific- 
ing Sisters of Mercy. 

The Alexian Brothers' Monastery and Hospital is situated 
in the southern part of the city, on Carondelet road. There 
are twelve brethren, and they have spacious quarters, with beds 
for fifty patients. On? of the rules of this order is that they 
shall go out and attend the sick whenever and wherever they 
may be called, and that they shall make no charge for such 

The Sisters of St. Mary, as they are commonly called, have 
three establishments in the city ; one on Mulberry and Fourth 
streets, near /Saint Marten Kirche^ have a noble band of 


nuns, who have been trained as nurses, and who go out wher- 
ever they may be summoned, and attend ami wait upon the 
sick and receive only such compensation as nuiy bo offered. 
These sisters also have a lying-in lu)si)it:il on Papin Street, 
and a novitiate and school in the southwestern part of the 

In the northwestern part of the city, just to the north of 
St. Louis Park, there is a commodious building Avhich niav 
be iitly termed the abode of the Hopeless — at least, hopeless 
concerning the future in the life that now is. Of all the 
charities of the city there are none which show the brighter 
side of human nature more fitly than the Home established 
by the Little Sisters of the Poor. AVhat a great burden these 
devoted ladies, from the vine-clad hills of France, have under- 
taken to carry. Here there are about two hundred aged men 
and women, in most instances without means, and, of course, 
without sympathizing friends, who find at last a refuge — a place 
to suffer on until the Angel of Release shall come and let them 
free. They are here well housed, well clad, and kindl}^ cared 
for. Some of them are very aged, several have exceeded over 
a hundred years of time. Some are all twisted and distorted 
by the racking torments of disease. But they are wonderfully 
])atient, and many of them sit calmly on the brink of the 
river which separates time from eternity, waiting to be wafted 
across to the unknown shore. Bless the gentle Little Sisters, 
who smooth the path before them. 

One more great temple, which Catholic charity has conse- 
crated to the cause of humanity and to the behests of purity, 
remains to be noticed — the House of the Good Shepherd. An 
institution such as this one is deserves more than a passing 
notice. Here some sixt}^ or more ladies, who are educated 
and refined, are, all the days of their lives, shut out from the 
world, and all in order to devote themselves to the work of 
redeeming the lost, and serving the poor, unfortunate, outcast 
sinners. There are three classes of persons confined within 
the massive walls of the House of the Good Shepherd : 1st. 
The girls exposed to vicious infiuences, Avho have been placed 
in the House to preserve them from falling. 2d. Young girls 
who have already fallen, and who have been placed there by 


their parents or friends for reformation ; and 3d. A class of 
girls who have voluntarilj sought seclusion from the world, 
and especially the abandoned creatures with whom they had 
been associated. Some of these are of the lowest cast of the 
great tribe of abandoned women, whom a rekindled spark of 
conscience has sent to the penitent's cell. Altogether there 
are upwards of four hundred females, who have led a depraved 
life, confined in the Good Shepherd's. The Order of Magda- 
lens, whp have abandoned the world and taken perpetual 
vows, includes in the ranks many who have come from the 
very lowest depths of shameless debauchery. 

Sister Frances Patrick, Avho appears to have active super- 
vision of the place, is a lady of very superior mind, which 
has been improved by culture, and deepened by experience. 
She, and the noble sisterhood connected with this community 
of nuns, are entitled to, and should receive, the profound re- 
gard of all who love morality and purity. 

There are several other institutions maintained by church 
societies and private associations which merit at least some 
slight mention, but our pages are already full. It is evident 
that dark as are the social shadows, they have a comple- 
mentary bright side. Selfishness and viciousness are all too 
prevalent, and yet there is left to the world much of the 
warm, living sympathies which render life pleasant because 
they exist. 

St. Louis, as a municipality, maintains several institutions 
of no small importance, and at no little expense. Among 
these is the City Hospital, under the control of the Board of 
Health, and directly under the superintendence of Dr. D. V. 
Dean. This is an immense building with many wards and 
apartments. The number of patients varies from one hundred 
and fifty to three hundred. These are sent to the hospital 
through the dispensary physician, or by the Commissioner of 
Health. Diseases of all characters are encountered in this vast 
lazar-house. Dr. Dean is favored by having a staff of young 
graduates, who draw no salary, but are furnished with board 
and lodging in the hospital. The superintendent, or, as we 
should say, physician to the city hospital, maintains excellent 
discipline and enforces the strictest rules in relation to the 



sanitary condition of this great establishment. It is unneces- 
sary to descril)e the buildini;, or give any account of its divis- 
ions. It is simihir in all respects, to the great hospitals of 
other cities. Strangers desirous of visiting it may do so very 
readily by street car. 

The Female Hospital, which is a separate institution to 
that above noticed, occupies a handsome site in the southwest 
part of the city, and is maintained at the public expense as a 
lying-in house or Maternity Hospital ; and also for the recep- 
tion and treatment of female patients of the city generally. 
Into neither of the institutions named, are persons admitted 
who have sufficient means or who have friends to care for 
them. Dr. Schenck has charge of this institution. 

The United States Government maintains a hospital for 
the marines, the sailors and steamboatmen, at St. Louis. The 
Marine Hospital is finely situated on a bluff overlooking the 
river, in the southern part of the city. Dr. "VVyman is surgeon 
in charge. 

The city maintains a farm and hospital for the benefit of 
the paupers who may become a public charge. At this place 
nearly five hundred poor miserable wi-etches are collected. 
Nearly two hundred of the number are idiotic. Some of these 
have been brought in from the countrv on railway trains and 
abandoned on the streets to become a public charge on the 
city by those who brought them here. 

The State of Missouri has adopted and supports the Insti- 
tution for the Education of the Blind, situated in this city. 
The many improvements in the methods of instruction, intro- 
duced in the past few years, have led to the happiest results. 
The pupils in this school have made remarkable progress, such 
as to create surprise in those who were favored l>y witnessing 
their proficiency. Dr. Mc Workman is the Superintendent, 
and he has an able statf of teachers to carry on the educa- 
tional work. The teachers who have achieved such results are 
John T. Sibley, A, M., Principal, and Misses Colby, Hill, Mar- 
tin and McGinness, Assistants. 


"'"«£'■" ""^ifiiia" »™'.ii?i|jr::iii!i:ffir''''Vg:»|.|,^ 



The Insane! We often hear the word lightly and carelessly 
spoken. Men scarcely give a thought to the dreadful meaning 
of those two syllables. If we speak of death, we do it with 
bated breath ; if we speak of the grave, our hearts grow sad, 
for we associate the word with the processes of decay in the 
solemn darkness of that under-carth tenement, in which we 
have seen placed the beautiful forms of the loved and lost, 
and we realize that those forms are mouldering into indistin- 
guishable dust. But we speak of the insane as we speak of a 
class, the bond, the free, the high, the low, the rich, the poor. 
We do not readily grasp the significance of a word which 
names the awful malady which debars the victim from the con- 
sideration of rational questions, the enjoyments of social life, 
and the contemplation of the face of Nature. The sun, moon, 
and stars, the deep vault of the blue sky, the smiling fields, 
the ripening crops, and the fairest pictures of earth, can no 
more gladden the eyes of the hopeless and incurable insane. 

What a terrible meaning has the little word Insane ! What 
do we mean by it? We mean a measure of distress wiiich jio 
bodily ill can produce ; we mean a painful struggle between 
the convictions of reason and the suggestions of disease, 
while the mind is tormented by the dread of approacliing 
calamity ; we mean the absorption of the whole soul in one 
single horrible idea, none the less so because it is false as 
regarded by others ; we mean that depression of spirit in which 
the wJiole universe, mental and moral and material, seems to 
be enveloped in a funeral pall, or, in the conception of the poet 
of all times, Shakespeare, when man dclighteth not, nor 



woman neither, and this goodly frame, the earth, seems a 
sterile promontory; this most excellent canopy, the air, 
this brave, overhanging firmament, this majestical roof fretted 
with golden fire, appears no other than a foul and pestilent 
congregation of vapors. We mean a state of jealousy and 
suspicion, in which every creature, even the nearest and 
dearest, seems to be an enemy ready for any conceivable mis- 
chief or annoyance ; we mean a paroxysm of fury or an over- 
powering delusion which must end at last in bloodshed and 
carnage, the dearest and most cherished beings the victims ; 
we mean a complete change of character and habits, a course 
of idleness and neglect of duty, instead of industry and a 
scrupulous discharge of all the obligations of life ; we mean 
indifference and hostility toward the objects of the tenderest 
affection ; we mean hurry and restlessness without measure or 
motive, instead of a habitually calm and judicious movement ; 
we mean extravagant expenditure, and a reckless, lawless 
habit of living, in place of rigid exactness and an exemplary 
demeanor ; we mean a perpetual sense of anxiety and appre- 
hension for months and years together, pervading a family 
circle, once the abode of peace, love and mutual confidence ; 
and extreme destitution, where once were prosperity and 
plenty ; we mean the excited ravings of the maniac, the gross 
delusions of the monomaniac, the mischief and malice of the 
morally insensible, the gloom and despair of the melancholic, 
and the dual life of the subject of circular insanity. These 
are some of the meanings which attach to the little word 

St. Louis is not only populous, but it is a central point 
towards which all sorts of people gravitate, in continued pro- 
cession. The sinful come to find associates in sin, and to hide 
away among sinners. Vagrants come to find society among 
vagabonds. Thieves, not only come to consort w^ith other 
thieves, but in order to plunder. Murderers flee to the great 
cities in order to conceal themselves from the pursuit of 
avengers. Pickpockets and loafers, and tramps, and sinners, 
and criminals, of every grade and character, are ever moving 
toward the populous hives, the great cities. Then imbeciles, 
and cripples, and the poverty-stricken of every class, are 


brought into the city by ones and twos hy the railroads. Tlie 
traveling expenses of these poor unfortunates art- paitl by 
counties and municipalities to save the cost of their main- 
tenance, by imposing them on the great city as a charg(\ 
There is a great deal of human nature developed among the 
rural functionaries who send their paupers and insane imhc- 
ciles to lose them in the streets of St. Louis. They do hy 
others as they would not have others do unto them — a favorite 
version of an ancient law now in general use. Hence, St. 
Louis receives, and is consequently credited Avitli having, a 
heav}'^ percentage of insane in proportion to population. 

St. Louis has provided amply and elegantly for the accom- 
modation and care of this unfortunate class of her population, 
a large proportion of whom have been foisted as a charge 
upon the resources of the city by dishonorable country officials, 
who have sent them here to be "dropped on the street," and 
subsequently picked up by the metropolitan police officers, 
and consigned to the City Insane Asylum. 

The city is well provided with institutions for the custody 
and care of patients of this unfortunate class. The City 
Insane Asylum and St. Vincent's Asylum, are l)oth immense 
structures, with ample accommodations for several hundred 
patients each. 

St. Vincent's is under the control of the Roman Catholic 
Sisters of Charity, and is generally conceded to be one of the 
best conducted institutions for the protection and medical 
treatment of the insane in the West. The City Insane Asylum 
is under the management of the Board of Health of the city 
of St. Louis. The Health Commissioner has the chief oversight 
of this great public charity. At the Asylum, Dr. N. I)e\^M-e 
Howard is Superintendent, and exercises direct control over 
the patients and attendants, and is responsible for the actual 
government of all the affairs of the institution. 

Reader, were you ever in a mad-house? Then, if you 
were not and would spare your feelings from harrowing sights 
and heartrending sounds, it is best you should not cross the 
threshhold of such an institution. What strange fancies cloud 
the reason of all the hundreds of persons whom you would 
meet in that huge Imilding, with its long halls and ranges of 


grated and barred cells ! What magnificent wrecks of brilliant 
intellects you would meet as you walked through the corri- 
dors ! What rasping howls, horrible screeches, and plaintive 
wails would assail your ears I What sad faces and mournful 
eyes would meet your vision and forever thereafter haunt your 
dreams ! Once beholding these sad spectres of lost minds, 
the visitor is prepared to join with fervor in the prayer of 

Lear — 

"Oh, let me not be mad, not mad, sweet Heaven ! 
Keep me in temper; I would not be mad!" 

How many among the hundreds of male inmates are there who 
once had dreams of fame, who once were the pets of society, 
the hopes of parents and the pride of the homes from whence 
they have gone out forever ! 

Let us enter that palatial structure. 

There is Dr. Howard and his assistant, Dr. George W. 
Hoover. We desire to pass through the institution. 

Yes, we can go through it. Dr. Hoover will attend to otir 
desires. An attendant is called. Dr. Hoover, with two years' 
experience, has become quite familiar with the various fancies 
which disturb the equilibrium of the patients. The Doctor 
in person will accompany us on our visit. He has a certain 
routine employed day after day, and it comes natural to him 
to show off his interesting patients. His relation of facts in 
connection with the institution are invariable. These same 
incidents and descriptions, and comments and observations 
have been gone over with, perhaps, a thousand times, to as 
many different visitors. 

We may expect to be told about the character of the iron 
stairways, leading from story to story of the building ; their 
convenience, not only as thoroughfares, but as a means of 
escape in case a fire should break out in the building. Then 
we shall hear of the scrupulous cleanliness, the polished floors, 
the excellent tal)le furniture, the well-washed linen, the admi- 
rable ventilation, the watchfulness of the attendants, and the 
peculiarities of some of the patients. The Doctor has conned 
his lesson over and over. It is easy for him to impart his 
knowledge of matters at the Asylum. He has done so hundreds 


of times, and the stones have beconu- like a imrrot's babble 
to him — a mere mechanical rehearsal. 

" How many patients are there in the institution?" 
This question was asked in the first days of May, 1878. 
"How many? The average number? Well, about three 
hundred and forty." Such a community of reason-wrecked 
unfortunates ! Of that number how many could exclaim with 
King Lear — 

"The tempest in my mind 
Dotli from my senses take all feeling else, 
Save what beats there." 

And how many more among all the wretched ones confined 
within those stately walls, though perhaps unable to formulate 
their feelings in words, might, nevertheless, be regarded in 
that distressful state into which Macbeth fell after the death 
of Duncan, a state in which they forever hear a voice crying — 

" Sleep no more ! 
Glamis hath murdered sleep; and therefore Cawdor 
Shall sleep no more, — Macbeth shall sleep no more." 

And these start up in the silent hours with cries of agony 
and terror that startle the sane mind and courageous soul. 

The psychological condition of any considerable number 
of these afflicted persons it would be impossible to give in a 
sketch so brief; indeed, it is doubtful if such matter would 
prove interesting to the general reader. 

The general belief that an insane asylum must necessarily 
be a frightful bedlam, where unearthly yells, and howls, and 
shrieks, and oaths, and pleadings forever torture the air, is a 
mistake — an error inherited from the i)ast, when lunatics were 
treated like wild beasts, and naturally their malady wouhl be 
intensified and their solace consisted in howling. Now things 
have changed. The insane are no more treated as creatures 
to whom kindness need not be shown. And the efi*ect on the 
health of the patients can scarcely be estimated. The wards 
and halls of a modern, well-managed mad-house are usually 
as quiet as the corridors of a convalescent hospital. Of course, 
in the wards assigned to violent patients this conditida of 
quietude is lial)le to be frequently broken in upon l)y some of 
the many demented orators, preachers, poets and singers, 


whose incoherent eloquence or inhjirmonioiis chants often 
interrupt the repose of the institution. 

There are some interesting characters in the City Insane 
Asylum, men possessed of some coherence in ordinary matters, 
but who have wild and weird conceptions in relation to some 
particular opinion or principle. Such a person is the " Em- 
peror of America." A stout, muscular German, of low 
statue, and a frowsy head of raven 1)1 ack hair. There is a 
mystery about the man which increases the interest of all 
visitors. The name of the Emj)eror is believed to be Lutz. 
His first appearance in St. Louis, so far as known, was in 
1876, about the time the National Democratic Convention 
met. The Emperor, acting under orders from the Omniscient, 
arrayed himself in a fantastic suit made of flags, and armed 
with a club made a destructive foray upon a number of plate- 
glass windows in the neighborhood of Sixth Street and Wash- 
ington Avenue. He was captured after a violent struggle. 
Examination into his condition clearly proved the fact of his 
insanity, and he was sent to the asylum, where he was in 
May, 1878, classed as probably incurable. 

The Emperor of America relates that while he was still a 
citizen of Germany the Most High God appeared to him, or 
rather that he was carried into the Divine presence, when he 
was informed by the Omnipotent himself that He had set the 
seal of His condemnation on republican governments, and had 
thereupon commissioned the Emperor to proceed to the work 
of extirpating republics and building a universal empire, of 
which Lutz was to be sole and absolute ruler. For this mis- 
sion he claims he was anointed by God. 

The Emperor realizes that he is in confinement, and 
attributes his misfortune to a conspiracy of the Great Powers 
of Europe, who became alarmed and jealous of the tremen- 
dous success and great power of the Empire of America. The 
Emperor is ver}' autocratic, and for the most part it is neces- 
sary to keep him confined within the walls of his cell, where 
he spends time in threatening dire vengeance on his potent 

Another one of the earth's unfortunate great men is the 
President of the Irish Republic. He has been incarcerated in 


the asylum, according to his own account, through the in- 
fluence and by the order of Queen Victoria. When this ruUn- 
of Enghind dies, the President of the republic, made such by 
Divine appointment, will depart at once for Ireland, whore 
his agents have already prepared everything for the organiza- 
tion of the great Christian republic, from which all injustice 
and wrongs of every sort will be at once and forever exclndc<]. 
In his model republic the Congress Avill be composed entirely 
of priests. The President of the Irish Republic at the asylum 
is a great reader of newspapers and is an ardent labor 
reformer. He grows eloquent over the wrongs of the work- 
ingmen and bitter in his denunciation of the subsidized press. 
He is eminentl}'^ a man of peace. Wars and bloodshed will 
cease when the great republic is established. If enemies 
should rise up, the army of the republic will march against 
them with the standard of the Holy Cross l)efore them, and 
the ineffable light shed by this symbol will strike terror into 
the ranks of the enemy and they will flee away. The Presi- 
dent is a Christian Socialist, and denounces the red flag of the 
Commune with great vehemence. The cross of God, not the 
bloody-colored flag, must at last triumph over tyranny and 
oppression. The President is already far advanced in years, 
and should Queen Victoria continue long on the stage of life 
the probability is that the President will not live to inaugurate 
his ideal republic. Before his mind gave way this })erson was 
a zealous labor reformer. 

And so the visitor passes along, and sees around him 
statesmen, orators, poets, minstrels, princes, kings, potentates, 
angels, emperors, and gods. 

Here we have the venerable King of Connaught, a patriarch 
of more than fourscore years, whose long white beard, snowy 
locks hanging over his shoulders, and sad expression of coun- 
tenance, is well calculated to produce a lasting impression on 
the visitor. The king was found upon the streets several 
vears aijo. How he came here, who brought him away from 
his island home, and why he was abandoned iu his helpless- 
ness, are matters of conjecture. 

In another cell is a great financier and student of social 
science, the great problems of which have evidently proved too 


much for his intellect. He realizes that he is surrounded by 
lunatics, but does not understand whv he should be reoarded 
as one. Half the people on the outside he thinks should be 
in the asylum, while the majority within should be turned out. 
This man expects to see a thousand-dollar silver coin in circu- 
lation which shall be no larger than a trade dollar. 

Then in one of the halls a tall, athletic man may be seen 
any day and at almost any hour of the day, walking rapidly 
backward and forward. From morning till night, day after 
day, he continues to stride within his circumscribed bounds. 
For a year he averaged about thirty miles a day, or nearly 
eleven thousand miles. 

In another place we find the poor melancholic, wearing his 
life away in a hopeless despair. 

Then we came to a martial looking man, who flourished an 
imaginary sword and gives the words of command, and sets in 
array his imaginary armies. Years ago, on one of the ensan- 
guined battle fields of the South, this man was shot in the head, 
and from that time the liglit of reason was extinguished, and 
so he continues ever the same, a commander of men. His life 
is one long continued battle. 

An old man is possessor of more gold than Ophir, California, 
Australia, Mexico and Peru ever produced. And yet, sad to 
relate, he is prevented from enjoying this vast wealth by the 
manajjement of the King of Canaan, who is envious of his 
great o-ood fortune. 

These are only illustrative cases, a few samples selected 
from among hundreds of the wards of the city. 

Among the women whose reason has fled, the peculiarities 
of their malady are still more completely marked. There we 
shall be introduced to Queen Victoria, Mrs. Buchanan, widow 
of the late President, James Buchanan, as she fondh^ believes ; 
the Queen of the Fairies, angels of various names and degrees, 
and poor despairing souls who have committed the unpardon- 
able sin — such are the phantasies which liaunt their dreams 
and disturb their wakino; hours. 

It is curious to read the stories of the lives of many of the 
female inmates in the City Asylum by the light of the revela- 
tions made by themselves. Of course, in the conversation of 



the insane we expect to find "matter and iinportineney 
mixed," fact and fancy blended, but in the halhuinutions of the 
disordered brain Ave trace the causes whicii wioiiLdit tlic ruin. 
Disease, we say; but the disease which is the direct result of 
intense thought and morbid broodinjj: over a sin<rie idea. The 
monomaniac, the hypochondriac, tiie sul)ject of eircuhir insan- 
ity, the nymphomaniac, all classes of diseased minds, mav be 
here found and studied. 

What strange fancies flit through their disordered biain.s ! 
One imagines herself to be an angel ; another is prepariii<: — 
always preparing, for her bridal, an event that never happens ; 
another possesses countless Avealth ; another is the widow of a 
president, or a king. Once there Avas a poor young fadv who 
claimed to be "the spouse of Christ, and daughter-in-law to 
the living God." One now in the asylum never l)eh()lds the 
face and form of a man without piteously beseeching him for a 
kiss. Some talk with the dead, and "summon sj)irits from 
the smnmerland ;" some are forever looking for some one who 
never comes; and some are always expecting to destroy an 
enemy, and is always ready to attack any one of the sex as 
that enemy, for among the female patients jealousv is a potent 
cause of insanity. In many cases the insanity of the person 
is attended by more or less moral obliquity, by reason of which 
the normal relations of good and evil are so distorted as some- 
times to be completely inverted. And such cases sometimes 
exist, long before the subject is even suspected of being insane. 
In the asylum many cases of this character are met . Of course 
in this complete state of demoralization Ave seldom fail to Avit- 
ness a remarkable disregard of truth. Whether disease has so 
obscured their perceptions as to render them unable to distin- 
guish between the real and the imaginary, or Avhether, per- 
ceiving correctly enough, they Avillfully choose the false rather 
than the true, is not always so apparent. But among the pa- 
tients at the asylum the difKculty is not so great. Denientia 
has completely overthrown reason in a majority ol" cases. To 
them there can be no right, no Avrong, no more than there can 
be rio-ht and wrong conceiA-^ed of by the fox in his depredations 
on the poultry yard. 

The patients at the City Asylum are largely from the lower 


ranks of life. Some come from — well, no one knows where. 
Perhaps a majority of the patients have been left in the streets 
of the city, to be cared for by their friends or relations, or by 
the local municipal and county authorities, who thereby relieve 
themselves from the charge of their maintenance. And yet, 
Governor Phelps could not see a legal way to approve of an 
act which placed the institution under the authority of the 
State, and appropriate a comparatively small amount for its 
support. In respect to some matters, the Governor is a gi'eat 
stickler for the form and letter of the law. 

In addition to the average number of 340 patients treated in 
the City Insane Asylum proper, about 200 incurable imbeciles 
are maintained in the City Poor House. In this institution, 
the scenes presented are unexceptionally painful. Dr. Jessop 
has charge of the wards appropriated to these wretched beings. 
Most of them have passed to the condition of complete imbe- 
cility. Some of them were always idiotic, while others have 
become so through disease. This institution is under the 
direction of Mr. Frerich, Superintendent of the City Poor 
House. Death alone can relieve the wretched inmates of this 
place. Many of them are completely helpless. 

For amusement, the authorities have introduced balls and 
sociables. These re-unions of the l)etter behaved classes of 
inmates of the City Asylum are held twice each week. To be 
denied participation in the enjoyment of these social events is 
esteemed a great punishment by the unfortunates. The bene- 
ficial effects of these entertainments on the patients are deemed 
to be very great. Certain classes of patients receive more 
benefit from quiet amusement with cards, dominos and check- 
ers. The main object of all pastimes allowed to patients is 
the diversion of the mind from morbid contemplation. 

From wdiat we have written it will be understood that the 
city has under its care nearly 550 patients suffering from men- 
tal maladies, the average cost of maintaining each one of which 
is about |175 per annum, for each patient. The whole cost of 
maintaining the insane of the city is not much less than an 
average of $200 for each one cared for. This estimate includes 



The St. Vincent's Institution for the Insane, is ii private 
retreat for the mentally afflicted, founded hy i\w Sisters of 
Charity, of the Roman Catholic Church, on the 10th of 
August, 1858. 

At present. Sister Julia is the Superior, and directs the 
affairs of the institution. Dr. J. K. Bauduy, well known as 
an eminent mental pathologist and instructor in the science 
relating to diseases of the nervous system, is, and has been for 
years, physician to the St. Vincent's Institution for the Insane. 

The grounds on which the spacious structure is situated 
consists of an entire block, fronting on Decatur (or South 
Ninth) Street, and extending from Carroll to Marion Street. 
The neighborhood, though quite populous, is remarkably (juiet 
and free from the presence of noisy manufactories. 

The building is large, well ventilated, and fitted up vnth. 
all modern conveniences, and presents the character and 
appearance of a domestic retreat rather than a place for the 
seclusion and confinement of the insane. 

The grounds about the stately building have l)een highly 
improved, and are shaded by a growth of old forest trees. It 
has been a constant aim with the Sisters in charge to invest 
this institution with everything appertaining to an ordinary 
home, in which the patients, at all times Avhen the nature of 
the case will admit, are surrounded by all the comforts and 
advantages of a well-regulated home. 

In the management of this institution, there have been 
some features introduced, which evidently gives it an immense 
advantage as a mental sanitarium over the arrangements at 
the public institution. Better opportunities for amusement 
and recreation are afibrded than at the asylum maintained ])y 
the municipality. 

It is true, that as a general rule, the two hundred and fifty 
patients usually found in the institution come from a higher 
rank in social grade than do the patients found in the City 
Asylum. But it is impossible to conclude that on that account 
they are less violent or more tractable when once reason has 
been hurled from its throne. While at the public institution 


the chief amusement permitted to the patients is the balls 
o-iven twice a week, at St. Vincent's the patients are furnished 
an abundance of exercise in the open air, in tlie carriage, or on 
foot. About six miles from the city the institution has a farm, 
on which is cultivated a variety of fruits, vegetables and 
flowers for the use of the patients and their keepers in the 
institution . 

During the spring and summer seasons the patients are 
treated to frequent pic-nic excursions to the rural retreat be- 
lono-ino- to the institution. It has been found that these 
excursions proved not only enjoyable to the patient, but of 
great value in a remedial point of view. 

In St. Vincent's, as well as in the City Asylum, the visitor 
will always find interesting cases. 

But why have so many noble minds been wrecked? In 
this, as well as all other institutions for the seclusion and 
treatment of the insane, attempts are made to secure the pre- 
cise information necessary to answer the question. Whether 
the failure to obtain and impart the exact data from which an 
answer might be given is due to the carelessness or the inca- 
pacity of those who furnish the histories of the cases of 
patients admitted, the fact remains that the table of assigned 
causes sent out in reports of insane institutions possess little 
value for the student of mental pathology. " Inquiries that 
have for their object to cast some light on the origin of such 
an appalling malady yield to no other in point of interest and 
importance," remarks Dr. Ray; and yet the careful inquirer 
will seldom rise from the examination of such facts as are pre- 
sented to him in reports from asylums, with the conviction 
that they have thrown much light on the origin of insanity. 
From these we gain no clear insight into the laws, neither of 
psychology nor of pathology. We read of one who became 
insane from the " use of patent medicine." Another man is 
supposed to have become insane because he was " home-sick." 
Four persons are reported to have become insane from *• over- 
exertion ;" four lost their reason through ' ' anxiet3^ ' ' ' ' Family 
troubles" is the supposed cause of the insanity of three men 
and eleven women. Some become insane on account of 
religious excitement, others from loss of property ; some from 


fright, others from grief; some from intemperance, and some 
from congestive chills ; others lose their minds on acconnt of 
loss of property, while some others become demented from 
exposure to cold. 

There is a show of precision in the tables ; an exact ncss in 
the enumeration of the numl)ers who have been consigned to the 
mental sanitarium for treatment, whose maladies were caused 
by this or that event, or disappointment, which we may well 
apprehend is not found in nature. 

And the causes named are doubtless sometimes the effects 
of a mental derangement already deeply seated. In many 
cases these so-called causes are the first symptoms which arrest 
attention ; and by means of^ that common disposition to con- 
found the post hoc with the propter hoc, they are placed in the 
relation of cause to the subsequent aberration. 

But we do not proi30se to enter upon a discussion of the 
psychological phenomena of insanity. It is ours to deal with 
the arrangements which charity and humanity have completed 
for the care of those so dreadfully aiflicted. 

And we may sa}'^ that, so far as the ability of human 
learning can avail; so far as patient care and Christian de- 
votion can alleviate the distress of the atflicted, there is no 
institution in the city, or elsewhere, in which so large a 
measure of skill, so complete a service, and so large an amount 
of Christian self-sacrifice is undergone, as at the St. Vincent's 
Institution for the Insane. 

To St. Vincent's all classes of the insane are admitted, the 
melancholic, the maniac, the monomaniac, the gentle, and the 
violent. As a matter of fact, under such circumstances, the 
gentle ladies, who are the managers, have many most trying 
and disagreeable duties to perform. No one, unless through 
long years of training, and the highest qualification for the 
special duty of attending the insane, can properly minister to 
the diseased mind. In the language of Dr. Bauduy, " The 
perverted mental and moral nature of the insane patient pre- 
sents difficulties which are surmounted only by long experience 
and the cultivation of the highest of the Christian virtues — 
charity, fortitude under adverse circumstances, self-control 


under the most exasperating provocations, and a confident re- 
liance upon a Higher Power when danger arises." 

We know of no class or order of persons who so well meet 
the requirements here set forth, as the Sisters of Charity. 
Their thorough organization ; their practical education in all 
that pertains to the avocation, and by the consecration of their 
lives to a religious idea, they are fitted to perform their duty 
without fear or favor, assured that they have a reward in the 
land of the leal. 

Perhaps the consummate address and devotion of the 
nurses and managers of this private institution may be as- 
signed as a sufficient reason for the assertion that it presents, 
in several nnportant particulars of its management, a superi- 
ority over the City Asylum, for the seclusion and treatment of 
the insane. 

At the least we can say, that in every feature the St. Vin- 
cent's Institution for the Insane is one of the noblest institu- 
tions of the kind in our land. 

Reader, we have purposely omitted a parade of the un- 
fortunate inmates of this asylum. Such as are the inmates of 
the City Asylum, such also are the wretched ones of St. Vin- 
cent's. To pass through one mad-house is to pass through 
them all — varying in external appearance only, the wrecks and 
fragments of mentality are ever the same wherever found. 

Such, as we have endeavored to describe them, are the 
arrangements made in St. Louis for the confinement and medi- 
cal treatment of the most unfortunate of all the children of 
earth. To i)icture the scenes of w^retchedness, and hopeless- 
ness, and despair daily to be witnessed w^ithin the walls of 
those two spacious structures, the City Insane Asylum and St. 
Vincent's Institution for the Insane, is a task from which a 
sensitive mind must ever shrink. 



St. Louis is not free from any of the many evils which 
afflict society in all the civilized world. Her teeming popula- 
tion, gathered from all the continents and almost all the 
nations on the ftice of the earth, representing every condition 
in the scale of moral and intellectual development, it would 
be unreasonable to expect a condition of Arcadian puritv and 
simplicity in existence among so many hundreds of thousands 
of people. All society has its evils, and the situation in St. 
Louis is by no means exceptional. 

And yet society is the condition outside of which man 
can not attain to moral order, hence the preservation of 
society is for the body politic the highest of rights, and for 
the individual the first and highest of duties. This al)solute 
and inalienable right can only be enforced by means of com- 
pulsion and repression, which thus become rights inherent in 

The right of compulsion society exercises when it compels 
those services on the part of the individual which are neces- 
sary to its well-being. The right of repression is exercised 
when society seeks to anticipate and prevent those acts on the 
part of its individual members which would endanger its secu- 
rity. Exercised within these limits, compulsion and repression 
are legitimate, for they are absolutely necessary, not simply 
for the presentation of any particular form of social develop- 
ment, but for the preservation of the social order itself in its 
most general and universal sense. 

Hence the device of houses of detention and correction. 
In o-reat hives, like St. Louis, temptation, disposition, and 
environments cause hundreds of children of both sexes, at a 
tender age, to become transgressors, and thus to endanger the 

33 [513] 


existence of social order. What is to be done with these juve- 
nile offenders — girls and boys, who have become adepts in all 
manner of vice, and criminals in the eyes of the law? In other 
times such offenders would have been committed to the pris- 
ons, and otherwise treated precisely as other criminals. But 
the new zeal, — "the zeal according to knowledge," of lat^ 
displayed in the interest of humanity, has become so active — 
and proves to be of so much importance — that it has received 
special direction and a particular designation, which has been 
appropriately manifested in the manner of executing the re- 
quirements of society in the repression of crime. Houses of 
refuge and prisons are no longer such as they once were. 
Humanity has gone far toward the conquest of brutality in the 
treatment of the violators of the rules of society. Much has 
already been accomplished, much remains yet to be done before 
society can be fully acquitted of blame. 

The St. Louis House of Refuge, situated in the southern 
part of the city, strictly speaking, is a prison for the detention 
of juvenile offenders. Its discipline is that of a prison, and 
in all features of its operation it is distinctively a penitentiary 
for the detention and correction of youthful criminals. So 
far, well. But by some strange mixing of moral ideas, the 
city government condemns to imprisonment all unfortunate 
children who may be left as orphans, or otherwise abandoned 
to the care of the municipal authorities. Strange perversion 
of justice ! Singular want of practical sense in those who 
have exercised authority in this matter ! But of this more in 
another place. 

The House of Refuge, prison, for such it is, under the 
management of Mr. John D. Shaffer, is a model institution. 
There can be no just criticism, either against his method of 
discipline or personal influence in directing the reformation of 
the bad, and saving from contamination the unfortunate ones 
committed to his keeping. In fact the condition of the insti- 
tution is admiralile, so far as it is possible to make such an 
old structure deserve that appellation. There isnot enough 
room for the proper accommodation of the large number of 
inmates. Neatness and order, however, is conspicuous in 
every part of the house, in the shops, indeed everywhere. 


The visitor to the House of Refuge will at once he struck 
by the prison-appearance of the twenty-feet walls which Hank 
the building, which is itself grated and barred. On entering 
the door, a narrow hall, not more than eight or ten feet in 
width, furnishes a passage-way across the wichh oftlic building 
to the prison yard proi)er. Of some one must h>t the 
visitor in, for to break down the heavy and strongly barnul 
door would be no easy task, and i)eople do not roam at will 
about the prison yard, Avith its beautiful center-piece, a lovely 
little garden of flowers, set in the midst of a bare, paved, and 
cindered yard, surrounded by the wdiite board wall, just 
twenty feet high, and smooth, and difficult to surmount, 
inasmuch as no convenient ladders for scaling jjurposes are 
left about in accessible places. The visitor will have a com- 
panion — in all probability, Mr. George Onslow, Assistant 
Superintendent, an agreeable, chatty gentleman, he is well 
acquainted with every feature of the institution, and perfectly 
frank in communicating his knowledge to the visitor. 

Generally the first [)lace visited is the chaii-caning shoj), 
where a large number of boys are engaged in weaving the 
cane into the seat frames of the ordinary cane-seated chairs. 
Of course a great many readers of these pages know all aljout 
the process of caning chairs, and therefore we will not 
describe it now, further than to say that for seven hours a 
day the fingers of the bad boys who have been caught, and 
the good boys who have been unfortunate — 'tis all the same 
undel* our blessed institutions — are kept quite nimble at this 
occupation. Reader, if you visit the House; of Refuge, when 
you have looked at the lively boys weaving their cane seats 
for chairs, you will then be conducted into a general lavatory 
and range of little square wardrobes — mere boxes fastened 
to the walls, where the boys keep their uniform holiday suits, 
and whatever jDroperty besides they may l)e abh? to ol)tain. 
Each boy has his own case, and no other j^erson, save the 
officers, have any right to examine the contents. 

From this place you will very probably be conducted up a 
flight of steps into the shoe shop, where some sixty boys devoto 
themselves for seven hours every day in attending the ma- 
chinery, where ever so many hundred pairs of nice sewed shoes 


are made for ladies and girls and boys every day. The shop 
which is operated by a shoe merchant and manufacturer of 
the city, is supplied with splendid machinery to do everything, 
from cutting the leather to putting the last touch of burnishing 
on the completed shoe. It is a noisy place, and while you 
Avill be interested in observing the nicety of the work, 3^et you 
will find that it is not a good room for carrying on a conver- 
sation, and will not regret when you have gone through. 

Mr. Onslow, for we assume he will be the guide for all 
visitors, will conduct you down stairs again. You take a look 
at the bakery, observing for a few moments the great boiler, 
filled with potatoes, the great ovens occupied by swelling 
loaves of Avholesome-looking bread, and 3'ou are ready to pass 
into the school-room and theatrical hall. This place is fitted 
up with a neat stage, with a handsome drop-curtain and quite 
a property in shifting scenes. Here, on special occasions, 
youthful Garricks and incipient Rosciuses strut their brief 
hour across the stage — that mimic stage Avhich is untrodden 
by professionals, and the like of which they are not permitted 
to see in the great free world without. 

Then, after satisfying yourself about the eminent fitness of 
the theatrical stage as a means of instruction, you will be shown 
the lavatory, adjoining the dining-room ; then you will pass 
into a large basement hall, where there are a great many 
tables, and if at the proper hour, you will see more than a 
hundred boys of all sizes, ages — under twenty-one years — and 
representing many nationalities, and exhibiting various physiog- 
nomical peculiarities, busied at these tables, taking their food 
with as much apparent relish as ever did any gourmand the 
viands of Delmonico. The food furnished is abundant and of 
good quality. 

The inmates of the House of Refuge are all compelled to 
attend school. Not less than three hours in each day are 
passed in the school-rooms. There are four grades, into some 
one of which every boy must enter when he is committed to 
the house. The boys are also instructed in vocal music by a 
competent teacher. 

There are two dormitories in which the boys lodge. A 
watchman remains on duty in each one of these throughout 


the night. As stated above, the wliole place is a model of 
cleanliness and neatness. The mattresses an; of straw, hut tlic 
sheets are Avhite and eleanl}^ at all times. 'J'hc dormitories arc 
well ventilated, and the sanitary condition of tiie whole 
establishment reHeets credit upon the 8ui)erintendent and bis 
staff of assistants. 

The discii)line is firm and the rules somewhat severe. Cor- 
poral punishment is inflicted for Hairrant violations of the 
rules. Cruel and unusual punishment for disolx-dicnce has 
been abolished. Cells are not in use, but in cvcrvthini,^ else 
the House of Refuge in its govermnent is emi)hatically a 

It is well for the city that the Superintendent is a man of 
clear judgment, firm will, and humane disposition. The 
House of Refuge very effectually restrains the lawless youths 
committed by the petty criminal and misdemeanor courts dur- 
ing the term of his confinement, but it is exceedingly doubt- 
ful if many complete reformations in character are etTected. 

At best, institutional life is bad. The children of public 
institutions and asylums can not, as a general rule, become 
very excellent citizens. The effect of association and discipline 
in orphanages and reform schools is generally of a character 
which does not recommend such institutions as the foster- 
mothers of the future citizens of our land. 

In the female department, over which ^Nlrs. M. J. Shaffer 
presides as Matron, there were in the first months of 1878 
nearly one hundred inmates. Like the boys' department, this 
institution is peopled by two classes — the vicious and criminal, 
and the poor and abandoned. Many of the girls Avere com- 
mitted to the refus^e for immoralities — some of them fak(Mi 
from houses of bad-repute, and others were committed l)y the 
courts on account of lewd acts. The fallen girls had gone 
far astray ; some had already grown quite callous ere they wci-c 
sent down. Yet, necessarily, the innocent orphan girl, com- 
mitted simply on account of having no home an<l no friends, 
must be made to conform to the same severe discipliiu; and 
take the chances of l)eing contaminated by association with the 
most vicious and depraved 3'oung girls, taken from the very 
ste^vs of sin and shame. The picture is not a lovely one, and 


the responsibility for blighting lives and ruining souls rests 
upon that organ of society, the city government, which does 
not make a distinction between the criminal and the unfortu- 
nate, which regards innocent poverty as no more entitled to 
respect and gentle treatment than shameless crime. The good 
and the bad go together under the law, and the possibility of 
causing more criminals to be made than can possibly be 
reformed, and thereby entailing burdens on society ; the 
burdens of prosecuting the vicious and defending itself from 
the attacks of the reckless, some of whom have been made 
vicious and reckless through contamination while in an insti- 
tution belonging to the city. No fault can be found with the 
management of the institution, either in the male or female 
departments. It is not the fault of Mr. and Mrs. Shaffer if 
graduates are turned out of that place of detention worse in 
morals than when they were sent down. It is the fault of the 
city government, which has not provided for drawing the lines 
of distinction between the good and the bad, the innocent and 
the guilty. 

Life in institutions of this kind must necessarily be of a 
routine character. The inmates are required to rise at a cer- 
tain predetermined hour, take their morning meal at a certain 
time, devote a definite number of hours to labor, a certain 
number more in the school-room ; take exercise and recreation 
in a certain prescribed Avay and at fixed hours of the day, and 
finally must retire for the night simultaneously and by rule. 
Men and women brought up under such conditions are not 
likely to become very self-reliant — ^their lives must be in a 
large measure merely mechanical, and they will partake more 
of the character of automata than rational beings. 

To compensate for the necessarily rigid discipline required, 
a system of rewards and punishments is provided to stimulate 
individual jimbition. When first committed, the girls or boys 
have thirty days in Avhich to prove themselves, and during 
which time they receive neither marks of merit nor demerit. 
From that time their good or bad behavior is entered to their 
account. It is possible under this system for the inmates to 
emancipate themselves from the institution within two years. 
But orood behavior is not an evidence of reformation. On the 


contrary, the shrewd bad boy or girl knows woll enough that 
there is no hojDe of escape except through a strict obedience to 
all the requirements of the institutional law, and they (juictly 
submit to the inevitable and are models of good behavior within 
the house of detention, in order that they may the sooner re- 
gain their freedom, when they can again follow their propen- 
sities with more tact and shrewdness, on account of the 
experience they have gained. 

Punishment is meted out to the girls as well as the boys, 
only the former are not subjected to corporeal chastisement. 

How did these scores of boys and girls fall into the hands 
of the authorities? Whose children ? Where did they come 
from ? It would require the space of a volume to answer these 
questions. Some are the offspring of shiftless, unenterprising 
parents ; others are the children of parents who disagree, the 
fathers went awa}^ and the mothers either became reckless or 
too poor to care for them ; some are the children of poor, 
sickly widows ; others are vicious and criminal, the fallen 
among girls and the thievish among boys. But all are on a 
level at the House of Refuge. The management of that place 
is unexceptionable, the system is bad. If the inmates were all 
criminals then it would be a model institution ; if the inmates 
were all simply unfortunate, then Mr. and Mrs. Shatfer would 
make it a Iiome for them. Such it is not now. 



Occasional Adsitors to the great human hive called St. 
Louis do not — indeed they can not — know anything of the 
miseries atJlicting thousands, hidden by the dingy brick walls 
of buildings in the tenement districts. If some mighty magi- 
cian, gifted with supernatural powers, should suddenly render 
those opaque walls transparent, opening to the vision of every 
passer-by the scenes forever being enacted in the haunts of 
the lowly, even the old citizens of the place would themselves 
be appalled by the wretchedness revealed to them. 

The visitor sees stately marts of trade, magnificent palaces 
of traflic, lordly mansions, beautiful villas, lovely parks, roads 
pared and lined by the homes of the opulent — in short, he 
only sees the pomp and glitter, and splendors which large 
accumulations of wealth have caused to appear. The stranger 
is driven through Lucas Place, on Grand Avenue, about 
Lafayette Park, to Shaw's Garden, through the Compton Hill 
district, to the Fair Grounds, through Stoddard's Addition — 
everywhere, in fact, where the wealth and gi-eatness , and pride 
and glory of St. Louis can be shown to the best advantage. 
The stranger is the spectator, the city the circus-ring of the 
show. Can such a visitor ever acquire any information, or be 
able to form a conception of the character of the masses of the 
city? Certainly not. 

And let us be frank enough to confess that only a very 
small proportion of the citizens of St. Louis know anything of 
the shadowed lives of, not hundreds, but thousands of our 
fellow-mortals, who live, suffer, die, and are at last left to 
moulder into indistinguishable dust in the paupers' cemetery. 
Physicians, whose duty calls them to attend the poor, visitors 
of benevolent societies, to a limited extent reporters of the 



daily press, and patrolmen on the police force, are the only ones 
who knoAv anything of the want and woe Avhich are hidden in 
several large districts of the city. And liiis atHiction of poverty 
is not limited to particular districts, but isolated cases of desti- 
tution are to be found scattered all over the city. What gleam 
of light can appear to thousands of these? "What sunburst of 
hope can lighten their pathway? Life to them nmst be one 
long night of sorro\y. Shall we then say that Providence is 
unkind, or fiite spiteful to them ? No, indeed. ' ' The i)()or you 
have always with you," \vas the declaration of the world's 
wisest, purest and holiest instructor. It was a fact then ; it is 
realization now. If there were no poor there could be no 
benevolence ; and if no human sympathies, then nothing but a 
dreary sordidness Ayhich would overshadow every soul, and 
leave nothing but an utterly despicable sellishness in the 
churches and in the world. 

" It is more l)lessed to give than to receive." By the 
presence of the poor the great heart of huni:niity is warmed 
into action, and prevented from chilling and dying. 

We boast of the wealth, the grandeur and commercial 
greatness of St. Louis. Shall we not also boast of the genuine 
benevolence and large humanity which is so prominent a 
characteristic of her people? We have cause for thankful- 
ness, at least, because the cry of the distressed is sure to 
UAvaken responsive emotions in the hearts of the citizens. 

Within the corporate limits of St. Louis then^ arc con- 
stantly nearly three thousand families who are ol)jei-ts of 
charitv. If the average number of persons in each family ])e 
four, then there are twelve thousand men, women and children 
who have not the means of sustenance, or the ability to pro- 
cure food to keep them from starving. 

To maintain these, the benevolence of thi^ people has beiMi 
appealed to, not in vain, and for a period of about nineteen 
years a voluntary association has been engaged in relieving 
the distressed by distributing the contributions of the cliiui- 


The beginnings of the St. Louis Proyident Association 
were not such as to awaken any very enthusiastic hopes of its 


future beneficence. There lived in the city a German gentle- 
man — a minister of the Gospel, formerly a citizen of Tennes- 
see — whose attention had been painfully called to the lack of 
efficient means for the jDrompt relief of the suffering poor. He 
thought, devised, and we may say, prayed for light on the 
problem of how to relieve the suffering and deal justly by all. 
He spoke of the matter which lay near his heart to a fellow- 
worker in the field of labor among the poor. 

The minds of Rev. F. Lack and Mr. Thomas Morrison were 
singularly in unison in the conclusion that something ought to 
be done, and in the resolution to do something in behalf of the 
poor of the cit3^ This resolution of two men was made known 
to others with like feelings, and the Saint Louis Provident 
Association soon came into existence. It was a noble enter- 
prise earnestly undertaken and triumphantly completed. It 
is now the great eleemosynary almoner of the people of St. 
Louis. Two humane gentlemen thought about it, talked 
about it to each other, agreed concerning it, spoke about it to 
others, and the beginning was made ; the years have completed 
the structure on the foundation laid by them, and those earnest 
men proved the benefactors of their race. 

The objects to be accomplished, and the principles upon 
which the association proposed to act were not vague or matter 
of conjecture. From the beginning the aims of the Association 
were two-fold — the elevation of the moral and physical condi- 
tion of the indigent, and, so far as is compatible with the de- 
sign, the relief of their necessities. It is the design of the 
Superintendent, Rev. F. Lack, to make the work of the asso- 
ciation essentially reformatory as well as benevolent ; in other 
words, to combine the qualities of justice and mercy in dis- 
pensing material assistance. Hence the adoption of regula- 
tions for the government of the Association in its work, which 
debars a promiscuous claim for relief and places all Avho 
receive aid under restraint. 

No relief is given until a personal investigation has been 
made into each case of application by visitation and inquiry. 
No relief is extended to any one except through the superin- 
tendent of the section in which the applicants reside. The 
association, in relieving the poor, give only necessary articles. 


and only what is immediatoly necessary and that which is least 
susceptible of abuse. Another i)recaiitioii, to prevent imposi- 
tion and at the same time relieve the reallv dcserviiiir, is the 
plan of giving only in snndl (iu:intities and for inunediate 
necessities, only the staple i)rovisions necessary to sustain 
life. Cornmeal, flour, and some kind of meat are the only 
articles dispensed, except in cases where the indigent are sick, 
when sugar and coffee or tea are given in small (juantities. 

Relief is always extended by the Superintendent of the 
Provident Association at once. When a case of destitution 
is reported, an immediate investigation is made and prompt 
relief afforded. Assistance is never prolonged after the actual 
necessity for it ceases. Long years of life passed in relieving 
destitution has eminently qualified Rev. Mr. Lack for the judi- 
cious exercise of the discretion with which he must necessarily 
be clothed in extending, modifying and restricting relief to 
applicants, according to the necessities of their particular case. 

One of the inflexible rules laid down by ]\Ir. Lack, for the 
administration of the charity entrusted to his superintendence, 
is that entire abstinence from the use of intoxicating liquors 
shall be observed by all beneficiaries, during the time they re- 
ceive relief; that such as have children of proper age shall 
keep them in school, unless prevented by unavoidable circum- 
stances, and that such as have children sufiiciently grown shall 
apprentice them to some trade, or send them out to service. 

The Avisdom of this regulation is apparent at a glance. By 
such ruling the poor are made parties to their own improve- 
ment and elevation. They are taught the lesson of self-susten- 
ance. A willful disregard of this regulation debars the j)ersons 
concerned from further assistance. 

It is not the design of the Provident Association to give aid 
to persons who, from infirmity, imbecility, old age, or from any 
other cause, are likely to continue unable to earn their own 
support, and consequently to be permanently dependent. Hut. 
to meet such cases, immediate relief is aflbrded, and continued 
until the persons interested can be cared for by the })roper 
authorities of the city. 

All persons who manifest a purpose of depending upon the 
association for a support, by a failure to make j)r()p('r efforts 


in their own behalf, are debarred from participation in the 
benefits of the alms distributed,- because such dependence upon 
alms would be incompatible with their own good and the 
objects of the institution. 

The mode of dispensing this noble charity is exceedingly 
simple, and yet very complete and effective. A visiting book 
is provided. The name of a destitute family is reported. The 
Superintendent, or some one authorized to act, at once proceeds 
to make an investigation. The whole history of the family is 
embraced in the regular questions asked of all, such as the 
name, number in family, nativity, religious connection, if any ; 
occupation, widower or widow, and such other information as 
may -be gathered. If the applicants belong to any church or 
other benevolent association, they receive a card, directing 
them to the charities of the church to which they belong. If 
afterward the card is presented, it is regarded as an evidence 
that the church or society does not mean to take charge of the 
case, and the Superintendent of the Association relieves their 
distress. If, however, the indigent persons belong to no church 
or society of a charitable or benevolent character, they receive 
a card directing them to one of the Association's depots, where 
their wants are supplied. On being relieved they receive a 
card on which the name of the family, the number, the rela- 
tionship, and the place of residence is written. On the back 
of this card are the names of the twelve months, w^ith blank 
lines for each, on which the Superintendent charges the amount 
of the relief extended. The beneficiary takes this card and is 
required to produce it every time a call is made for relief. 
Without this card they can get no help. Thus, a complete 
check is kept upon all classes of the alms-receiving people. 

As a matter of fact, nearly seven-eighths of those who apply 
for relief are widows with children, left destitute and alone in 
the w^orld. In religion, the applicants for relief were divided 
as follows : Families, members of the Roman Catholic Church, 
one hundred and sixty-eight ; families, connected with various 
Protestant churches, fortj'-eight ; families, connected with no 
church, two thousand six hundred and twenty-one. 

In respect to occupation, the applicants for relief were 
divided as follows : Washerwomen, 1,312 ; needlewomen, 326 ; 


mechanical, 89 ; mercantile, 28 ; laborers, 821 ; i)r(), 
65 ; soldiers, 1 ; none, 195 ; making altogether 2,887 families 
who sono;ht and obtained relief duriiiir the year 1877. 

The Provident Association commenced operations in ISdl. 
That year something over $;},()(>0 was expenilcd. The largest 
sum dispensed in any one ycnv was tlie work of ISCC, wlim I lie 
association expended for the relief of the destitute, almost 
$40,000. The least sum expended in any year since 1M(J4 was 
in 1872, when the amount was about $15,000. Since 18G1 the 
whole amount expended by the Association is in excess of 

What has been the result of the methotl pursm-d in the 
relief of the poor by the Provident Association ? The answer 
to this question is important. It is a fact that the helpful 
character of the assistance rendered to some of the families 
years ago enabled them to get on in the world, and the rigid 
enforcement of the rule to require all beneficiaries to keep their 
children at school, has resulted in giving to the public schools 
some of the best teachers enarao-ed in the work of educatinor 
the children of the city. This is something. Then again, 
some of those who, ten years ago, were recipients of the alms 
of the Association, have become regular contributors to the 
funds of the Association. These incidents in the history of the 
work of the institution show that the distribution of alms may 
be so regulated that benefits may be reaped by the connnunity 
which thus regards its poor and takes compassion on them in 
their distress. Many poor of to-day may be rich ten years 
hence. There is another important fact establishcil, that is, 
that even in the ranks of the most poverty-stricken families, 
are to be found children who may become the most useful of 
citizens. Stanley, the African explorer, came from the pre- 
cincts of a Welsh poor-house. So among the cliildren of the 
destitute poor of this city, it is possible, that a future Presi- 
dent of the United States may now be in process of develop- 
ment. Who will say that the seven or eight public school 
teachers who were recipients of the bounty of the Provident 
Association ten or twelve years ago, are not wortii as niurh 
to the community as all the money contributed during atiy 
one year to the funds of the Association. It is painful to 


conjecture what might have been the fate of these and hun- 
dreds of others, had no relief been offered and no g-enial in- 
fluence thrown around them in the hour of their deep distress. 
How much might have been expended in prosecuting them as 
criminals? The community, as well as the individual, may 
realize that it is more blessed to give than to receive. 



The first and second floors of the west wins: of the Four 
Courts are used by the Metropolitan Police Department of 
the city. On the first floor or basement, the armory for the 
police is located ; and it is here that those " watch-dogs of the 
city," the blue-coats, go through the evolution of drill at 
stated periods during the week. The second floor is divided 
into twelve apartments for the actual daily service of the 
Chief of Police, and officers of the department and newspaper 
reporters. It is often remarked by individuals not acquainted 
with the workings of newspaper ofiices " How do the re- 
porters find out all these things?" The problem is easily 
solved when the fact is taken into consideration, that all police- 
men in the city report every incident to the station in their 
respective districts, which in turn is reported to the Chief's 
office, where, after due cognizance has been taken by the 
Chief, it is jDut upon the " hook," as it is called, and from this 
the newspaper boys catch the news as it flies, often making a 
column or two out of a three-line police, item, by looking up 
the parties involved in it. In these twelve rooms on the 
second floor are situated the offices of the Chief, the main 
office of the captain of the district in which the building is 
located ; the Supply Department, wherein all new stores are 


placed and issued to the various districts ; the office of the 
Board of Police Commissioners for meeting purposes ; the 
Detectives' Departments and the Chief's room. These rooms 
are, perhaps, the most interesting features of the whole 
building ; and the reader would find a visit here very interesting. 

THE rogues' gallery. 

The private office of the Chief is used for the *' Rogues* 
Gallery." The pictures are neatly arranged and numljered 
in fine swinging-door cases set in a circuit around the entire 
room, and which contain about 1,700 photographs of only 
known professional criminals, men and youths of police record. 
Accompanying each picture is a record giving in detail a full 
description of each rogue, date of arrest, name of officer making 
the arrest, and other important memoranda. These pictures 
are taken bv a photographer under contract to do the work, 
who is not allowed to part or dispose of any picture without 
orders from the Chief of Police. 

burglars' tools. 

An agreeable hour may also be spent in the Chiefs De- 
partment in the inspection of the handiwork of burglars, 
counterfeiters, forgers and gamblers ; but to those who may not 
possess the opportunity to make the visit, a short account of 
these marvellous offsprings of rogue genius may not be amiss. 

On the walls of the Chief's office three cases of these in- 
struments are hung, and one is struck with the large number 
of instruments used, and the casual observer would doubtless 
think that the display was some prize collection of hardware,, 
which had strayed away from some merchant. 

The largest case contains the larger instruments, such as 
crow-bars, wedges and chisels. And the smaller, articles 
bearing some resemblance to pincers, keys, etc., occupy the 
other two cases. The entire collection is one of the most j)er- 
fect ever gotten together. It comprises nearly every device 
in iron and wood that has ever been invented, for the devilish 
uses of men who would prefer to live by their wits to earning 
their bread by the sweat of their brow. With these ingenious 


implements in the hands of proper *' crooks," some of these 
implements would enable the aceoniplished criminals to go 
through a bank or force an entrance into a residence in a shoil 
hour of undisturbed liberty. In the larger case are nine large 
implements of the crow-bar species, which are used by burglars 
to pry open strong doors. Some of these crow-bars arc articu- 
lated, and when disjointed they can be easily carried in a 
bundle without fear of detection. One of these "jimmies" 
is small enough to be carried in the vest lining, but is so con- 
structed as to be nearly as efficient, in some cases, as some of 
the larger implements. 

The most formidable tool displayed for forcing an entrance 
to safes with combination locks, is comprised in a long steel 
bar round and narrowing to a point. The point is inserted at 
a right angle in a square, steel hammer-head, pointed at one 
end. Accompanying is a long piece of thick gutta percha, 
placed on the head of the square-shaped piece of steel. The 
gutta percha deadens the sound of the blows on the hanmier 
bead, and driving its point into the lock. A few blows cause 
the wheels of the locks to drop down to a position where they 
can be manipulated from the outside, and in a comparatively 
short time the apparently impregnable door yields. Besides 
the implements above described, there are numerous panel- 
cutters, by which the burglar noiselessly cuts a hole in the door 
through which he wishes to gain admission. Nips, of from 
twenty to thirty varieties, used by burglars and sncak-thieves 
for opening doors from the outside by grapi^ling the lock end 
of the key, and thus forcing an entrance. The possession of 
any of these " ontsidevs," \s prima facie evidence of intention 
to commit crime, and is punishable with a term in the work- 

Among the collection are a number of fine specimens of 
saws, which for delicacy of construction are, indeed, mechan- 
ical curiosities. They are frequently intercepted concealed in 
the food of prisoners, with the intention of giving the prisoner 
means of egress from his cell. Locks, picks, pincers, double- 
enders, and other tools, are here in all the forms that niechan- 
Ical genius could invent. One very interesting specimen of 
ingenuity is seen in a pocket ladder thirty feet long, which is 



SO arranged as to readily support, when adjusted for work, a 
man of two hundred pounds weight. 


There is considerable interest atttU3hing to the history of 
these instruments, but space will not allow us to give a 
detailed account of how these implements were captured, nor 
the record of the criminals who once plied them in their nefa- 
rious work. One of the "jimmies" was taken from George 
Dubois alias John George, or rather it was found in his room, 
and is said to have been the same that was used in burglarizing 
Spiro's pawn shop, then situated on the south side of Pine 
Street, between Third and Fourth streets, several years ago, 
when a large amount of jewelry and diamonds were stolen, 
entrance being effected from the Pearl saloon, situated next 
door. Another jimmy belonged to Tony Craig, a notorious 
burglar, and was thrown away in an attempt to get away from 
two detectives. A third belonged to Boyle and Henderson, 
two convicts, who escaped from Sing Sing, by seizing a loco- 
motive in the quarry where they were at work. When cap- 
tured not long after the event, they had fixed the jimmy in 
the lumber yard next to Lucas Market Savings Bank, and 
were about to go to work on that institution, when they were 
seized by detectives, who were lying in wait for them. They 
were returned to Sing Sing, but have escaped a second time. 


There is also in the office of the Chief of Police a large col- 
lection of gambling implements, captured at various times in 
the raids on the gambling rooms so plentifully distributed 
throughout the city. These trophies are arranged on a sample 
board, and to the uninitiated, present an interesting subject, 
when their devices are explained, and, in fact, some of the tools 
on the sample board, chiefly those used for crooked work, are 
new' even to the fraternity. There is honor even among 
thieves, and while it would be unjust to liken all gamblers to 
that class of rogues, yet that a percentage of those who woo 
the fickle goddess are up to all sorts of tricks, will be admitted 


both inside and outside of the profession. The sample l)o:ird 
in question bears the statement out. At the top of tlie hoard 
are three varieties of kcno urns, or bowls, one very handsome, 
and could not have cost less than one hundred dollars. A 
peg board in the Chief 's cabinet assists in giving an iidvling 
of how the game is played. Cards lie around the tables in 
the room, having three rows of immhers with live different 
numbers in each row. Each card bears a lar£rc numl)er, 
stamped in red ink. As they are purchased by the players 
the consecutive number is called out by the assistant, while 
the fact that the card is purchased and is about to be i)layed 
is noted by the man at the peg-board. This board contains, in 
rows, numbers corresponding to the consecutive number erf 
cards. Below each number is a black-walnut peg with a 
button behind it, working in a round hole. The fact that a 
certain card is about to be played is marked by the dealer 
by inserting a peg in the hole, which is marked by a number 
corresponding to the consecutive number of the card. When 
all the cards have been thus pe2:<2:ed, the j^amc beofins. The 
man at the urn shakes it up, a ball drops out marked with a 
number, Avhich is called out. The player, if he finds that he 
has on the card before him, among the rows of figures referred 
to, the number called out by the man at the urn, puts a button 
on it, and when he has five buttons in a row, he calls out 
keno, and the winner carries oft' the "pot," as it is called, 
minus the fifteen percent, retained for the profits and expenses 
of the house. There are ten varieties of faro boxes to be 
seen in the Chief's ofliice, varying in material from silver, 
silver-plated and ebony, down to block tin, brass and 
bay wood. 

The item of chief interest in this hiy-out is in the fact 
that some of these boxes show that the game can be dealt 
crookedly by certain ways of constructing the boxes. These 
are called " ho"- " boxes, and are so made as to allow the 
dealer to draw from the box two cards at the same time instead 
of one, as prescribed in the rules of the legitimate game. De- 
votees of poker would be astonished to find their favorite game 
tampered with by mechanical appliances. A couple of con- 
trivances captured not long since, and now with the display 


of gamblers' tools at the Chief's office, proves, however, that 
the old maxim, "tricks in all trades," holds good in this 
instance as well as in others. Both of these inventions are 
intended to supply the possessor with winning cards. One is 
called a poker pad, invented in Buffalo in 1866. Two piecea 
of steel are bound together to hold the needed card, the 
latter being shoved up within reach by means of a spring. 
The latter is worked by means of a wire rope, which, extend- 
mg down the player's leg inside of his pants, is fastened 
below the knee. So that by movement of the leg the spring 
throws the card into the player's reach, which he holds in his 
hand before him so as to conceal the movement, his hand 
inside his vest. There are also displayed on the walls a 
roulette cloth, another cloth for the Mexican and Texan game 
of mustang, and a bunko lay-out. 


On the third floor of the Four Courts are situated the Court 
of Criminal Correction and the Criminal Court, together with 
the private offices of the judges and clerks of the two courts. 
These court-rooms are large and well ventilated, ha\dng been 
constructed with a view of combining the conveniences of the 
best court-rooms in the United States in their construction. 
The Court of Criminal Correction has jurisdiction over misde- 
meanors and cases where the offense charged is not punishable 
with penitentiar}', and the judge of this court sits in prelimi- 
nary examinations of felony cases. The Criminal Court has 
jurisdiction over cases where felony is alleged. 


On tne same floor with the Police Department, in the east 
end of the building, is located the Police Court, where is daily 
brought forth those offenders who have been guilty of minor 
offenses and brought thither from various police stations. The 
slums and sloughs of this great city are well represented within 
the docks of the Police Court every morning, and the scenes 
that take place here alternate between the sad and the ludi- 
crous, the melancholy and the humorous. 


Sometimes there arc us many as sixty cases to l)c disposed 
of, and the day after St. Patrick's celebration there have been 
as many more, principally "drunks" of Erin's sons who hud 
been too exuberant in keei)in<^ green Ireland's greatest day. 
The judge usually hurries through these cases, as indeed lie 
must, in order to keep up with each day's business. Some of 
the prisoners are let off' with the gentle admonition not to do 
so any more ; others are fined, and those not able to pay their 
fines are sent to the city work-house, some six miles below the 
city, where they work out their fines at hard labor. This latter 
sentence serves a double purpose — tending to correct the 
offender and furnishing the city with macadam to a lar'^-e ex- 


The Jail, which is in the immediate rear of the courts build- 
ing, has a capacity of three hundred, and averages from one 
hundred to one hundred and twenty-five "boarders." The 
entrance is through the rotunda of the courts building and is 
carefully guarded without and within. The jail structure is 
built in circular form, the cells being arranged contiguously 
around next the walls on the east, west and south side of the 
building, thus forming a large court which affords the prisoners 
ample room for promenading and exercise. In the jail yard 
stands the grim gibbet from which five prisoners have swung 
into eternity, and its ghastly appearance and tragic associa- 
tions are a standing warning of no little moment to every one 
who catches a glimpse of it from his cell window. 

All executions are performed by the City Marshal, and 
within the jail yard. On these momentous occasions invita- 
tions are issued, the paper used being margined with black, to 
those to whom the Marshal sees fit to extend the hospitalities 
of the jail yard, not to exceed two hundred. 

There are now seven murderers in the St. Louis Jail charged 
with murder in the first degree. 


In the southwest corner of the jail yard is situated a neat 
one-story brick building. This is the City Morgue, or dead- 
house. It was instituted in order to meet a demand for some 


stated place where the unknown dead might be brought for 
identification by friends and relatives. It contains four mar- 
ble slabs, and consequently has a capacity for four bodies at 
the same time. For some time after its erection the Mors^ue 
was left open to the public, but the crowds of morbid curiosity- 
seekers which flocked there made it an intolerable nuisance to 
those living in the neighborhood, and the doors were finally 
closed. No one is now permitted to enter the Morgue except 
by a written permit from the Coroner. Many are the sad 
scenes that take place in this house, whose very name is sugges- 
tive of its character. 

Mothers whose sons have failed to return home at the accus- 
tomed time, after failing to trace their offspring, hie hither as 
a last resort, looking for that which they do not wij^h to find ; 
sisters recos-nizin"; in the blackened face of the floater the feat- 
ures of a brother ; or the wanton "women of the town" taking 
a last look at their companion in sin — all present a picture 
which shows in dark colors some of the sorrows that are scat- 
tered throughout this great city. After the body has lain in 
the Morgne, where it is kept in a state of preservation with 
chemicals, for the spaCe of three or four days, it is, if un- 
claimed, removed to the potters' field to take up its last rest- 
ing-place with the poor and the unknown. 

How many* have been borne to that gloomy house of the 
dead who began life with lofty aspirations and noble purposes, 
and yet the shadows of despair gathered about them, and the 
road before them grew rugged, and then, at last, in intolerable 
agony, they sought relief in the dreamless sleep of death. 

Sometimes it is the o-hastlv form of a woman that is borne 

to the gloomy mansion — a woman, once perhaps the pride of 

a happy home, once fair and beautiful and joyous. But a 

blight fell upon her ; she went the way that leads to shame, 

despair and death. Some one, perhaps, comes to the Morgue 

to seek for the once loved being, only to find — 

" Alas! she's cold; 
Life and those lips have long been separated ; 
Death lies on her like an untimely frost 
Upon the fairest flower of all the field." 

Time, for her, had reached its terminal point. Like hun- 
dreds, nay, thousands of others, the period of existence had 


been reached ; the end of the world had come, and she had cast 
aside the cares, the sorrows, the hittcrhess, the shame and 
woes, which had burdened her soul, and boldly soughttlie pres- 
ence of the Eternal. Who shall say that in the last agonies of 
despah', the pleas of the sinful being may not be wafted to the 
All-Pitying One, and merit a pardon and compassion. Let us 
not be hasty to condemn the stranger girl lying there on that 
marble slab. Perhaps death brought sweet relief. To-day, 
to-morrow, every day, to thousands the end of the workl is 
close at hand. We walk here, as it were, in the crypts of life ; 
at times from the great cathedral above us we can hear the 
organ and the chanting of the choir; Ave see the light stream 
through the open door ; and as the burdens become greater, 
and the agony more intense, the celestial melody falls sweetly 
upon the ear of the tortured, and with joy they undertake to 
mount the narrow staircase of the grave, that leads them out 
of the uncertain twilight, the Avide desolation around them. 
With hope they undertake to reach the serene mansions of the 
life eternal. Their life tragedy reaches the tinal act in the 
mighty river's ever-flowing tide, and the curtain descends on a 
mournful scene at last in the Morgue, and the lifeless form is 
borne away, and in an unmarked grave oblivion conceals their 
dust forever. This is the Morgue — the house of the dead 1 



There is nothing that indicates the substantial character of 
a city more truly than the newspapers which start and grow up 
with it. They are both the business and intellectual ther- 
mometers which indicate the degree of individual and general 
prosperity. We may rightfully feel a little proud of our posi- 
tion in this respect. 

St. Louis is not behind any of her Western sisters in the 
number and literary excellencies of her journals and period- 
icals. These publications reflect the sentiments, opinions, 
culture and tastes of our people ; and, judging by these, we 
need not fear a rigid comparison between the morality and 
educational advancement achieved, and the degree of progress 
made, by the inhabitants of any other American city. The 
daily press incrudes four morning and two afternoon journals 
printed in the English language, and four morning newspapers 
printed in the German language. 

The weekly periodicals, including the religious journals, 
number twenty-three separate publications. There are news- 
papers printed in French, German, Spanish and Bohemian. 
The colored people publish an organ devoted especially to 
their interests. 

The Methodist Episcopal, the M. E. Church South, the 
Episcopal Church, the Christian, Presbyterian, Roman 
Catholic, and Baptist denominations, are each represented by 
ably conducted weekly journals. The Roman Catholics have 
three weekly journals devoted to their interests, one in Eng- 
lish, one in German, and one in Czech. The Baptists have 
two weekly papers, both published in English. The Radicals 
or Infidels, publish one weekly devoted to the propagation of 

[536] . 





This journal is entitled to a first mention, because the 
period of its existence embraces all that is essential in the 
growth of our city, and most that is interestiiii,^ in the history 
of the whole West, for the Republican has clironiclod the 
events of the times since St. Louis was an insignidcant viUagc 
of log and frame houses, containing a population of litth' 
more than one thousand inhabitants. Witliin th(^ poncU'rous 
tomes of files preserved in the vaults of that otlico since the 
issue of the first number of the Missouri Gazelle, in July, 
1808, until the present time, is preserved the history of St. 
Louis and of the West, since very nearly the date of the 


occupation of the Territory of Upper Louisiana by the Gov- 
ernment of the LTnited States. 

At the date of the commencement of the publication, St. 
Louis was in Louisiana, that is to say, the territory now 
embraced within the limits of the State of Missouri constituted 
a county in the Territory of Louisiana. The name of the 
paper was changed in 1809 to Louisiana Gazelle. In IS 18 
the name was changed back to Missouri Gazelle, In 1821 
the name of the paper was changed to Missouri Tiepuhlicau 
by its then proprietor, James C. Cummins, >vho had purchased 
it m 1820 from its founder, Joseph Charless. In 1S22 Mr. 
Cummins transferred the paper to Edward Charlcss, a son of 


the Charless who had established the paper, who continued it 
under the same name. 

The first printer to work in the West was a Mr. Hinkle, 
who set up the first form of the Gazette in a little one-story 
building on Mahi Street, near the corner of the old market. 
Of course, in those days there were no power-presses, and 
they had not yet learned to make composition rollers, tho 
inking of the forms, as well as operating the press, was a task 
to be performed by hand. The old Ramage press, from which 
copies of the first newspaper published in St. Louis were taken, 
was a very rude contrivance, and yet it was equal to the best 
presses of that age. This first rude hand-press served to 
supply the St. Louis public with their newspaper until 1827. 
It required forty days in those days for an item of news to 
travel from Washington to the banks of the Mississippi. 

In 1822 the Republican had, by two enlargements, attained 
the size of twenty by twenty-six inches. Josiah Spalding was 
taken in as a partner in that year, the style of the firm being- 
Edward Charless &, Co., under which style the copartnership 
lasted until February, 182G, when Edward Charless again 
became sole proprietor. In March, 1828, Nathaniel Paschall 
became associated with ]\Ir. Charless, and the firm was estab- 
lished as Charless & Paschall. At this time the jjaper was 
increased in size, its dimensions being twenty-two by thirty- 
two inches. No essential change was made until April, 1833, 
when it was published semi-weekly and weekly, and two years 
later a tri-weekly issue was ventured upon. In Maj^ 1835, 
the sheet was enlarged, measuring then twenty-four by thirty- 
four inches ; and on September 30, 1836, St. Louis witnessed 
an event, for it was on that day that the Republican first 
appeared as a daily paper. It was also published tri-weekly 
and weekly. The last few preceding years had been attended 
with a vast increase in population, demanding a corresponding 
expansion of facilities for furnishing news to a greatly increased 
list of subscribers. 

In July, 1837, Charless & Paschall sold the concern to A. 
B. Chambers, Oliver Harris, and George Knajjp. In August, 
1839, Mr. Harris withdrew, and the paper continued under 
the firm of Chambers & Knapp. On the 1st of January, 1840, 


5 ay 

the sheet was enlarged to twenty-six by thii-ty-cight. iiiehcs, 
and Joseph "W. Dougherty beeanie a ])ro[)ric'l()r, the styU; of 
the firm now being Chambers, Kiiapp cSc Co. Mr. Doiiirherly 
was conneeted Avith the paper but a short time, and on liis 
retirement the tirm resumed the title of Chambers & Knapp. 
November 20, 1843, the Republican enlarged its dimensions to 
twenty-seven by forty-six inches, and on the 1st of .January 
following, increased to twenty-eight by forty-eight inches. 

In May, 1849, the office and lixturcs of tht; Jlcpuhllcan 
office were destroyed in the great conflagration of tliatyear. 
In the beginning of the year 1851, the paper was es(al)lished 
in the five-story building on Chestnut Street then just com- 
pleted, which was regarded at the time as one of the 
finest newspaper 
establishments in 
the country. The 
paper was en- 
laro:ed to a sheet 
measuring thirty- 
one and a half by 
fifty - two inches . 
In October, 1853, 
the paper was fur- 
ther enlarged to 
the immense size 
of thirty-three by 
fifty -six inches. 
The quarto form 
was adopted Octo- 
ber 8, 18,72. 

Mr. A. B.Cham- 
bers, so long one of the proi)rietors of the Republican, died 
May 22, 1854.. Oneyearfrom that time— May 1!), 1855, (Joorgo 
Knapp, by the purchase of the Chambers interest, Ix'camc sole 
owner of the establishment. During August in that year, Na- 
thaniel Paschall and John Knapp were admitted as i)artners, 
and the firm name changed to (ieorge Knapp tSc Co. In 18(;(;, 
Mr. Paschall died, and Mr. William Ilydc, who had Joined ihe 
staff as a reporter in 1857, was promoted to the chief editorshii) 



of the paper, having previous to that time been admitted to an 
interest in the proprietorship. Before the death of Mr. Paschall, 
the firm of George Knapp & Co. had been changed into a joint 
stock company, and the elder Paschall was succeeded in the 
directory of the company by his son Henry G. Paschall, who 
still retains that position. 

On the evening of May 24, 1870, the JRepublican office, 
situated on Chestnut Street, between Main and Second, was 


burned down. It was a five-story brick building, with base- 
ment for machinery. The destruction was nearly total, in- 
cluding an eight-cylinder Hoe press, job office, bindery, type, 
fixtures, etc., involving a loss of one hundred and eighty 
thousand dollars, on which there was one hundred and six 
thousand five hundred dollars insurance. All the files of the 
paper from 1808 down were saved. Among the property 
destroyed was a valuable library of books of reference. A 
four-cylinder Hoe press was protected in a fire-proof vault, 


and saved, and but one day's issue of the paper was missed. 
A temporary two-story brick building was erected on the old 
site, and on the 18th of June the office was moved into it, 
where it remained until the present Republican buildinjj^ was 
erected and ready for occupation. 

On Wednesday, January 8, 1873, the Mlsaouri Republican 
had a grand opening and house-warming in its new building. 
The newspaper had taken possession of its new qnarters some 
time before, and the great presses and the composition and 
editorial departments were in perfect running (uder. The 
proprietors of the Republican extended invitations to all their 
personal acquaintances and friends of the paper to join with 
them in celebrating their new epoch. A large concourse of 
old and leading citizens responded, and the spacious i-oonis and 
halls of the building were filled from top to basement. After 
the usual introductory festivities were over, there was a rare 
festival of speeches and congratulations. The time chosen 
was the forty-sixth anniversary of the connection of the senior 
proprietor, George Knapp, with the establishment. 

The new Republican office stands on a lot eighty feet on 
Third Street, extending back one hundred and ten feet on Chest- 
nut Street. The work was commenced September 1, 1870, and 
the entire lot was excavated to the depth of twenty feet. The 
foundations were sunk still deeper. The building has a front 
on Third Street of seventy-six Ix^et ten inches, and a front on 
Chestnut Street of one hundred and three feet five inches. It 
is five stories high above the pavement, the distance from the 
sidewalk to the crest of the dome being one hundred and 
twenty-five feet. The style of architecture is that of the 
Renaissance, which combines strength, durability and beauty. 


It was about the year 1831-32 that a ^Mr. Steele com- 
menced the publication of a paper styled The WorJcinffmari s 
Advocate. This paper was subsequently transferred to Messrs. 
Bowlin 8c Mayfield and the name changed to The Western 


Argus. In succeeding years the A7'gus passed under the con- 
trol of Mansfield, Lawhead, Corbin, Watson & Davis, and finally 
became the property of Col. Gilpin, who eventually sold the 
paper to Shadrach Penn, who changed the name to The Mis- 
souri Reporter. This paper was continued under the editorial 
management of Penn & Treat, until the death of the former 
in 18 — , when the paper was purchased by Mr. Pickering, who 
changed the name to St. Louis Union. After some mutations, 
the property was sold to Mr. R. Phillips, who managed the paper 
with varying fortunes for a time, when he disposed of his in- 
terest to Mr. William McKee, and his associates, a combination 
of practical printers, who had a little while before established a 
small paper called the /Signal. 

The possession of the Union lead the publishers of the 
Signal to change the name of the paper to The Missouri 
Democrat, in the year 1852. 

Thus was laid the foundation of one of the leading news- 
papers of the American Union. 

The Democrat, during the first years of its existence, gave 
an able and brilliant support to Senator Benton, who was about 
that time a candidate for Congress. During the Presidential 
campaign of 185G, the Democrat supported the candidacy of 
James Buchanan, Hon. Francis P. Blair was one of the most 
active promoters of the interests of the Democrat during more 
than ten years after it was commenced. After the election of 
Mr. Buchanan, the Democrat, which had before exhibited 
evidence of Free-soil proclivities, gradually became more 
staunchly favorable to the doctrine, and when the Republican 
party was fully organized for the campaign of 18G0, this journal 
was fully committed to the support of the principles of that 

The Democrat supported the candidacy of Mr. Lincoln, 
and his election secured a victory to the Repu])lican party and 
precipitated the war. There was no hesitation on the part of 
Mr. McKee and his associates. They espoused the Union 
cause and were bold in defense of the Government. On sev- 
eral occasions the office was threatened with violence. Guards 
of soldiers protected the property. 

It was about the year 1857 that Hon. B. Gratz Brown